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Morals and Dogma of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite of 


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Table of Contents 

An Introduction to Bro. Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma 3 







VI. INTIMATE SECRETARY. (Confidential Secretary) 111 























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An Introduction to Bro. Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma 

By Bro. Jay Halpern 

My acquaintance with Pike's work, "Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 
Freemasonry", was a matter of chance. I happened upon it in an antique center and was immediately 
drawn to its erudition, its scope and its willingness to portray the sort of symbolism and arcana that 
drew me to Freemasonry in the first pláce. 

I determined to let his words speak for themselves, and play upon my own knowledge of American and 
world history, philosophy and political theory to make their point. What I found, much to my delight, 
was how far Pike's work took me beyond the parameters of pure Masonic lore and into the realm of 
political and economic theory that had been trod by the greatest minds of the past, like Plato, Plutarch, 
and the philosophical synthesizers of all ages. 

It became clear to me, in this regard, that M&D was far more than a Masonic tract. Pike placed 
Freemasonry and its structure and symbols within two very broad contexts: the religious and spirituál 
history of the world, stretching far beyond even the building of Solomoďs Temple; and the human 
drama of vanquished peoples coping with the oppressive moral and political climate of defeat in war. 
For I think iťs impossible to understand the significance of M&D without perceiving Pike's spirituál 
and philosophical outcry against the predations made against the former Confederacy of the American 
South by the conquering armies and politicians of the United States federal government. 

Albert Pike was a Confederate generál of high moral principles, as is evident throughout M&D. We in 
the North háve been schooled in the history of the victor; the story of the origins of the conflict 
between the states would, of course, háve been written very differently had the fortunes of war gone 
differently. Having been taught the principle of loyalty to one's national government from childhood, 
we in the north find it difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of the Confederate rebellion as anything 
other than an act of betrayal of national principles, a breaking of the most sacred trust that had been 
forged between states by blood spilled during our mutual revolution from England. Pike writes in the 
very beginning of M&D: "The nations are not bodies-politic alone, but also souls-politic; and woe to 
that people which, seeking the materiál only, forgets that it has a soul. A free people, forgetting that it 
has a soul to be cared for, devotes all its energies to its materiál advancement. If it make war, it is to 
subserve its commercial interests. The citizens copy after the State, and regard wealth, pomp, and 
luxury as the great goods of life. Such a nation creates wealth rapidly, and distributes it badly. Thence 
the two extremes, of monstrous opulence and monstrous misery; all the enjoyment to a few, all the 
privations to the rest, that is to say, to the people; Privilege, Exception, Monopoly, Feudality, springing 
up from Labor itself: a falše and dangerous situation, which, making Labor a blinded and chained 
Cyclops, in the mine, at the forge, in the workshop, at the loom, in the field, over poisonous fumes, in 
miasmatic cells, in unventilated factories, founds public power upon private misery, and plants the 

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greatness of the State in the suffering of the individual. It is a greatness ill constituted, in which all the 
materiál elements are combined, and into which no moral element enters. If a people, like a stár, has 
the right of eclipse, the light ought to return. The eclipse should not degenerate into night." 

To Pike's way of thinking, the Southern agrarian economy had purposefully eschewed the ways of 
industrialization and the market forces that had been so warmly embraced by the North. What Albert 
Pike saw in his own time was the forced encrustation of an agrarian, democratic dream by an imposed 
industrial capitalism from the North, and he saw himself as spokesman for a free people, now under 
tyranny, clutching to savé its soul. 

Pike regarded Masonry as a potential framework upon which to retain the noblest and highest ideals 
once held by the defeated South. Hear his words, then, written in occupation and defeat, regarding this 
Brotherhood: "And Masonry, like History and Philosophy, has eternal duties - eternal, and, at the samé 
time, simple. The people that would be Free and Independent, must possess Sagacity, Forethought, 
foresight, and careful Circumspection, all which are included in the meaning of the word Prudence. It 
must be temperate in asserting its rights, temperate in its councils, economical in its expenses; it must 
be bold, brave, courageous, patient under reverses, undismayed by disasters, hopeful amid calamities. 
She must, above all things, be just, not truckling to the strong and warring on or plundering the weak; 
she must act on the square with all nations, and the feeblest tribes; always keeping her faith, honest in 
her legislation, upright in all her dealings. Whenever such a Republic exists, it will be immortal: for 
rashness, injustice, intemperance and luxury in prosperity, and despařr and disorder in adversity, are the 
causes of the decay and dilapidation of nations." 

Albert Pike was a man of broad scholarship, comfortably familiar with the great documents of history, 
and familiar with the reports of human anthropology and sociology written, with varying degrees of 
insight and accuracy, by scholars and historians from all times and places. There isn't an indigenous 
culture, whether primitive or advanced, that Pike doesn't applaud to the degree that its native peoples 
adhere to the tenets of yeoman culture, of honesty and brotherhood from soul to soul. Indeed, Pike 
quite clearly states that Masonic ideals transcend all eras and peoples. In his chapter on the Royal Arch 
of Solomon, he writes, "Even Blue Masonry cannot trace back its authentic history, with its present 
Degrees, further than the year 1700, if so far. But, by whatever name it was known in this or the other 
country, Masonry existed as it now exists, the samé in spirit and at heart, not only when Solomon built 
the temple, but centuries before - before even the first colonies emigrated into Southern India, Persia, 
and Egypt, from the cradle of the human race." (Italics the author) 

Principle Transcends Degree Work and Rituál 

Thus, to Pike, the principles he found in Freemasonry far transcended the petty formalism of degree 
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work and rituál. He looked into the past for role models whose lives best represented what he 
considered Masonic ideals, and philosophies that represented what he felt were meaningful paradigms 
for living the good and vřrtuous life. His search was broad and unprejudiced and he remarked 
regarding the appropriateness of holý texts as one of the Great Lights of a Lodge: "The Hebrew 
Pentateuch in a Hebrew Lodge, and the Korán in a Mohammedan one, belong on the Altar; and one of 
these, and the Square and Compass, properly understood, are the Great Lights by which a Mason must 
walk and work." 

Pike saw in this Masonic ideál the re-statement of the Eleusinian Mysteries, and Orphism, and 
ythagoreanism, and the noble, secret faiths of every ancient generation viewed in its best and most 
profound light. "We háve no other concern with your religious creed," Pike states outright, but for 
swearing oaths on whatever document commands one's particular heartfelt honor. 

Pike is drawn to the symbols of Freemasonry, drawn as they are from the most ancient occult creeds, 
for two reasons. The first reason derives from his status as a defeated generál, a man of honor residing 
under what he perceives as a tyranny of occupation. Pike writes, "Despots are an aid to thinkers. 
Speech enchained is speech terrible. 

The writer doubles and triples his style, when silence is imposed by a master upon the people. There 
springs from this silence a certain mysterious fullness, which filters and freezes into brass in his 
thoughts." Thus, living under the despotism of the federal U.S., Pike writes his tome compressed 
between blocks of symbols and arcana that disguise his ancillary intent, to write a missive that will 
keep the idealism of the South alive during occupation. 

Pike heralds a warning to his Southern brethren that there will be a price to pay if their path is lost. 
History demonstrates that nations in their hour of darkest need, turn to the worst rulers: "We should 
naturally suppose that a nation in distress would také counsel with the wisest of its sons. But, on the 
contrary, great men seem nevěr so scarce as when they are most needed, and small men nevěr so bold to 
insist on infesting pláce, as when mediocrity and incapable pretence and sophomoric greenness, and 
showy and sprightly incompetency are most dangerous." The result, of course, is that revolutions 
begun for the purpose of empowering the people, result in new tyrannies: the rule of Cromwell, of 
Napoleon, of Stalin. Pike adds rather boldly, "That is a sad and true allegory which represents the 
companions of Ulysses changed by the enchantments of Circe into swine," meaning by Ulysses, of 
course, Ulysses S. Grant, the new "tyrant" over the South. 

"The North Ruled With An Iron Fist." 

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The fact that the U.S. federal government is, itself, a republic, and not a tyranny, doesďt let if off the 
hook, in Pike's view; the economic systém of the North rules with a tyranťs fist: When civil war tears 
the vitals of a Republic, let it look back and see if it has not been guilty of injustices; and if it has, let it 
humble itself in the dust!" 

From Pike's perspective, it is the mercantile systém of industrial politics, in contradistinction to the 
agrarian idealism of the South, that caused the rupture between the states and propelled the nation into 
civil war. The restrictions established against the expansion of slavery into the new territories of the 
West, for example, appeared to Southern gentry like Pike to be a serious and unmitigated infringement 
upon what they took to be the backbone of the Constitutional compromise, the balance between states' 
rights and federal authority. And in back of that infringement lay industrial mercantilism, the rank 
capitalism that was to lead to the Gilded Age, the Age of Morgan and Astor and Gould and the rest of 
the Robber Barons. And, of course, we are not Masons living in the South during Reconstruction; we 
are not defeated warriors living under occupation. The past is still the past, and therein lies, in my 
opinion, a great deal of the intellectual fascination Pike's work holds for me, as a Mason. As I read his 
work, I try and extrapolate just how such a man of both word and deed could be expected to make his 
theories manifest themselves in the world-at-large. He is charged by many with helping to found the Ku 
Klux Klan, an active resistance movement against the federal forces stationed throughout the South. I 
can well imagine Pike putting deeds to his words and, when faced with the apolitical Stance of Masonry 
then and now, seeking to found a similar body, an offshoot with degrees and symbols and occult titles, 
that would more vigorously pursue a spirituál cum political transformation throughout the South. But 
I'd find it difficult to imagine the Klansman as we know him today, ignorant, self-important, 
anarchistic, hateful against all religions and races other than his own, to be the kind of soldier Pike 
would háve called to his spirituál cause. Perhaps the KKK was an experiment that failed in its infancy 
and went off in the wrong direction, a subterranean cell of political and spirituál theorists turned 
redneck racists at the starting gate. I can then imagine Pike even more disgruntled and perhaps 
misanthropic after his years of theorizing and propagating his philosophy. 

An Infinite Variety of Mankind. 

It is evident from the symbolic portions of M&D that Pike was too intrigued by the infinite variety of 
mankind, its religions, its cultures, its spirituál struggles against the forces of darkness, to be blithely 
classed with the racists we háve come to expect from a racist culture. It is true that in some societies 
Pike allows for slavery; didn't, in fact, the whole Greek and Roman world, packed full of philosophers, 
depend upon it as an institution? Pike writes, "Influence of man over man is a law of nature, whether it 
be by a great estate in land or in intellect. It may mean slavery, a deference to the eminent human 
judgment (italics mine)." He writes elsewhere, "The wiser a man becomes, the less will he be 
inclined to submit tamely to the imposition of fetters or a yoke, on his conscience or his person. For, by 
increase of wisdom he not only better knows his rights, but the more highly values them, and is more 
conscious of his worth and dignity. His pride then urges him to assert his independence. He becomes 

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better able to assert it also; and better able to assist others or his country, when they or she stake all, 
even existence, upon the samé assertion. In Pike's day there was neither theory nor technology for 
sociál redemption. Certain forms of maladaptive behavior, certain affects of acculturation, were 
considered irredeemable and, at best, served as lessons to the rest of us who wereďt so afflicted. In 
other words, slaves are both the victims of their masters, and by remaining enslaved, eventually 
deteriorate until they are worthy of their slavery. Don't mistake, however, my attempting to understand 
Pike's conception of slavery - given his philosophy and spirituality - with a justification. It is here that 
Pike and I part company, just as I part company with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, whose philosophic 
leisure depended upon a slavě -based culture. I merely wish to paint as broad a portrait of the man who 
wrote M&D as I can, given my studies so far. 

I can sympathize with Archie Stone's perplexity; here, in this remarkable book, side-by-side with 
drawings of occult symbols, Hebrew icons, Masonic forms, and all manner of diagrams and arcana, is 
embedded a political and sociál tract that is the proudly defiant outcry of one man against a nation that 
has overrun his own. Iťs easy for me to understand the veneration in which Pike's held by Masons in 
the Southern Jurisdiction; he represents, to them, the epitome of Southern aristocratic learning, 
philosophy and values. His words ring, and will always ring, alongside all other world-class 
philosophers who saw their societies crumbling from greed and mercantilism. It will, I'm sure, surprise 
some that a Northern Masonic Jew, a man with ingrained Northern and urban sympathies for 
multiculturalism and the enlightened use of technology, could glean so much from a man like Albert 
Pike, a man so different. But I feel that, at bottom, the spirituál truths that háve always brought true 
Masons together, whether in formal Lodge or by informal happenstance, with or without Masonic 
sanction, are truths that we both share and for whose fullness and radiance we continue to search. That 
part of contemporary Masonry which falls short of these truths, would, I feel, disturb Pike as much as 
they disturb me. I can only wish to meet and mingle with brothers who will pursue more light in 
Masonry with the passion, erudition and reverence that Albert Pike put into his impressive work. 

JAY HALPERN - Contributing Editor/Writer belongs to Cosmopolitan Lodge #125 in New Haven, CT. 
He published "The Jade Unicorn" in 1979 (Macmillan), an occult allegory of the battle between good 
and evil, and is looking to háve his novel,"Gris-Gris," a lyric meditation "Cell Fantastick", a collection 
of poems "The Emerald Canticle of Hermes", and a collection of short stories, "Ghosts & 
Bones, "published ASAP. Bro. Halpern is also a disability rights, civil rights, environmental activist 
who ran for Connecticut statě representative last November to make a statement about a power plant 
being shoved down the regioďs throat, in lieu of a comprehensive renewable energy policy. 

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MORALS AND DOGMA, by Albert Pike 



FORCE, unregulated or ill-regulated, is not only wasted in the void, like that of gunpowder burned in 
the open air, and steam unconfined by science; but, striking in the dark, and its blows meeting only the 
air, they recoil and bruise itself. It is destruction and ruin. It is the volcano, the earthquake, the 
cyclone;-not growth and progress. It is Polyphemus blinded, striking at random, and falling headlong 
among the sharp rocks by the impetus of his own blows. 

The blind Force of the people is a Force that must be economized, and also managed, as the blind Force 
of steam, lifting the ponderous iron arms and turning the large wheels, is made to bore and rifle the 
cannon and to weave the most delicate lace. It must be regulated by Intellect. Intellect is to the people 
and the people's Force, what the slender needle of the compass is to the ship-its soul, always 
counselling the huge mass of wood and iron, and always pointing to the north. To attack the citadels 
built up on all sides against the human race by superstitions, despotisms, and prejudices, the Force must 
háve a brain and a law. Then its deeds of daring produce permanent results, and there is reál progress. 
Then there are sublime conquests. Thought is a force, and philosophy should be an energy, finding its 
aim and its effects in the amelioration of mankind. 

The two great motors are Truth and Love. When all these Forces are combined, and guided by the 
Intellect, and regulated by the RULE of Right, and Justice, and of combined and systematic movement 
and effort, the great revolution prepared for by the ages will begin to march. The POWER of the Deity 
Himself is in equilibrium with His WISDOM. Hence the only results are HARMONY. 

It is because Force is ill regulated, that revolutions prove failures. Therefore it is that so often 
insurrections, coming from those high mountains that domineer over the moral horizon, Justice, 
Wisdom, Reason, Right, built of the purest snow of the ideál after a long fall from rock to rock, after 
having reflected the sky in their transparency, and been swollen by a hundred affluents, in the majestic 
path of triumph, suddenly lose themselves in quagmires, like a California river in the sands. The 
onward march of the human race requires that the heights around it should blaze with noble and 
enduring lessons of courage. Deeds of daring dazzle history, and form one class of the guiding lights of 
man. They are the stars and coruscations from that great sea of electricity, the Force inherent in the 
people. To strive, to brave all risks, to perish, to persevere, to be true to one's šelf, to grapple body to 
body with destiny, to surprise defeat by the little terror it inspires, now to confront unrighteous power, 
now to defy intoxicated triumph-these are the examples that the nations need and the light that 
electrifies them. 

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There are immense Forces in the great caverns of evil beneath society; in the hideous degradation, 
squalor, wretchedness and destitution, vices and crimes that reek and simmer in the darkness in that 
populace below the people, of great cities. There disinterestedness vanishes, every one howls, searches, 
gropes, and gnaws for himself . Ideas are ignored, and of progress there is no thought. This populace has 
two mothers, both of them stepmoťhers-Ignorance and Misery. Want is their only guide-for the 
appetite alone they crave satisfaction. Yet even these may be employed. 

The lowly sand we trample upon, cast into the furnace, melted, purified by fire, may become 
resplendent crystal. They háve the brute force of the HAMMER, but their blows help on the great 
cause, when struck within the lineš traced by the RULE held by wisdom and discretion. 

Yet it is this very Force of the people, this Titanic power of the giants, that builds the fortifications of 
tyrants, and is embodied in their armies. Hence the possibility of such tyrannies as those of which it has 
been said, that "Róme smells worse under Vitellius than under Sulla. Under Claudius and under 
Domitian there is a deformity of baseness corresponding to the ugliness-of the tyranny. The foulness of 
the slaves is a direct result of the atrocious baseness of the despot. A miasma exhales from these 
crouching consciences that reflect the master; the public authorities are unclean, hearts are collapsed, 
consciences shrunken, souls puny. This is so under Caracalla, it is so under Commodus, it is so under 
Heliogabalus, while from the Roman senáte, under Caesar, there comes only the rank odour peculiar to 
the eagle's eyrie." 

It is the force of the people that sustains all these despotisms, the basest as well as the best. That force 
acts through armies; and these oftener enslave than liberate. Despotism there applies the RULE. Force 
is the MACE of steel at the saddle-bow of the knight or of the bishop in armour. Passive obedience by 
force supports thrones and oligarchies, Spanish kings, and Venetian senates. Might, in an army wielded 
by tyranny, is the enormous sum total of utter weakness; and so Humanity wages war against Humanity, 
in despite of Humanity. So a people willingly submits to despotism, and its workmen submit to be 
despised, and its soldiers to be whipped; therefore it is that battles lost by a nation are often progress 
attained. Less glory is more liberty. When the drum is silent, reason sometimes speaks. 

Tyrants use the force of the people to chain and subjugate-ťhat is, enyoke the people. Then they plough 
with them as men do with oxen yoked. Thus the spirit of liberty and innovation is reduced by bayonets, 
and principles are struck dumb by cannonshot; while the monks mingle with the troopers, and the 
Church militant and jubilant, Catholic or Puritan, sings Te Deums for victories over rebellion. 

The military power, not subordinate to the civil power, again the HAMMER or MACE of FORCE, 
independent of the RULE, is an armed tyranny, born full-grown, as Athene sprung from the brain of 

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Zeus. It spawns a dynasty, and begins with Caesar to rot into Vitellius and Commodus. At the present 
day it inclines to begin where formerly dynasties ended. 

Constantly the people put forth immense strength, only to end in immense weakness. The force of the 
people is exhausted in indefinitely prolonging things long since dead; in governing mankind by 
embalming old dead tyrannies of Faith; restoring dilapidated dogmas; regilding faded, worm-eaten 
shrines; whitening and rouging ancient and barren superstitions; saving society by multiplying 
parasites; perpetuating superannuated institutions; enforcing the worship of symbols as the actual 
means of salvation; and tying the dead corpse of the Past, mouth to mouth, with the living Present. 
Therefore it is that it is one of the fatalities of Humanity to be condemned to eternal struggles with 
phantoms, with superstitions, bigotries, hypocrisies, prejudices, the formulas of error, and the pleas of 
tyranny. Despotisms, seen in the past, become respectable, as the mountain, bristling with volcanic 
rock, rugged and horrid, seen through the haze of distance is blue and smooth and beautiful. The sight 
of a single dungeon of tyranny is worth more, to dispel illusions, and create a holý hatred of despotism, 
and to direct FORCE aright, than the most eloquent volumes. The French should háve preserved the 
Bastile as a perpetual lesson; Italy should not destroy the dungeons of the Inquisition. The Force of the 
people maintained the Power that built its gloomy cells, and placed the living in their granite 

The FORCE of the people cannot, by its unrestrained and fitful action, maintain and continue in action 
and existence a free Government once created. That Force must be limited, restrained, conveyed by 
distribution into different channels, and by roundabout courses, to outlets, whence it is to issue as the 
law, action, and decision of the State; as the wise old Egyptian kings conveyed in different canals, by 
sub-division, the swelling waters of the Nile, and compelled them to fertilize and not devastate the land. 
There must be the jus et norma, the law and Rule, or Gauge, of constitution and law, within which the 
public force must act. Make a breach in either, and the great steam-hammer, with its swift and 
ponderous blows, crushes all the machinery to atoms, and, at last, wrenching itself away, lies inert and 
dead amid the ruin it has wrought. 

The FORCE of the people, or the popular will, in action and exerted, symbolized by the GAVEL, 
regulated and guided by and acting within the limits of LAW and ORDER, symbolized by the 
regulated by law; equality of rights in the eye of the law; brotherhood with its duties and obligations as 
well as its benefits. 

You will hear shortly of the Rough ASHLAR and the Perfect ASHLAR, as part of the jewels of the 
Lodge. The rough Ashlar is said to be "a stone, as taken from the quarry, in its rudé and natural statě." 
The perfect Ashlar is said to be "a stone made ready by the hands of the workmen, to be adjusted by the 
working-tools of the Fellow-Craft." We shall not repeat the explanations of these symbols given by the 

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York Rite. You may read them in its printed monitors. They are declared to allude to the self- 
improvement of the individual craftsman,-a continuation of the samé superficial interpretation. 

The rough Ashlar is the PEOPLE, as a mass, rudé and unorganized. The perfect Ashlar, or cubical 
stone, symbol of perfection, is the STATE, the rulers deriving their powers from the consent of the 
governed; the constitution and laws speaking the will of the people; the government harmonious, 
symmetrical, efficient, --its powers properly distributed and duly adjusted in equilibrium. 

If we delineate a cube on a plane surface thus: 

we háve visible three faces, and nine external lineš, drawn between seven points. The complete cube has 
three more faces, making six; three more lineš, making twelve; and one more point, making eight. As 
the number 12 includes the sacred numbers, 3, 5, 7, and 3 times 3, or 9, and is produced by adding the 
sacred number 3 to 9; while its own two figures, 1, 2, the unit or monad, and duad, added together, 
make the samé sacred number 3; it was called the perfect number; and the cube became the symbol of 

Produced by FORCE, acting by RULE; hammered in accordance with lineš measured by the Gauge, out 
of the rough Ashlar, it is an appropriate symbol of the Force of the people, expressed as the constitution 
and law of the State; and of the State itself the three visible faces represent the three departments,-the 
Executive, which executes the laws; the Legislativě, which makes the laws; the Judiciary, which 
interprets the laws, applies and enforces them, between man and man, between the State and the 
citizens. The three invisible faces, are Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, the threefold soul of the State— 
its vitality, spirit, and intellect. 

Though Masonry neither usurps the pláce of, nor apes religion, prayer is an essential part of our 
ceremonies. It is the aspiration of the soul toward the Absolute and Infinite Intelligence, which is the 
One Supreme Deity, most feebly and misunderstandingly characterized as an "ARCHITECT" Certain 
faculties of man are directed toward the Unknown-thought, meditation, prayer. The unknown is an 
oceán, of which conscience is the compass. Thought, meditation, prayer, are the great mysterious 
pointings of the needle. It is a spirituál magnetism that thus connects the human soul with the Deity. 
These majestic irradiations of the soul pierce through the shadow toward the light. 

It is but a shallow scoff to say that prayer is absurd, because it is not possible for us, by means of it, to 
persuade God to change His plans. He produces foreknown and foreintended effects, by the 
instrumentality of the forces of nature, all of which are His forces. Our own are part of these. Our free 
agency and our will are forces. We do not absurdly cease to make efforts to attain wealth or happiness, 
prolong life, and continue health, because we cannot by any effort change what is predestined. If the 

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effort also is predestined, it is not the less our effort, made of our free will. So, likewise, we pray. Will 
is a force. Thought is a force. Prayer is a force. Why should it not be of the law of God, that prayer, like 
Faith and Love, should háve its effects? Man is not to be comprehended as a starting-point, or progress 
as a goal, without those two great forces, Faith and Love. Prayer is sublime. Orisons that beg and 
clamour are pitiful. To děny the efficacy of prayer, is to děny that of Faith, Love, and Effort. Yet the 
effects produced, when our hand, moved by our will, launches a pebble into the oceán, nevěr cease; and 
every uttered word is registered for eternity upon the invisible air. 

Every Lodge is a Temple, and as a whole, and in its details symbolic. The Universe itself supplied man 
with the model for the first temples reared to the Divinity. The arrangement of the Temple of Solomon, 
the symbolic ornaments which formed its chief decorations, and the dress of the High-Priest, all had 
reference to the order of the Universe, as then understood. The Temple contained many emblems of the 
seasons-the sun, the moon, the planets, the constellations Ursa Major and Minor, the zodiac, the 
elements, and the other parts of the world. It is the Master of this Lodge, of the Universe, Hermes, of 
whom Khurum is the representative, that is one of the lights of the Lodge. 

For further instruction as to the symbolism of the heavenly bodies, and of the sacred numbers, and of 
the temple and its details, you must wait patiently until you advance in Masonry, in the mean time 
exercising your intellect in studying them for yourself. To study and seek to interpret correctly the 
symbols of the Universe, is the work of the sage and philosopher. It is to decipher the writing of God, 
and penetrate into His thoughts. 

This is what is asked and answered in our catechism, in regard to the Lodge. 

A "Lodge" is defined to be "an assemblage of Freemasons, duly congregated, having the sacred 
writings, square, and compass, and a charter, or warrant of constitution, authorizing them to work." The 
room or pláce in which they meet, representing some part of King Solomoďs Temple, is also called the 
Lodge; and it is that we are now considering. 

It is said to be supported by three great columns, WISDOM, FORCE or STRENGTH, and BEAUTY, 
represented by the Master, the Senior Warden, and the Junior Warden; and these are said to be the 
columns that support the Lodge, "because Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty, are the perfections of 
everything, and nothing can endure without them." "Because," the York Rite says, "it is necessary that 
there should be Wisdom to conceive, Strength to support, and Beauty to adorn, all great and important 
undertakings." "Know ye not," says the Apostle Paul, "that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit 
of God dwelleth in you? If any man desecrate the temple of God, him shall God destroy, for the temple 
of God is holý, which temple ye are." 

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The Wisdom and Power of the Deity are in equilibrium. The laws of nature and the moral laws are not 
the mere despotic mandates of His Omnipotent will; for, then they might be changed by Him, and order 
become disorder, and good and right become evil and wrong; honesty and loyalty, vices; and fraud, 
ingratitude, and vice, virtues. Omnipotent power, infinite, and existing alone, would necessarily not be 
constrained to consistency. Its decrees and laws could not be immutable. The laws of God are not 
obligatory on us because they are the enactments of His POWER, or the expression of His WILL; but 
because they express His infinite WISDOM. They are not right because they are His laws, but His laws 
because they are right. From the equilibrium of infinite wisdom and infinite force, results perfect 
harmony, in physics and in the moral universe. Wisdom, rower, and Harmony constitute one Masonic 
triad. They háve other and profounder meanings, that may at some time be unveiled to you. 

As to the ordinary and commonplace explanation, it may be added, that the wisdom of the Architect is 
displayed in combining, as only a skillful Architect can do, and as God has doně everywhere,-for 
example, in the tree, the human frame, the egg, the cells of the honeycomb-strength, with grace, 
beauty, symmetry, proportion, lightness, ornamentation. That, too, is the perfection of the oratoř and 
poet-to combine force, strength, energy, with grace of style, musical cadences, the beauty of figures, 
the play and irradiation of imagination and fancy; and so, in a State, the warlike and industrial force of 
the people, and their Titanic strength, must be combined with the beauty of the arts, the sciences, and 
the intellect, if the State would scale the heights of excellence, and the people be really free. Harmony 
in this, as in all the Divine, the materiál, and the human, is the result of equilibrium, of the sympathy 
and opposite action of contraries; a single Wisdom above them holding the beam of the scales. To 
reconcile the moral law, human responsibility, free- will, with the absolute power of God; and the 
existence of evil with His absolute wisdom, and goodness, and mercy,- these are the great enigmas of 
the Sphynx. 

You entered the Lodge between two columns. They represent the two which stood in the porch of the 
Temple, on each side of the great eastern gateway. These pillars, of bronze, four fingers breadth in 
thickness, were, according to the most authentic account-that in the First and that in the Second Book 
of Kings, confirmed in Jeremiah- eighteen cubits high, with a capital five cubits high. The shaft of 
each was four cubits in diameter. A cubit is one foot and 707/1000. That is, the shaft of each was a little 
over thirty feet eight inches in height, the capital of each a little over eight feet six inches in height, and 
the diameter of the shaft six feet ten inches. The capitals were enriched by pomegranates of bronze, 
covered by bronze net-work, and ornamented with wreaths of bronze; and appear to háve imitated the 
shape of the seed-vessel of the lotus or Egyptian lily, a sacred symbol to the Hindus and Egyptians. The 
pillar or column on the right, or in the south, was named, as the Hebrew word is rendered in our 
translation of the Bible, JACHIN: and that on the left BOAZ. Our translators say that the first word 
means, "He shall establish;" and the second, "In it is strength." 

These columns were imitations, by Khurum, the Tyrian artist, of the great columns consecrated to the 
Winds and Fire, at the entrance to the famous Temple of Malkarth, in the city of Tyre. It is customary, 

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in Lodges of the York Rite, to see a celestial globe on one, and a terrestrial globe on the other; but these 
are not warranted, if the object be to imitate the originál two columns of the Temple. The symbolic 
meaning of these columns we shall leave for the present unexplained, only adding that Entered 
Apprentices keep their working-tools in the column JACHIN; and giving you the etymology and literal 
meaning of the two names. 

The word JACHIN, in Hebrew, probably pronounced Ya4íayan, and meant, as a verbal noun, He that 
strengthens; and thence, firm, stable, upright. 

The word BOAZ is Baaz which means Strong, Strength, Power, Might, Refuge, Source of Strength, a 
Fort. The prefix means "with" or "in," and gives the word the force of the Latin gerund, roborando- 

The former word also means he will establish, or plant in an erect position-from the verb Kun, he stood 
erect. It probably meant Active and Vivifying Energy and Force; and Boaz, Stability, Permanence, in 
the passive sense. 

The Dimensions of the Lodge, our Brethren of the York Rite say, "are unlimited, and its covering no 
less than the canopy of Heaven." "To this object," they say, "the masoďs mind is continually directed, 
and thither he hopes at last to arrive by the aid of the theological ladder which Jacob in his vision saw 
ascending from earth to Heaven; the three principál rounds of which are denominated Faith, Hope, and 
Charity; and which admonish us to háve Faith in God, Hope in Immortality, and Charity to all 
mankind." Accordingly a ladder, sometimes with nine rounds, is seen on the chart, resting at the bottom 
on the earth, its top in the clouds, the stars shining above it; and this is deemed to represent that mystic 
ladder, which Jacob saw in his dream, set up on the earth, and the top of it reaching to Heaven, with the 
angels of God ascending and descending on it. The addition of the three principál rounds to the 
symbolism, is wholly modern and incongruous. 

The ancients counted seven planets, thus arranged: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. There were seven heavens and seven spheres of these planets; on all the monuments of 
Mithras are seven altars or pyres, consecrated to the seven planets, as were the seven lamps of the 
golden candelabrum in the Temple. That these represented the planets, we are assured by Clemens of 
Alexandria, in his Stromata, and by Philo Judaeus. 

To return to its source in the Infinite, the human soul, the ancients held, had to ascend, as it had 
descended, through the seven spheres. The Ladder by which it reascends, has, according to Marsilius 
Ficinus, in his Commentary on the Ennead of Plotinus, seven degrees or steps; and in the Mysteries of 
Mithras, carried to Róme under the Emperors, the ladder, with its seven rounds, was a symbol referring 

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to this ascent through the spheres of the seven planets. Jacob saw the Spirits of God ascending and 
descending on it; and above it the Deity Himself. The Mithraic Mysteries were celebrated in caves, 
where gates were marked at the four equinoctial and solstitial points of the Zodiac; and the seven 
planetary spheres were represented, which souls needs must traverse in descending from the heaven of 
the fixed stars to the elements that envelop the earth; and seven gates were marked, one for each planet, 
through which they pass, in descending or returning. 

We learn this from Celsus, in Origen, who says that the symbolic image of this passage among the 
stars, ušed in the Mithraic Mysteries, was a ladder reaching from earth to Heaven, divided into seven 
steps or stages, to each of which was a gate, and at the summit an eighth one, that of the fixed stars. The 
symbol was the samé as that of the seven stages of Borsippa, the Pyramid of vitrified brick, near 
Babylon, built of seven stages, and each of a different colour. In the Mithraic ceremonies, the candidate 
went through seven stages of initiation, passing through many fearful trials-and of these the high 
ladder with seven rounds or steps was the symbol. 

You see the Lodge, its details and ornaments, by its Lights. You háve already heard what these Lights, 
the greater and lesser, are said to be, and how they are spoken of by our Brethren of the York Rite. 

The Holý Bible, Square, and Compasses, are not only styled the Great Lights in Masonry, but they are 
also technically called the Furniture of the Lodge; and, as you háve seen, it is held that there is no 
Lodge without them. This has sometimes been made a pretext for excluding Jews from our Lodges, 
because they cannot regard the New Testament as a holý book. The Bible is an indispensable part of the 
furniture of a Christian Lodge, only because it is the sacred book of the Christian religion. The Hebrew 
Pentateuch in a Hebrew Lodge, and the Korán in a Mohammedan one, belong on the Altar; and one of 
these, and the Square and Compass, properly understood, are the Great Lights by which a Mason must 
walk and work. 

The obligation of the candidate is always to be taken on the sacred book or books of his religion, that he 
may deem it more solemn and binding; and therefore it was that you were asked of what religion you 
were. We háve no other concern with your religious creed. 

The Square is a right angle, formed by two right lineš. It is adapted only to a plane surface, and belongs 
only to geometry, earth-measurement, that trigonometry which deals only with planeš, and with the 
earth, which the ancients supposed to be a plane. The Compass describes circles, and deals with 
spherical trigonometry, the science of the spheres and-heavens. The former, therefore, is an emblém of 
what concerns the earth and the body; the latter of what concerns the heavens and the soul. Yet the 
Compass is also ušed in plane trigonometry, as in erecting perpendiculars; and, therefore, you are 
reminded that, although in this Degree both points of the Compass are under the Square, and you are 

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now dealing only with the moral and political meaning of the symbols, and not with their philosophical 
and spirituál meanings, still the divine ever mingles with the human; with the earthly the spirituál 
intermixes; and there is something spirituál in the commonest duties of life. The nations are not bodies 
politic alone, but also souls-politic; and woe to that people which, seeking the materiál only, forgets that 
it has a soul. Then we háve a race, petrified in dogma, which presupposes the absence of a soul and the 
presence only of memory and instinct, or demoralized by lucre. Such a nature can nevěr lead 
civilization. Genuflexion before the idol or the dollar atrophies the muscle which walks and the will 
which moves. Hieratic or mercantile absorption diminishes the radiance of a people, lowers its horizon 
by lowering its level, and deprives it of that understanding of the universal aim, at the samé time human 
and divine, which makes the missionary nations. A free people, forgetting that it has a soul to be cared 
for, devotes all its energies to its materiál advancement. If it makes war, it is to subserve its commercial 
interests. The citizens copy after the State, and regard wealth, pomp, and luxury as the great goods of 
life. Such a nation creates wealth rapidly, and distributes it badly. Thence the two extremes, of 
monstrous opulence and monstrous misery; all the enjoyment to a few, all the privations to the rest, that 
is to say, to the people; Privilege, Exception, Monopoly, Feudality, springing up from Labour itself: a 
falše and dangerous situation, which, making Labour a blinded and chained Cyclops, in the mine, at the 
forge, in the workshop, at the loom, in the field, over poisonous fumes, in miasmatic cells, in 
unventilated factories, founds public power upon private misery, and plants the greatness of the State in 
the suffering of the individual. It is a greatness ill constituted, in which all the materiál elements are 
combined, and into which no moral element enters. If a people, like a stár, has the right of eclipse, the 
light ought to return. The eclipse should not degenerate into night. 

The three lesser, or the Sublime Lights, you háve heard, are the Sun, the Moon, and the Master of the 
Lodge; and you háve heard what our Brethren of the York Rite say in regard to them, and why they hold 
them to be Lights of the Lodge. But the Sun and Moon do in no sense light the Lodge, unless it be 
symbolically, and then the lights are not they, but those things of which they are the symbols. Of what 
they are the symbols the Mason in that Rite is not told. Nor does the Moon in any sense rule the night 
with regularity. 

The Sun is the ancient symbol of the life-giving and generative power of the Deity. To the ancients, 
light was the cause of life; and God was the source from which all light flowed; the essence of Light, 
the Invisible Fire, developed as Fláme manifested as light and splendour. The Sun was His 
manifestation and visible image; and the Sabaeans worshipping the Light-God, seemed to worship the 
Sun, in whom they saw the manifestation of the Deity. 

The Moon was the symbol of the passive capacity of nature to produce, the female, of which the life- 
giving power and energy was the male. It was the symbol of Isis, Astarte, and Artemis, or Diana. The 
"Master of Life" was the Supreme Deity, above both, and manifested through both; Zeus, the Son of 
Saturn, become King of the Gods; Horus, son of Osiris and Isis, become the Master of Life; Dionusos 
or Bacchus, like Mithras, become the author of Light and Life and Truth. 

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The Master of Light and Life, the Sun and the Moon, are symbolized in every Lodge by the Master and 
Wardens: and this makes it the duty of the Master to dispense light to the Brethren, by himself, and 
through the Wardens, who are his ministers. 

"Thy sun," says ISAIAH to Jerusalem, "shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; 
for the LORD shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended. Thy people 
also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever." Such is the type of a free people. 

Our northern ancestors worshipped this tri-une Deity; ODIN, the Almighty FATHER; FREA, his wife, 
emblém of universal matter; and THOR, his son, the mediator. But above all these was the Supreme 
God, "the author of everything that existeth, the Eternal, the Ancient, the Living and Awful Being, the 
Searcher into concealed things, the Being that nevěr changeth." In the Temple of Eleusis (a sanctuary 
lighted only by a window in the roof, and representing the Universe), the images of the Sun, Moon, and 
Mercury, were represented. 

"The Sun and Moon," says the learned Bro. DELAUNAY, "represent the two grand principles of all 
generations, the active and passive, the male and the female. The Sun represents the actual light. He 
pours upon the Moon his fecundating rays; both shed their light upon their offspring, the Blazing Star, 
or HORUS, and the three form the great Equilateral Triangle, in the centre of which is the omnific letter 
of the Kabalah, by which creation is said to háve been effected." 

The ORNAMENTS of a Lodge are said to be "the Mosaic Pavement, the Indented Tessel, and the 
Blazing Star." The Mosaic Pavement, chequered in squares or lozenges, is said to represent the ground- 
floor of King Solomoďs Temple; and the Indented Tessel "that beautiful tessellated border which 
surrounded it." The Blazing Star in the centre is said to be "an emblém of Divine Providence, and 
commemorative of the stár which appeared to guide the wise men of the East to the pláce of our 
Saviouťs nativity." But "there was no stone seen" within the Temple. The walls were covered with 
planks of cedar, and the floor was covered with planks of fir. 

There is no evidence that there was such a pavement or floor in the Temple, or such a bordering. In 
England, anciently, the Tracing-Board was surrounded with an indented border; and it is only in 
America that such a border is put around the Mosaic pavement. The tesserae, indeed, are the squares or 
lozenges of the pavement. In England, also, "the indented or denticulated border" is called "tessellated," 
because it has four "tassels," said to represent Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice. It was 

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termed the Indented Trassel; but this is a misuse of words. It is a tesserated pavement, with an indented 
border round it. 

The pavement, alternately black and white, symbolizes, whether so intended or not, the Good and Evil 
Principles of the Egyptian and Persian creed. It is the warfare of Michael and Satan, of the Gods and 
Titans, of Balder and Lok; between light and shadow, which is darkness; Day and Night; Freedom and 
Despotism; Religious Liberty and the Arbitrary Dogmas of a Church that thinks for its votaries, and 
whose Pontiff claims to be infallible, and the decretals of its Councils to constitute a gospel. 

The edges of this pavement, if in lozenges, will necessarily be indented or denticulated, toothed like a 
saw; and to complete and finish it a bordering is necessary. It is completed by tassels as ornaments at 
the corners. If these and the bordering háve any symbolic meaning, it is fanciful and arbitrary. 

To find in the BLAZING STAR of five points an allusion to the Divine Providence, is also fanciful; and 
to make it commemorative of the Star that is said to háve guided the Magi, is to give it a meaning 
comparatively modern. Originally it represented SIRIUS, or the Dog-star, the forerunner of the 
inundation of the Nile; the God ANUBIS, companion of ISIS in her search for the body of OSIRIS, her 
brother and husband. Then it became the image of HORUS, the son of OSIRIS, himself symbolized 
also by the Sun, the author of the Seasons, and the God of Time; Son of ISIS, who was the universal 
nature, himself the primitive matter, inexhaustible source of Life, spark of uncreated fire, universal seed 
of all beings. It was HERMES, also, the Master of Learning, whose name in Greek is that of the God 
Mercury. It became the sacred and potent sign or character of the Magi, the PENTALPHA, and is the 
significant emblém of Liberty and Freedom, blazing with a steady radiance amid the weltering 
elements of good and evil of Revolutions, and promising serene skies and fertile seasons to the nations, 
after the storms of change and tumult. 

In the East of the Lodge, over the Master, inclosed in a triangle, is the Hebrew letter YOD. In the 
English and American Lodges the Letter G is substituted for this, as the initial of the word GOD, with 
as little reason as if the letter D., initial of DIEU, were ušed in French Lodges instead of the proper 
letter. YOD is, in the Kabalah, the symbol of Unity, of the Supreme Deity, the first letter of the Holý 
Name; and also a symbol of the Great Kabalistic Triads. To understand its mystic meanings, you must 
open the pages of the Sohar and Siphra de Zeniutha, and other kabalistic books, and ponder deeply on 
their meaning. It must suffice to say, that it is the Creative Energy of the Deity, is represented as a 
point, and that point in the centre of the Circle of immensity. It is to us in this Degree, the symbol of 
that unmanifested Deity, the Absolute, who has no name. 

Our French Brethren pláce this letter YOD in the centre of the Blazing Star. And in the old Lectures, 
our ancient English Brethren said, "The Blazing Star or Glory in the centre refers us to that grand 

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luminary, the Sun, which enlightens the earth, and by its genial influence dispenses blessings to 
mankind." They called it also in the samé lectures, an emblém of PRUDENCE. The word Prudentia 
means, in its originál and fullest signification, Foresight; and, accordingly, the Blazing Star has been 
regarded as an emblém of Omniscience, or the All-seeing Eye, which to the Egyptian Initiates was the 
emblém of Osiris, the Creator. With the YOD in the centre, it has the kabalistic meaning of the Divine 
Energy, manifested as Light, creating the Universe. 

The Jewels of the Lodge are said to be six in number. Three are called "Movable," and three 
"Immovable." The SQUARE, the LEVEL, and the PLUMB were anciently and properly called the 
Movable Jewels, because they pass from one Brother to another. It is a modern innovation to call them 
immovable, because they must always be present in the Lodge. The immovable jewels are the ROUGH 
ASHLAR, the PERFECT ASHLAR or CUBICAL, STONE, or, in some Rituals, the DOUBLE CUBE, 

Of these jewels our Brethren of the York Rite say: "The Square inculcates Morality; the Level, Equality; 
and the Plumb, Rectitude of Conduct." Their explanation of the immovable Jewels may be read in their 

Our Brethren of the York Rite say that "there is represented in every well-governed Lodge, a certain 
point, within a circle; the point representing an individual Brother; the Circle, the boundary line of his 
conduct, beyond which he is nevěr to suffer his prejudices or passions to betray him." 

This is not to interpret the symbols of Masonry. It is said by some, with a nearer approach to 
interpretation, that the point within the circle represents God in the centre of the Universe. It is a 
common Egyptian sign for the Sun and Osiris, and is still ušed as the astronomical sign of the great 
luminary. In the Kabalah the point is YOD, the Creative Energy of God, irradiating with light the 
circular space which God, the universal Light, left vacant, wherein to create the worlds, by withdrawing 
His substance of Light back on all sides from one point. 

Our Brethren add that, "this circle is embordered by two perpendicular parallel lineš, representing Saint 
John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, and upon the top rest the Holý Scriptures" (an open 
book). "In going round this circle," they say, "we necessarily touch upon these two lineš as well as upon 
the Holý Scriptures; and while a Mason keeps himself circumscribed within their precepts, it is 
impossible that he should materially err." 

It would be a waste of time to comment upon this. Some writers háve imagined that the parallel lineš 
represent the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which the Sun alternately touches upon at the Summer 
and Winter solstices. But the tropics are not perpendicular lineš, and the idea is merely fanciful. If the 

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parallel lineš ever belonged to the ancient symbol, they had some more recondite and more fruitful 
meaning. They probably had the samé meaning as the twin columns Jachin and Boaz. That meaning is 
not for the Apprentice. The adept may find it in the Kabalah. The JUSTICE and MERCY of God are in 
equilibrium, and the result is HARMONY, because a Single and Perfect Wisdom presides over both. 

The Holý Scriptures are an entirely modern addition to the symbol, like the terrestrial and celestial 
globes on the columns of the portico. Thus the ancient symbol has been denaturalized by incongruous 
additions, like that of Isis weeping over the broken column containing the remains of Osiris at Byblos. 


Masonry has its decalogue, which is a law to its Initiates. These are its Ten Commandments: 

I. God is the Eternal, Omnipotent, Immutable WISDOM and Supreme INTELLIGENCE and 
Exhaustless Love. Thou shalt adore, revere, and love Him! Thou shalt honour Him by practising the 

II. Thy religion shall be, to do good because it is a pleasure to thee, and not merely because it is a duty. 
That thou mayest become the friend of the wise man, thou shalt obey his precepts! Thy soul is 
immortal! Thou shalt do nothing to degrade it! 

III. Thou shalt unceasingly war against vice! Thou shalt not do unto others that which thou wouldst not 
wish them to do unto thee! Thou shalt be submissive to thy fortunes, and keep burning the light of 

IV. Thou shalt honour thy parents! Thou shalt pay respect and homage to the aged! Thou shalt instruct 
the young! Thou shalt protéct and defend infancy and innocence! 

V. Thou shalt cherish thy wife and thy children! Thou shalt love thy country, and obey its laws! 

VI. Thy friend shall be to thee a second šelf! Misfortune shall not estrange thee from him! Thou shalt 
do for his memory whatever thou wouldst do for him, if he were living! 

VIL Thou shalt avoid and flee from insincere friendships! Thou shalt in everything refrain from excess. 
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Thou shalt fear to be the cause of a stain on thy memory! 

VIII. Thou shalt allow no passions to become thy master! Thou shalt make the passions of others 
profitable lessons to thyself ! Thou shalt be indulgent to error! 

IX. Thou shalt hear much: Thou shalt speak little: Thou shalt act well! Thou shalt forget injuries! Thou 
shalt render good for evil! Thou shalt not misuse either thy strength or thy superiority! 

X. Thou shalt study to know men; that thereby thou mayest learn to know thyself! Thou shalt ever seek 
after virtue ! Thou shalt be just! Thou shalt avoid idleness! 

But the great commandment of Masonry is this: "A new commandment give I unto you: that ye love 
one another! He that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, remaineth still in the darkness." 

Such are the moral duties of a Mason. But it is also the duty of Masonry to assist in elevating the moral 
and intellectual level of society; in coining knowledge, bringing ideas into circulation, and causing the 
mind of youth to grow; and in putting, gradually, by the teachings of axioms and the promulgation of 
positive laws, the human race in harmony with its destinies. 

To this duty and work the Initiate is apprenticed. He must not imagine that he can effect nothing, and, 
therefore, despairing, become inert. It is in this, as in a man's daily life. Many great deeds are doně in 
the small struggles of life. There is, we are told, a determined though unseen bravery, which defends 
itself, foot to foot, in the darkness, against the fatal invasion of necessity and of baseness. There are 
noble and mysterious triumphs, which no eye sees, which no renown rewards, which no flourish of 
trumpets salutes. Life, misfortune, isolation, abandonment, poverty, are battle-fields, which háve their 
heroes,-heroes obscure, but sometimes greater than those who become illustrious. The Mason should 
struggle in the samé manner, and with the samé bravery, against those invasions of necessity and 
baseness, which come to nations as well as to men. He should meet them, too, foot to foot, even in the 
darkness, and protest against the national wrongs and follies; against usurpation and the first inroads of 
that hydra, Tyranny. There is no more sovereign eloquence than the truth in indignation. It is more 
difficult for a people to keep than to gain their freedom. The Protests of Truth are always needed. 
Continually, the right must protest against the fact. There is, in fact, Eternity in the Right. The Mason 
should be the Priest and Soldier of that Right. If his country should be robbed of her liberties, he should 
still not despair. The protest of the Right against the Fact persists forever. The robbery of a people nevěr 
becomes prescriptive. Reclamation of its rights is barred by no length of time. Warsaw can no more be 
Tartar than Venice can be Teutonic. A people may endure military usurpation, and subjugated States 
kneel to States and wear the yoke, while under the stress of necessity; but when the necessity 
disappears, if the people is fit to be free, the submerged country will float to the surface and reappear, 

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and Tyranny be adjudged by History to háve murdered its victims. 

Whatever occurs, we should háve Faith in the Justice and overruling Wisdom of God, and Hope for the 
Future, and Loving kindness for those who are in error. God makes visible to men His will in events; an 
obscure text, written in a mysterious language. Men make their translations of it forthwith, hasty, 
incorrect, Ml of faults, omissions, and misreadings. We see so short a way along the are of the great 
circle! Few minds comprehend the Divine tongue. The most sagacious, the most calm, the most 
profound, decipher the hieroglyphs slowly; and when they arrive with their text, perhaps the need has 
long gone by; there are already twenty translations in the public square-the most incorrect being, as of 
course, the most accepted and popular. From each translation, a party is born; and from each 
misreading, a faction. Each party believes or pretends that it has the only true text, and each faction 
believes or pretends that it alone possesses the light. Moreover, factions are blind men, who aim 
straight, errors are excellent projectiles, striking skillfully, and with all the violence that springs from 
falše reasoning, wherever a want of logic in those who defend the right, like a defect in a cuirass, makes 
them vulnerable. 

Therefore it is that we shall often be discomfited in combating error before the people. Antaeus long 
resisted Hercules; and the heads of the Hydra grew as fast as they were eut off. It is absurd to say that 
Error, wounded, writhes in pain, and dies amid her worshippers. Truth conquers slowly. There is a 
wondrous vitality in Error. Truth, indeed, for the most part, shoots over the heads of the masses; or if an 
error is prostrated for a moment, it is up again in a moment, and as vigorous as ever. It will not die 
when the brains are out, and the most stupid and irrational errors are the longest-lived. 

Nevertheless, Masonry, which is Morality and Philosophy, must not cease to do its duty. We nevěr know 
at what moment success awaits our efforts-generally when most unexpected-nor with what effect our 
efforts are or are not to be attended. Succeed or fail, Masonry must not bow to error, or suceumb under 
discouragement. There were at Róme a few Carthaginian soldiers, taken prisoners, who refused to bow 
to Flaminius, and had a little of Hannibal's magnanimity. Masons should possess an equal greatness of 
soul. Masonry should be an energy; finding its aim and effect in the amelioration of mankind. Socrates 
should enter into Adam, and produce Marcus Aurelius, in other words, bring forth from the man of 
enjoyments, the man of wisdom. Masonry should not be a mere watch-tower, built upon mystery, from 
which to gáze at ease upon the world, with no other result than to be a convenience for the curious. To 
hold the full cup of thought to the thirsty lips of men; to give to all the true ideas of Deity; to harmonize 
conscience and science, are the province of Philosophy. Morality is Faith in full bloom. Contemplation 
should lead to action, and the absolute be practical; the ideál be made air and food and drink to the 
human mind. Wisdom is a sacred communion. It is only on that condition that it ceases to be a sterile 
love of Science, and becomes the one and supreme method by which to unitě Humanity and arouse it to 
concerted action. Then Philosophy becomes Religion. 

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And Masonry, like History and Philosophy, has eternal duties- eternal, and, at the samé time, simple— 
to oppose Caiaphas as Bishop, Draco or Jefferies as Judge, Trimalcion as Legislator, and Tiberius as 
Emperor. These are the symbols of the tyranny that degrades and crushes, and the corruption that 
defiles and infests. In the works published for the use of the Craft we are told that the three great tenets 
of a Mason's profession, are Brotherly Love, Reliéf, and Truth. And it is true that a Brotherly affection 
and kindness should govern us in all our intercourse and relations with our brethren; and a generous and 
liberal philanthropy actuate us in regard to all men. To relieve the distressed is peculiarly the duty of 
Masons-a sacred duty, not to be omitted, neglected, or coldly or inefficiently complied with. It is also 
most true, that Truth is a Divine attribute and the foundation of every virtue. To be true, and to seek to 
find and learn the Truth, are the great objects of every good Mason. 

As the Ancients did, Masonry styles Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice, the four cardinal 
virtues. They are as necessary to nations as to individuals. The people that would be Free and 
Independent, must possess Sagacity, Forethought, Foresight, and careful Circumspection, all which are 
included in the meaning of the word Prudence. It must be temperate in asserting its rights, temperate in 
its councils, economical in its expenses; it must be bold, brave, courageous, patient under reverses, 
undismayed by disasters, hopeful amid calamities, like Róme when she sold the field at which Hannibal 
had his camp. No Cannae or Pharsalia or Pavia or Agincourt or Waterloo must discourage her. Let her 
Senáte sit in their seats until the Gauls pluck them by the beard. She must, above all things, be just, not 
truckling to the strong and warring on or plundering the weak; she must act on the square with all 
nations, and the feeblest tribes; always keeping her faith, honest in her legislation, upright in all her 
dealings. Whenever such a Republic exists, it will be immortal: for rashness, injustice, intemperance 
and luxury in prosperity, and despair and disorder in adversity, are the causes of the decay and 
dilapidation of nations. 


In the Ancient Orient, all religion was more or less a mystery and there was no divorce from it of 
philosophy. The popular theology, taking the multitude of allegories and symbols for realities, 
degenerated into a worship of the celestial luminaries, of imaginary Deities with human feelings, 
passions, appetites, and lusts, of idols, stones, animals, reptiles. The Onion was sacred to the Egyptians, 
because its different layers were a symbol of the concentric heavenly spheres. Of course the popular 
religion could not satisfy the deeper longings and thoughts, the loftier aspirations of the Spirit, or the 
logic of reason. The first, therefore, was taught to the initiated in the Mysteries. There, also, it was 
taught by symbols. The vagueness of symbolism, capable of many interpretations, reached what the 
palpable and conventional creed could not. Its indefiniteness acknowledged the abstruseness of the 
subject: it treated that mysterious subject mystically: it endeavored to illustrate what it could not 
explain; to excite an appropriate feeling, if it could not develop an adequate idea; and to rmake the 
image a mere subordinate conveyance for the conception, which itself nevěr became obvious or 

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Thus the knowledge now imparted by books and letters, was of old conveyed by symbols; and the 
priests invented or perpetuated a display of rites and exhibitions, which were not only more attractive to 
the eye than words, but often more suggestive and more pregnant with meaning to the mind. 

Masonry, successor of the Mysteries, still follows the ancient manner of teaching. Her ceremonies are 
like the ancient mystic shows,-not the reading of an essay, but the opening of a problém, requiring 
research, and constituting philosophy the arch-expounder. Her symbols are the instruction she gives. 
The lectures are endeavors, often partial and one-sided, to interpret these symbols. He who would 
become an accomplished Mason must not be content merely to hear, or even to understand, the lectures; 
he must, aided by them, and they having, as it were, marked out the way for him, study, interpret, and 
develop these symbols for himself 

Though Masonry is identical with the ancient Mysteries, it is so only in this qualified sense: that it 
presents but an imperfect image of their brilliancy, the ruins only of their grandeur, and a systém that 
has experienced progressive alterations, the fruits of sociál events, political circumstances, and the 
ambitious imbecility of its improvers. 

After leaving Egypt, the Mysteries were modified by the habits of the different nations among whom 
they were introduced, and especially by the religious systems of the countries into which they were 
transplanted. To maintain the established government, laws, and religion, was the obligation of the 
Initiate everywhere; and everywhere they were the heritage of the priests, who were nowhere willing to 
make the common people co-proprietors with themselves of philosophical truth. 

Masonry is not the Coliseum in ruins. It is rather a Roman paláce of the middle ages, disfigured by 
modern architectural improvements, yet built on a Cyclopcean foundation laid by the Etruscans, and 
with many a stone of the superstructure taken from dwellings and temples of the age of Hadrian and 

Christianity taught the doctrine of FRATERNITY; but repudiated that of political EQUALITY, by 
continually inculcating obedience to Caesar, and to those lawfully in authority. Masonry was the first 
apostle of EQUALITY. In the Monastery there is fraternity and equality, but no liberty. Masonry added 
that also, and claimed for man the three-fold heritage, LIBERTY, EQUALITY, and FRATERNITY 

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It was but a development of the originál purpose of the Mysteries, which was to teach men to know and 
practice their duties to themselves and their fellows, the great practical end of all philosophy and all 

Truths are the springs from which duties flow; and it is but a few hundred years since a new Truth 
began to be distinctly seen; that MAN IS SUPREME OVER INSTITUTIONS, AND NOT THEY 
OVER HIM. Man has natural empire over all institutions. They are for him, aecording to his 
development; not he for them. This seems to us a very simple statement, one to which all men, 
everywhere, ought to assent. But once it was a great new Truth, not revealed until governments had 
been in existence for at least five thousand years. Once revealed, it imposed new duties on men. Man 
owed it to himself to be free. He owed it to his country to seek to give her freedom, or maintain her in 
that possession. It made Tyranny and Usurpation the enemies of the Human Race. It created a generál 
outlawry of Despots and Despotisms, temporal and spirituál. The sphere of Duty was immensely 
enlarged. Patriotism had, henceforth, a new and wider meaning. Free Government, Free Thought, Free 
Conscience, Free Speech! All these came to be inalienable rights, which those who had parted with 
them or been robbed of them, or whose ancestors had lost them, had the right summarily to retake. 
Unfortunately, as Truths always become perverted into falsehoods, and are falsehoods when misapplied, 
this Truth became the Gospel of Anarchy, soon after it was first preached. 

Masonry early comprehended this Truth, and recognized its own enlarged duties. Its symbols then came 
to háve a wider meaning; but it also assumed the mask of Stone-masonry, and borrowed its working- 
tools, and so was supplied with new and apt symbols. It aided in bringing about the French Revolution, 
disappeared with the Girondists, was born again with the restoration of order, and sustained Napoleon, 
because, though Emperor, he acknowledged the right of the people to select its rulers, and was at the 
head of a nation refusing to receive back its old kings. He pleaded, with sabre, mušket, and cannon, the 
great cause of the People against Royalty, the right of the French people even to make a Corsican 
General their Emperor, if it pleased them. 

Masonry felt that this Truth had the Omnipotence of God on its side; and that neither Pope nor 
Potentate could overcome it. It was a truth dropped into the worlďs wide treasury, and forming a part of 
the heritage which each generation receives, enlarges, and holds in trust, and of necessity bequeaths to 
mankind; the personál estate of man, entailed of nature to the end of time. And Masonry early 
recognized it as true, that to set forth and develop a truth, or any human excellence of gift or growth, is 
to make greater the spirituál glory of the race; that whosoever aids the march of a Truth, and makes the 
thought a thing, writes in the samé line with MOSES, and with Him who died upon the cross; and has 
an intellectual sympathy with the Deity Himself. 

The best gift we can bestow on man is manhood. It is that which Masonry is ordained of God to bestow 
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on its votaries: not sectarianism and religious dogma; not a rudimental morality, that may be found in 
the writings of Confucius, Zoroaster, Seneca, and the Rabbis, in the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes; not a 
little and cheap common-school knowledge; but manhood and science and philosophy. 

Not that Philosophy or Science is in opposition to Religion. For Philosophy is but that knowledge of 
God and the Soul, which is derived from observation of the manifested action of God and the Soul, and 
from a wise analogy. It is the intellectual guide which the religious sentiment needs. The true religious 
philosophy of an imperfect being, is not a systém of creed, but, as SOCRATES thought, an infinite 
search or approximation. Philosophy is that intellectual and moral progress, which the religious 
sentiment inspires and ennobles. 

As to Science, it could not walk alone, while religion was stationary. It consists of those matured 
inferences from experience which all other experience confirms. It realizes and unites all that was truly 
valuable in both the old schemes of mediation, one heroic, or the systém of action and effort; and the 
mystical theory of spirituál, ccntemplative commullion. "Listen to me," says GALEN, "as to the voice 
of the Eleusinian Hierophant, and believe that the study of Nature is a mystery no less important than 
theirs, nor less adapted to display the wisdom and power of the Great Creator. Their lessons and 
demonstrations were obscure, but ours are clear and unmistakable." 

We deem that to be the best knowledge we can obtain of the Soul of another man, which is furnished by 
his actions and his life-long conduct. Evidence to the contrary, supplied by what another man informs 
us that this Soul has said to his, would weigh little against the former. The first Scriptures for the human 
race were written by God on the Earth and Heavens. The reading of these Scriptures is Science. 
Familiarity with the grass and trees, the insects and the infusoria, teaches us deeper lessons of love and 
faith than we can glean from the writings of FENELON and AUGUSTINE. The great Bible of God is 
ever open before mankind. 

Knowledge is convertible into power, and axioms into rules of utility and duty. But knowledge itself is 
not Power. Wisdom is Power; and her Prime Minister is JUSTICE, which is the perfected law of 
TRUTH. The purpose, therefore, of Education and Science is to make a man wise. If knowledge does 
not make him so, it is wasted, like water poured on the sands. To know the formulas of Masonry, is of 
as little value, by itself, as to know so many words and sentences in some barbarous Afričan or 
Australasian dialect. To know even the meaning of the symbols, is but little, unless that adds to our 
wisdom, and also to our charity, which is to justice like one hemisphere of the brain to the other. 

Do not lose sight, then, of the true object of your studies in Masonry. It is to add to your estate of 
wisdom, and not merely to your knowledge. A man may spend a lifetime in studying a single specialty 
of knowledge, botany, conchology, or entomology, for instance,-in committing to memory names 

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derived from the Greek, and classifying and reclassifying; and yet be no wiser than when he began. It is 
the great truths as to all that most concerns a man, as to his rights, interests, and duties, that Masonry 
seeks to teach her Initiates. 

The wiser a man becomes, the less will he be inclined to submit tamely to the imposition of fetters or a 
yoke, on his conscience or his person. For, by increase of wisdom he not only better knows his rights, 
but the more highly values them, and is more conscious of his worth and dignity. His pride then urges 
him to assert his independence. He becomes better able to assert it also; and better able to assist others 
or his country, when they or she stake all, even existence, upon the samé assertion. But mere knowledge 
makes no one independent, nor fits him to be free. It often only makes him a more useful slavě. Liberty 
is a curse to the ignorant and brutal. 

Political science has for its object to ascertain in what manner and by means of what institutions 
political and personál freedom may be secured and perpetuated: not license, or the mere right of every 
man to vote, but entire and absolute freedom of thought and opinion, alike free of the despotism of 
monarch and mob and preláte; freedom of action within the limits of the generál law enacted for all; the 
Courts of Justice, with impartial Judges and juries, open to all alike; weakness and poverty equally 
potent in those Court.s as power and wealth; the avenues to office and honor open alike to all the 
worthy; the military powers, in war of peace, in strict subordination to the civil power; arbitrary arrests 
for acts not known to the law as crimes, impossible; Romish Inquisitions, Star-Chambers, Military 
Commissions, unknown; the means of instruction within reach of the children of all; the right of Free 
Speech; and accountability of all public omcers, civil and military. 

If Masonry needed to be justified for imposing political as well as moral duties on its Initiates, it would 
be enough to point to the sad history of the world. It would not even need that she should turn back the 
pages of history to the chapters written by Tacitus: that she should recite the incredible horrors of 
despotism under Caligula and Domitian, Caracalla and Commodus, Vitellius and Maximin. She need 
only point to the centuries of calamity through which the gay French nation passed; to the long 
oppression of the feudal ages, of the selfish Bourbon kings; to those times when the peasants were 
robbed and slaughtered by their own lords and princes, like sheep; when the lord claimed the firstfruits 
of the peasanťs marriage-bed; when the captured city was given up to merciless rape and massacre; 
when the State-prisons groaned with innocent victims, and the Church blessed the banners of pitiless 
murderers, and sang Te Deums for the crowning mercy of the Eve of St. Bartholomew. 

We might turn over the pages, to a later chapter, that of the reign of the Fifteenth Louis, when young 
girls, hardly more than children, were kidnapped to serve his lusts; when lettres de cachet filled the 
Bastile with persons accused of no crime, with husbands who were in the way of the pleasures of 
lascivious wives and of villains wearing orders of nobility; when the people were ground between the 
upper and the nether millstone of taxes, customs, and excises; and when the Pope's Nuncio and the 

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Cardinal de la Roche-Ayman, devoutly kneeling, one on each side of Madame du Barry, the king's 
abandoned prostitute, put the slippers on her naked feet, as she rose from the adulterous bed. Then, 
indeed, suffering and toil were the two forms of man, and the people were but beasts of burden. 

The true Mason is he who labors strenuously to help his Order effect its great purposes. Not that the 
Order can effect them by itself; but that it, too, can help. It also is one of Goďs instruments. It is a Force 
and a Power; and shame upon it, if it did not exert itself, and, if need be, sacrihce its children in the 
cause of humanity, as Abraham was ready to offer up Isaac on the altar of sacrifice. It will not forget 
that noble allegory of Curtius leaping, all in armor, into the great yawning gulf that opened to swallow 
Róme. It will TRY. It shall not be its fault if the day nevěr comes when man will no longer háve to fear 
a conquest, an invasion, a usurpation, a rivalry of nations with the armed hand, an interruption of 
civilization depending on a marriage-royal, or a birth in the hereditary tyrannies; a partition of the 
peoples by a Congress, a dismemberment by the downfall of a dynasty, a combat of two religions, 
meeting head to head, like two goats of darkness on the bridge of the Infinite: when they will no longer 
háve to fear famine, spoliation, prostitution from distress, misery from lack of work, and all the 
brigandages of chance in the forest of events: when nations will gravitate about the Truth, like stars 
about the light, each in its own orbit, without clashing or collision; and everywhere Freedom, cinctured 
with stars, crowned with the celestial splendors, and with wisdom and justice on either hand, will reign 


your studies as a Fellow-Craft you must be guided by REASON, LOVE and FAITH. 

We do not now discuss the differences between Reason and Faith, and undertake to define the domain 
of each. But it is necessary to say, that even in the ordinary affařrs of life we are governed far more by 
what we believe than by what we know; by FAITH and ANALOGY, than by REASON. The "Age of 
Reason" of the French Revolution taught, we know, what a foliy it is to enthrone Reason by itself as 
supreme. Reason is at fault when it deals with the Infinite. There we must revere and believe. 
Notwithstanding the calamities of the virtuous, the miseries of the deserving, the prosperity of tyrants 
and the murder of martyrs, we must believe there is a wise, just, merciful, and loving God, an 
Intelligence and a Providence, supreme over all, and caring for the minutest things and events. A Faith 
is a necessity to man. Woe to him who believes nothing! 

We believe that the soul of another is of a certain nature and possesses certain qualities, that he is 
generous and honest, or penurious and knavish, that she is virtuous and amiable, or vicious and ill- 
tempered, from the countenance alone, from little more than a glimpse of it, without the means of 
knowing. We venture our fortuně on the signatuře of a man on the other side of the world, whom we 
nevěr saw, upon the belief that he is honest and trustworthy. We believe that occurrences háve taken 
pláce, upon the assertion of others. We believe that one will acts upon another, and in the reality of a 
multitude of other phenomena that Reason cannot explain. 

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But we ought not to believe what Reason authoritatively denies, that at which the sense of right revolts, 
that which is absurd or self-contradictory, or at issue with experience or science, or that which degrades 
the character of the Deity, and would make Him revengeful, malignant, cruel, or unjust. 

A man's Faith is as much his own as his Reason is. His Freedom consists as much in his faith being free 
as in his will being uncontrolled by power. All the Priests and Augurs of Róme or Greece had not the 
right to require Cicero or Socrates to believe in the absurd mythology of the vulgar. All the Imaums of 
Mohammedanism háve not the right to require a Pagan to believe that Gabriel dictated the Korán to the 
Prophet. All the Brahmins that ever lived, if assembled in one conclave like the Cardinals, could not 
gain a right to compel a single human being to believe in the Hindu Cosmogony. No man or body of 
men can be infallible, and authorized to decide what other men shall believe, as to any tenet of faith. 
Except to those who first receive it, every religion and the truth of all inspired writings depend on 
human testimony and internal evidences, to be judged of by Reason and the wise analogies of Faith. 
Each man must necessarily háve the right to judge of their truth for himself; because no one man can 
háve any higher or better right to judge than another of equal information and intelligence. 

Domitian claimed to be the Lord God; and statues and images of him, in silver and gold, were found 
throughout the known world. He claimed to be regarded as the God of all men; and, according to 
Suetonius, began his letters thus: "Our Lord and God commands that it should be doně so and so;" and 
formally decreed that no one should address him otherwise, either in writing or by word of mouth. 
Palfurius Sura, the philosopher, who was his chief delator, accusing those who refused to recognize his 
divinity, however much he may háve believed in that divinity, had not the right to demand that a single 
Christian in Róme or the provinces should do the samé. 

Reason is far from being the only guide, in morals or in political science. Love or loving-kindness must 
keep it company, to exclude fanaticism, intolerance, and persecution, to all of which a morality too 
ascetic, and extréme political principles, invariably lead. We must also háve faith in ourselves, and in 
our fellows and the people, or we shall be easily discouraged by reverses, and our ardor cooled by 
obstacles. We must not listen to Reason alone. Force comes more from Faith and Love: and it is by the 
aid of these that man scales the loftiest heights of morality, or becomes the Saviour and Redeemer of a 
People. Reason must hold the helm; but these supply the motive power. They are the wings of the soul. 
Enthusiasm is generally unreasoning; and without it, and Love and Faith, there would háve been no 
RIENZI, or TELL, or SYDNEY, or any other of the great patriots whose names are immortal. If the 
Deity had been merely and only All- wise and All-mighty, He would nevěr háve created the Universe. 

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It is GENIUS that gets Power; and its prime lieutenants are FORCE and WISDOM. The unruliest of 
men bend before the leader that has the sense to see and the will to do. It is Genius that rules with God- 
like Power; that unveils, with its counsellors, the hidden human mysteries, cuts asunder with its word 
the huge knots, and builds up with its word the crumbled ruins. At its glance fall down the senseless 
idols, whose altars háve been on all the high places and in all the sacred groves. Dishonesty and 
imbecility stand abashed before it. Its single Yea or Nay revokes the wrongs of ages, and is heard 
among the future generations. Its power is immense, because its wisdom is immense. Genius is the Sun 
of the political sphere. Force and Wisdom, its ministers, are the orbs that carry its light into darkness, 
and answer it with their solid reflecting Truth. 

Development is symbolized by the use of the Mallet and Chisel; the development of the energies and 
intellect, of the individual and the people. Genius may pláce itself at the head of an unintellectual, 
uneducated, unenergetic nation; but in a free country, to cultivate the intellect of those who elect, is the 
only mode of securing intellect and genius for rulers. The world is seldom ruled by the great spirits, 
except after dissolution and new birth. In periods of transition and convulsion, the Long Parliaments, 
the Robespierres and Marats, and the semi-respectabilities of intellect, too often hold the reins of 
power. The Cromwells and Napoleons come later. After Marius and Sulla and Cicero the rhetorician, 
CAESAR. The great intellect is often too sharp for the granite of this life. Legislators may be very 
ordinary men; for legislation is very ordinary work; it is but the finál issue of a million minds. 

The power of the purse or the sword, compared to that of the spirit, is poor and contemptible. As to 
lands, you may háve agrarian laws, and equal partition. But a man's intellect is all his own, held direct 
from God, an inalienable fief. It is the most potent of weapons in the hands of a paladin. If the people 
comprehend Force in the physical sense, how much more do tlley revelence the intellectual! Ask 
Hildebrand, or Luther, or Loyola. They fall prostrate before it, as before an idol. The mastery of mind 
over mind is the only conquest worth having. The other injures both, and dissolves at a breath; rudé as it 
is, the great cable falls down and snaps at last. But this dimly resembles the dominion of the Creator. It 
does not need a subject like that of Peter the Hermit. If the stream be but bright and strong, it will 
sweep like a spring-tide to the popular heart. Not in word only, but in intellectual act lies the 
fascination. It is the homage to the Invisible. This power, knotted with Love, is the golden chain let 
down into the well of Truth, or the invisible chain that binds the ranks of mankind together. 

Influence of man over man is a law of nature, whether it be by a great estate in land or in intellect. It 
may mean slavery, a deference to the eminent human judgment. Society hangs spiritually together, like 
the revolving spheres above. The free country, in which intellect and genius govern, will endure. Where 
they serve, and other influences govern, the national life is short. All the nations that háve tried to 
govern themselves by their smallest, by the incapables, or merely respectables, háve come to nought. 
Constitutions and Laws, without Genius and Intellect to govern, will not prevent decay. In that čase they 
háve the dry-rot and the life dies out of them by degrees. 

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To give a nation the franchise of the Intellect is the only sure mode of perpetuating freedom. This will 
compel exertion and generous care for the people from those on the higher seats, and honorable and 
intelligent allegiance from those below. Then political public life will protéct all men from self- 
abasement in sensual pursuits, from vulgar acts and low greed, by giving the noble ambition of just 
imperiál rule. To elevate the people by teaching loving-kindness and wisdom, with power to him who 
teaches best: and so to develop the free State from the rough ashlar: this is the great labor in which 
Masonry desires to lend a helping hand. 

All of us should labor in building up the great monument of a nation, the Holý House of the Temple. 
The cardinal virtues must not be partitioned among men, becoming the exclusive property of some, like 
the common crafts. ALL are apprenticed to the partners, Duty and Honor. 

Masonry is a march and a struggle toward the Light. For the individual as well as the nation, Light is 
Virtue, Manliness, Intelligence, Liberty. Tyranny over the soul or body, is darkness. The freest people, 
like the freest man, is always in danger of relapsing into servitude. Wars are almost always fatal to 
Republics. They create tyrants, and consolidate their power. They spring, for the most part, from evil 
counsels. When the small and the base are intrusted with power, legislation and administration become 
but two parallel series of errors and blunders, ending in war, calamity, and the necessity for a tyrant. 
When the nation feels its feet sliding backward, as if it walked on the ice, the time has come for a 
supreme effort. The magnificent tyrants of the past are but the types of those of the future. Men and 
nations will always seli themselves into slavery, to gratify their passions and obtain revenge. The 
tyranťs plea, necessity, is always available; and the tyrant once in power, the necessity of providing for 
his safety makes him savage. Religion is a power, and he must control that. Independent, its sanctuaries 
might rebel. Then it becomes unlawful for the people to worship God in their own way, and the old 
spirituál despotisms revive. Men must believe as Power wills, or die; and even if they may believe as 
they will, all they háve, lands, houses, body, and soul, are stamped with the royal brand. "I am the State, 
" said Louis the Fourteenth to his peasants; "the very shirts on your backs are mine, and I can také them 

And dynasties so established endure, like that of the Caesars of Róme, of the Caesars of 
Constantinople, of the Caliphs, the Stuarts, the Spaniards, the Goths, the Valois, until the race wears 
out, and ends with lunatics and idiots, who still rule. There is no concord among men, to end the 
horrible bondage. The State falls inwardly, as well as by the outward blows of the incoherent elements. 
The furious human passions, the sleeping human indolence, the stolid human ignorance, the rivalry of 
human castes, are as good for the křrlgs as the swords of the Paladins. The worshippers háve all bowed 
so long to the old idol, that they cannot go into the streets and choose another Grand Llama. And so the 
effete State floats on down the puddled stream of Time, until the tempest or the tidal sea discovers that 
the worm has consumed its strength, and it crumbles into oblivion. 

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Civil and religious Freedom must go hand in hand; and Persecution matures them both. A people 
content with the thoughts made for them by the priests of a church will be content with Royalty by 
Divine Right, the Church and the Throne mutually sustaining each other. They will smother schism and 
reap infidelity and indifference; and while the battle for freedom goes on around them, they will only 
sink the more apathetically into servitude and a deep trance, perhaps occasionally interrupted by 
furious fits of frenzy, followed by helpless exhaustion. Despotism is not dimcult in any land that has 
only known one master from its childhood; but there is no harder problém than to perfect and 
perpetuate free government by the people themselves; for it is not one king that is needed: all must be 
kings. It is easy to set up Masaniello, that in a few days he may fall lower than before. But free 
government grows slowly, like the individual human faculties; and like the forest-trees, from the inner 
heart outward. Liberty is not only the common birth-right, but it is lost as well by non-user as by mis- 
user. It depends far more on the universal effort than any other human property. It has no single shrine 
or holý well of pilgrimage for the nation; for its waters should burst out freely from the whole soil. 

The free popular power is one that is only known in its strength in the hour of adversity: for all its trials, 
sacrifices and expectations are its own. It is trained to think for itself, and also to act for itself. When 
the enslaved people prostrate themselves in the dust before the hurricane, like the alarmed beasts of the 
field, the free people stand erect before it, in all the strength of unity, in self-reliance, in mutual 
reliance, with effrontery against all but the visible hand of God. It is neither cast down by calamity nor 
elated by success. 

This vast power of endurance, of forbearance, of patience, and of performance, is only acquired by 
continual exercise of all the functions, like the healthful physical human vigor, like the individual moral 

And the maxim is no less true than old, that eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. It is curious to 
observe the universal pretext by which the tyrants of all times také away the national liberties. It is 
stated in the statutes of Edward II., that the justices and the sheriff should no longer be elected by the 
people, on account of the riots and dissensions which had arisen. The samé reason was given long 
before for the suppression of popular election of the bishops; and there is a witness to this untruth in the 
yet older times, when Róme lost her freedom, and her indignant citizens declared that tumultuous 
liberty is better than disgraceful tranquillity. 

With the Compasses and Scale, we can trace all the figures ušed in the mathematics of planeš, or in 
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what are called GEOMETRY and TRIGONOMETRY, two words that are themselves deficient in 
meaning. GEOMETRY, which the letter G in most Lodges is said to signify, means measurement of 
land or the earth or Surveying; and TRIGONOMETRY, the measurement of triangles, or figures with 
three sides or angles. The latter is by far the most appropriate name for the science intended to be 
expressed by the word "Geometry." Neither is of a meaning sufficiently wide: for although the vast 
surveys of great spaces of the earth's surface, and of coasts, by which shipwreck and calamity to 
mariners are avoided, are effected by means of triangulation; though it was by the samé method that the 
French astronomers measured a degree of latitude and so established a scale of measures on an 
immutable basis; though it is by means of the immense triangle that has for its base a line drawn in 
imagination between the pláce of the earth now and its pláce six months hence in space, and for its apex 
a planet or stár, that the distance of Jupiter or Sirius from the earth is ascertained; and though there is a 
triangle still more vast, its base extending either way from us, with and past the horizon into immensity, 
and its apex infinitely distant above us; to which corresponds a similar infinite triangle below what is 
above equalling what is below, immensity equalling immensity; yet the Science of Numbers, to which 
Pythagoras attached so much importance, and whose mysteries are found everywhere in the ancient 
religions, and most of all in the Kabalah and in the Bib]e, is not sufficiently expressed by either the 
word "Geometry" or the word "Trigonometry." For that science includes theseJ with Arithmetic, and 
also with Algebra, Logarithms, the Integrál and Differential Calculus; and by means of it are worked 
out the great problems of Astronomy or the Laws of the Stars. 

Virtue is but heroic bravery, to do the thing thought to be true, in špite of all enemies of flesh or spirit, 
in despite of all temptations or menaces. Man is accountable for the uprightness of his doctrine, but not 
for the rightness of it. Devout enthusiasm is far easier than a good action. The end of thought is action; 
the sole purpose of Religion is an Ethic. Theory, in political science, is worthless, except for the 
purpose of being realized in practice. 

In every credo, religious or political as in the soul of man, there are two regions, the Dialectic and the 
Ethic; and it is only when the two are harmoniously blended, that a perfect disciplině is evolved. There 
are men who dialectically are Christians, as there are a multitude who dialectically are Masons, and yet 
who are ethically Infidels, as these are ethically of the Profane, in the strictest sense: intellectual 
believers, but practical atheists: men who will write you "Evidences," in perfect faith in their logic, but 
cannot carry out the Christian or Masonic doctrine, owing to the strength, or weakness, of the flesh. On 
the other hand, there are many dialectical skeptics, but ethical believers, as there are many Masons who 
háve nevěr undergone initiation; and as ethics are the end and purpose of religion, so are ethical 
believers the most worthy. He who does right is better than he who thinks right. 

But you must not act upon the hypothesis that all men are hypocrites, whose conduct does not square 
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with their sentiments. No vice is more rare, for no task is more difficult, than systematic hypocrisy. 
When the Demagogue becomes a Usurper it does not follow that he was all the time a hypocrite. 
Shallow men only so judge of others. 

The trath is, that creed has, in generál, very little influence on the conduct; in religion, on that of the 
individual; in politics, on that of party. As a generál thing, the Mahometan, in the Orient, is far more 
honest and trustworthy than the Christian. A Gospel of Love in the mouth, is an Avatar of Persecution 
in the heart. Men who believe in eternal damnation and a literal sea of fire and brimstone, incur the 
certainty of it, according to their creed, on the slightest temptation of appetite or passion. Predestination 
insists on the necessity of good works. In Masonry, at the least flow of passion, one speaks ill of 
another behind his back; and so far from the "Brotherhood" of Blue Masonry being reál, and the 
solemn pledges contained in the use of the word "Brother" being complied with, extraordinary pains are 
taken to show that. Masonry is a sort of abstraction, which scorns to interfere in worldly matters. The 
rule may be regarded as universal, that, where there is a choice to be made, a Mason will give his vote 
and influence, in politics and business, to the less qualified profane in preference to the better qualified 
Mason. One will také an oath to oppose any unlawful usurpation of power, and then become the ready 
and even eager instrument of a usurper. Another will call one "Brother" and then play toward him the 
part of Judas Iscariot, or strike him, as Joab did Abner, under the fifth rib, with a lie whose authorship 
is not to be traced. Masonry does not change human nature, and cannot make honest men out of born 

While you are still engaged in preparation, and in accumulating principles for future use, do not forget 
the words of the Apostle James: "For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a 
man beholding his natural face in a glass, for he beholdeth himself, and goeth away, and straightway 
forgetteth what mallner of man he was; but whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and 
continueth, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his work. 
If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, 
this man's religion is vain. Faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being an abstraction. A man is justified 
by works, and not by faith only. The devils believe, and tremble. As the body without the heart is dead, 
so is faith without works." 

In political science, also, free governments are erected and free constitutions framed, upon some simple 
and intelligible theory. Upon whatever theory they are based, no sound conclusion is to be reached 
except by carrying the theory out without flinching, both in argument on constitutional questions and in 
practice. Shrink from the true theory through timidity, or wander from it througll want of the logical 
faculty, or transgress against it througll passion or on the plea of necessity or expediency, and you háve 
denial or invasion of rights, laws that offend against first principles, usurpation of illegal powers, or 

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abnegation and abdication of legitimate authority. 

Do not forget, either, that as the showy, superficial, impudent and self-conceited will almost always be 
preferred, even in utmost stress of danger and calamity of the State, to the man of solid learning, large 
intellect, and catholic sympathies, because he is nearer the common popular and legislativě level, so the 
highest truth is not acceptable to the mass of mankind. 

When SOLON was asked if he had given his countrymen the best laws, he answered, "The best they are 
capable of receiving." This is one of the profoundest utterances on record; and yet like all great truths, 
so simple as to be rarely comprehended. It contains the whole philosophy of History. It utters a truth 
which, had it been recognized, would háve saved men an immensity of vain, idle disputes, and háve led 
them into the clearer paths of knowledge in the Past. It means this, that all truths are Truths of Period, 
and not truths for eternity; that whatever great fact has had strength and vitality enough to make itself 
reál, whether of religion, morals, government, or of whatever else, and to find pláce in this world, has 
been a truth for the time, and as good as men were capable of receiving. 

So, too, with great men. The intellect and capacity of a people has a single measure, that of the great 
men whom Providence gives it, and whom it receives. There háve always been men too great for their 
time or their people. Every people makes such men only its idols, as it is capable of comprehending. 

To impose ideál truth or law upon an incapable and merely reál man, must ever be a vain and empty 
speculation. The laws of sympathy govern in this as they do in regard to men who are put at the head. 
We do not know, as yet, what qualifications the sheep insist on in a leader. With men who are too high 
intellectually, the mass háve as little sympathy as they háve with the stars. When BURKE, the wisest 
statesman England ever had, rose to speak, the House of Commons was depopulated as upon an agreed 
signál. There is as little sympathy between the mass and the highest TRUTHS. The highest truth, being 
incomprehensible to the man of realities, as the highest man is, and largely above his level, will be a 
great unreality and falsehood to an unintellectual man. The profoundest doctrines of Christianity and 
Philosophy would be merej argon and babble to a Potawatomie Indián. The popular explanations of the 
symbols of Masonry are fitting for the multitude that háve swarmed into the Temples, being fully up to 
the level of their capacity. Catholicism was a vital truth in its earliest ages, but it became obsolete, and 
Protestantism arose, flourished, and deteriorated. The doctrines of ZOROASTER were the best which 
the ancient Persians were fitted to receive; those of CONFUCIUS were fitted for the Chinese; those of 
MOHAMMED for the idolatrous Arabs of his age. Each was Truth for the time. Each was a GOSPEL, 
preached by a REFORMER; and if any men are so little fortunate as to remain content therewith, when 
others háve attained a higher truth, it is their misfortune and not their fault. They are to be pitied for it, 
and not persecuted. 

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Do not expect easily to convince men of the trath, or to lead them to think aright. The subtle human 
intellect can weave its mists over even the clearest vision. Remember that it is eccentric enough to ask 
unanimity from a jury; but to ask it from any large number of men on any point of political faith is 
amazing. You can hardly get two men in any Congress or Convention to agree;-nay, you can rarely get 
one to agree with himself. 

The political church which chances to be supreme anywhere has an indefinite number of tongues. How 
then can we expect men to agree as to matters beyond the cognizance of the senses? How can we 
compass the Infinitc and the Invisible with any chain of evidence? Ask the small sea-waves what they 
murmur among the pebbles ! How many of those words that come from the invisible shore are lost, like 
the birds, in the long passage ? How vainly do we strain the eyes across the long Infinite ! We must be 
content, as the children are, with the pebbles that háve been stranded, since it is forbidden us to explore 
the hidden depths. 

The Fellow-Craft is especially taught by this not to become wise in his own conceit. Pride in unsound 
theories is worse than ignorancc. Humility becomes a Mason. Také some quiet, sober moment of life, 
and add together the two ideas of Pride and Man; behold him, creature of a spán, stalking through 
infinite space in all the grandeur of littleness! Perched on a speck of the Universe, every wind of 
Heaven strikes into his blood the coldness of death; his soul floats avvay from his body like the melody 
from the string. Day and night, like dust on the wheel, he is rolled along the heavens, through a 
labyrinth of worlds, and all the creations of God are flanling on every side, further than even his 
imagination can reach. Is this a creature to make for himself a crown of glory, to děny his own flesh, to 
mock at his fellow, sprung with him from that dust to which both will soon return? Does the proud man 
not err? Does he not suffer? Does he not die? When he reasons, is he nevěr stopped short by 
difficulties? When he acts, does he nevěr succumb to the temptations of pleasure? When he lives, is he 
free from pain? Do the diseases not claim him as their prey? When he dies, can he escape the common 
grave? Pride is not the heritage of man. Humility should dwell with frailty, and atone for ignorance, 
error and imperfection. 

Neither should the Mason be over-anxious for office and honor, however certainly he may feel that he 
has the capacity to serve the State. He should neither seek nor spurn honors. It is good to enjoy the 
blessings of fortuně; it is better to submit without a pang to their loss. The greatest deeds are not doně 
in the glare of light, and before the eyes of the populace. He whom God has gifted with a love of 
retirement possesses, as it were, an additional sense; and among the vast and noble scenes of nature, w 
e find the balm for the wounds we háve received among the pitiful shifts of policy; for the attachment to 
solitude is the surest preservative from the ills of life. 

But Resignation is the more noble in proportion as it is the less passive. Retirement is only a morbid 
selfishness, if it prohibit exertions for others; as it is only dignified and noble, when it is the shade 

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whence the oracles issue that are to instruct mankind; and retirement of this nature is the sole seclusion 
which a good and wise man will covet or command. The very philosophy which makes such a man 
covet the quiet, will make him eschew the inutility of the hermitage. Very little praiseworthy would 
LORD BOLINGBROKE háve seemed among his haymakers and ploughmen, if among haymakers and 
ploughmen he had looked with an indifferent eye upon a profligate minister and a venal Parliament. 
Very little interest would háve attached to his beans and vetches, if beans and vetches had caused him to 
forget that if he vvas happier on a fann he could be more useful in a Senáte, and made him forego, in 
the sphere of a bailiff, all care for re-entering that of a legislator. 

Remember, also, that therc is an education which quickens the Intellect, and leaves the heart hollower 
or harder than before. There are ethical lessons in the laws of the heavenly bodies, in the properties of 
earthly elements, in geography, chemistry, geology, and all the materiál sciences. Things are symbols 
of Truths. Properties are symbols of Truths. Science, not teaching moral and spirituál truths, is dead 
and dry, of little more reál value than to commit to the menlory a long row of unconnected dates, or of 
the names of bugs or butterflies. 

Christianity, it is said, begins from the burning of the falše gods by the people themselves. Education 
begins with the burning of our intellectual and moral idols: our prejudices, notions, conceits, our 
worthless or ignoble purposes. Especially it is necessary to shake off the love of worldly gain. With 
Freedom comes the longing for worldly advancement. In that race men are ever falling, rising, running, 
and falling again. The lust for wealth and the abject dread of poverty delve the furrows on many a noble 
brow. The gambler grows old as he watches the chances. Lawful hazard drives Youth away before its 
time; and this Youth draws heavy bills of exchange on Age. Men live, like the engines, at high pressure, 
a hundred years in a hundred months; the ledger becomes the Bible, and the day-book the Book of the 
Morning Prayer. 

Hence flow overreachings and sharp practice, heartless traffic in which the capitalist buys profit with 
the lives of the laborers, speculations that coin a natioďs agonies into wealth, and all the other devilish 
cnginery of Mammon. This, and greed for office, are the two columns at the entrance to the Temple of 
Moloch. It is doubtful whether the latter, blossoming in falsehood, trickery, and fraud, is not even more 
pernicious than the former. At all events they are twins, and fitly mated; and as either gains control of 
the unfortunate subject, his soul withers away and decays, and at last dies out. The souls of half the 
human race leave them long before they die. The two greeds are twin plagues of the leprosy, and make 
the man unclean; and whenever they break out they spread until "they cover all the skin of him that hath 
the plague, from his head even to his foot." Even the raw flesh of the heart becomes unclean with it. 

Alexander of Macedon has left a saying behind him which has survived his conquests: "Nothing is 
nobler than work." Work only can keep even kings respectable. And when a king is a king indeed, it is 
an honorable office to give tone to the manners and morals of a nation; to set the example of virtuous 

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conduct, and restore in spirit the old schools of chivalry, in which the young manhood may be nurtured 
to reál greatness. Work and wages will go together in men's minds, in the most royal institutions. We 
must ever come to the idea of reál work. The rest that follows labor should be sweeter than the rest 
which follows rest. 

Let no Fellow-Craft imagine that the work of the lowly and uninfluential is not worth the doing. There 
is no legal limit to the possible influences of a good deed or a wise word or a generous effort. Nothing 
is really small. Whoever is open to the deep penetration of nature knows this. Although, indeed, no 
absolute satisfaction may be vouchsafed to philosophy, any more in circumscribing the cause than in 
limiting the effect, the man of thought and contemplation falls into unfathomable ecstacies in view of 
all the decompositions of forces resulting in unity. AU works for all. Destruction is not annihilation, but 

Algebra applies to the clouds; the radiance of the stár benefits the rose; no thinker would dare to say 
that the perfume of the hawthorn is useless to the constellations. Who, then, can calculate the path of 
the molecule? How do we know that the creations of worlds are not determined by the fall of grains of 
sand ? Who, then, understands the reciprocal flow and ebb of the inrlnitely great and the infinitely 
small; the echoing of causes in the abysses of beginning, and the avalanches of creation? A fleshworm 
is of account; the small is great; the great is small; all is in equilibrium in necessity. There are 
marvellous relations between beings and things; in this inexhaustible Whole, from sun to grub, there is 
no scorn: all need each other. Light does not carry terrestrial perfumes into the azure depths, without 
knowing what it does with them; night distributes the stellar essence to the sleeping plants. Every bird 
which flies has the thread of the Infinite in its claw. Germination includes the hatching of a meteor, and 
the tap of a swallow's bili, breaking the egg; and it leads forward the birth of an earth-worm and the 
advent of a Socrates. Where the telescope ends the microscope begins. Which of them the grander 
view? A bit of mould is a Pleiad of flowers a nebula is an ant-hill of stars. 

There is the samé and a still more wonderful interpenetration between the things of the intellect and the 
things of matter. Elements and principles are mingled, combined, espoused, multiplied one by another 
to such a degree as to bring the materiál world and the moral world into the samé light. Phenomena are 
perpetually folded back upon themselves. In the vast cosmical changes the universal life comes and 
goes in unknown quantities, enveloping all in the invisible mystery of the emanations, losing no dream 
from no single sleep, sowing an animalcule here, crumbling a stár there, oscillating and winding in 
curves; making a force of Light, and an element of Thought; disseminated and indivisible, dissolving 
all savé that point without length, breadth, or thickness, The MYSELF; reducing everything to the Soul- 
atom ; making everything blossom into God; entangling all activities, from the highest to the lowest, in 
the obscurity of a dizzying mechanism; hanging the flight of an insect upon the movement of the earth; 
subordinating, perhaps, if only by the identity of the law, the eccentric evolutions of the comet in the 
firmament, to the whirlings of the infusoria in the drop of water. A mechanism made of mind, the first 
motor of which is the gnat, and its last wheel the zodiac. 

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A peasant-boy, guiding Blucher by the right one of two roads, the other being impassable for artillery, 
enables him to reach Waterloo in time to savé Wellington from a defeat that would háve been a rout; and 
so enables the kings to imprison Napoleon on a barren rock in mid-ocean. An unfaithful smith, by the 
slovenly shoeing of a horše, causes his lameness, and, he stumbling, the career of his world-conquering 
rider ends, and the destinies of empires are changed. A generous officer permits an imprisoned 
monarch to end his game of chess before leading him to the block; and meanwhile the usurper dies, and 
the prisoner reascends the throne. An unskillful workman repairs the compass, or malice or stupidity 
disarranges it, the ship mistakes her course, the waves swallow a Caesar, and a new chapter is written in 
the history of a world. What we call accident is but the adamantine chain of indissoluble connection 
between all created things. The locust, hatched in the Arabian sands, the small worm that destroys the 
cotton-boll, one making famine in the Orient, the other closing the mills and starving the vvorkmen and 
their children in the Occident, with riots and massacres, are as much the ministers of God as the 
earthquake; and the fate of nations depends more on them than on the intellect of its kings and 
legislators. A civil war in America will end in shaking the world; and that war may be caused by the 
vote of some ignorant prize-fighter or crazed fanatic in a city or in a Congress, or of some stupid boor 
in an obscure country parish. The electricity of universal sympathy, of action and reaction, pervades 
everything, the planets and the motes in the sunbeam. FAUST, with his types, or LUTHER, with his 
sermons, worked greater results than Alexander or Hannibal. A single thought sometimes suffices to 
overturn a dynasty. A silly song did more to unseat James the Second than the acquittal of the Bishops. 
Voltaire, Condorcet, and Rousseau uttered words that will ring, in change and revolutions, throughout 
all the ages. 

Remember, that though life is short, Thought and the influences of what we do or say are immortal; and 
that no calculus has yet pretended to ascertain the law of proportion between cause and effect. The 
hammer of an English blacksmith, smiting down an insolent official, led to a rebellion which came near 
being a revolution. The word well spoken, the deed fitly doně, even by the feeblest or humblest, cannot 
help but háve their effect. More or less, the effect is inevitable and eternal. The echoes of the greatest 
deeds may die away like the echoes of a cry among the cliffs, and what has been doně seem to the 
human judgment to háve been without result. The unconsidered act of the poorest of men may fire the 
train that leads to the subterranean mine, and an empire be rent by the explosion. 

The power of a free people is often at the disposal of a single and seemingly an unimportant individual; 
a terrible and truthful power; for such a people feel with one heart, and therefore can lift up their 
myriád arms for a single blow. And, again, there is no graduated scale for the measurement of the 
influences of different intellects upon the popular mind. Peter the Hermit held no office, yet what a 
work he wrought! 

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From the political point of view there is but a single principle, the sovereignty of man over himself . 
This sovereignty of one's šelf over one's šelf is called LIBERTY. Where two or several of these 
sovereignties associate, the State begins. But in this association there is no abdication. Each sovereignty 
parts with a certain portion of itself to form the common right. That portion is the samé for all. There is 
equal contribution by all to the joint sovereignty. This identity of concession which each makes to all, is 
EQUALITY. The common right is nothing more or less than the protection of all, pouring its rays on 
each. This protection of each by all, is FRATERNITY. 

Liberty is the summit, Equality the base. Equality is not all vegetation on a level, a society of big spears 
of grass and stunted oaks, a neighborhood of jealousies, emasculatillg each other. It is, civily, all 
aptitudes having equal opportunity; politically, all votes having equal weight; religiously, all 
consciences having equal rights. 

Equality has an organ;— gratuitous and obligatory instruction. We must begin with the right to the 
alphabet. The primary school obligatory upon all; the higher school offered to all. Such is the law. From 
the samé school for all springs equal society. Instruction! Light! all comes from Light, and all returns to 

We must learn the thoughts of the common people, if we would be wise and do any good work. We 
must look at men, not so much for what Fortune has given to them with her blind old eyes, as for the 
gifts Nature has brought in her lap, and for the use that has been made of them. We profess to be equal 
in a Church and in the Lodge: we shall be equal in the sight of God when He judges the earth. We may 
well sit on the pavement together here, in communion and conference, for the few brief moments that 
constitute life. 

A Democratic Government undoubtedly has its defects, because it is made and administered by men, 
and not by the Wise Gods. It cannot be concise and sharp, like the despotic. When its ire is aroused it 
develops its latent strength, and the sturdiest rebel trembles. But its habitual domestic rule is tolerant, 
patient, and indecisive. Men are brought together, first to differ, and then to agree. Affirmation, 
negation, discussion, solution: these are the means of attaining truth. Often the enemy will be at the 
gates before the babble of the disturbers is drowned in the chorus of consent. In the Legislativě office 
deliberation will often defeat decision. Liberty can play the fool like the Tyrants Refined society 
requires greater minuteness of regulation; and the steps of all advancing States are more and more to be 
picked among the old rubbish and the new matcrials. The difficulty lies in discovering the right path 
through the chaos of confusion. The adjustment of mutual rights and wrongs is also more difficult in 
democracies. We do not see and estimate the relative importance of objects so easily and clearly from 
the level or the waving iand as from the elevation of a lone peak, towering above the plain; for each 
looks through his own mist. 

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Abject dependence on constituents, also, is too common. It is as miserable a thing as abject dependence 
on a minister or the favorite of a Tyrant. It is rare to find a man who can speak out the simple truth that 
is in him, honestly and frankly, without fear, favor, or affection, either to Emperor or People. 

Moreover, in assemblies of men, faith in each other is almost always wanting, unless a terrible pressure 
of calamity or danger from without produces cohesion. Hence the constractive power of such 
assemblies is generally deficient. The chief triumphs of modern days, in Europe, háve been in pulling 
down and obliterating; not in building up. But Repeal is not Reform. Time must bring with him the 
Restorer and Rebuilder. 

Speech, also, is grossly abused in Republics; and if the use of speech be glorious, its abuse is the most 
villainous of vices. Rhetoric, Plato says, is the art of ruling the minds of men. But in democracies it is 
too common to hide thought in words,to overlay it, to babble nonsense. The gleams and glitter of 
intellectual soap-and-water bubbles are mistaken for the rainbow-glories of genius. The worthless 
pyrites is continually mistaken for gold. Even intellect condescends to intellectual jugglery, balancing 
thoughts as a juggler balances pipes on his chin. In all Congresses we háve the inexhaustible flow of 
babble, and Factioďs clamorous knavery in discussion, until the divine power of speech, that privilege 
of man and great gift of God, is no better than the screech of parrots or the mimicry of monkeys. The 
mere talker, however fluent, is barren of deeds in the day of trial. 

There are men voluble as women, and as well skilled in fencing with the tongue: prodigies of speech, 
misers in deeds. Too much calking, like too much thinking, destroys the power of action. In human 
nature, the thought is only made perfect by deed. Silence is the mother of both. The trumpeter is not the 
bravest of the brave. Steel and not brass wins the day. The great doer of great deeds is mostly slow and 
slovenly of speech. There are some men born and brcd to betray. Patriotism is their trade, and their 
capital is speech. But no noble spirit can plead like Paul and be falše to itself as Judas. 

Imposture too commonly rules in republics; they seem to be ever in their minority; their guardians are 
self-appointed; and tlhe unjust thrive better than the just. The Despot, like the night-lion roaring, 
drowns all the clamor of tongues at once, and speech, the birthright of the free man, becomes the 
bauble of the enslaved. 

It is quite true that republics only occasionally, and as it were accidentally, select their wisest, or even 
the less incapable among the incapables, to govern them and legislate for them. If genius, armed with 
learning and knowledge, will grasp the reins, the people will reverence it; if it only modestly offers 
itself for office, it will be smitten on the face, even when, in the straits of distress and the agonies of 
calamity, it is indispensable to the salvation of the State. Put it upon the track with the showy and 

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superficial, the conceited, the ignorant, and impudent, the trickster and charlatan, and the result shall 
not be a moment doubtful. The verdicts of Legislatures and the People are like the verdicts of juries,- 
sometimes right by accident. 

Offices, it is true, are showered, like the rains of Heaven, upon the just and the unjust. The Roman 
Augurs that ušed to laugh in each otheťs faces at the simplicity of the vulgar, were also tickled with 
their own guile; but no Augur is needed to lead the people astray. They readily deceive themselves. Let 
a Republic begin as it may, it will not be out of its minority before imbecility will be promoted to high 
places; and shallow pretence, getting itself puffed into notice, will invade all the sanctuaries. The most 
unscrupulous partisanship will prevail, even in respect to judicial trusts; and the most unjust 
appointments constantly be made, although every improper promotion not merely confers one 
undeserved favor, but may make a hundred honest cheeks smart with injustice. 

The country is stabbed in the front when those are brought into the stalled seats who should slink into 
the dim gallery. Every stamp of Honor, ill-clutched, is stolen from the Treasury of Merit. 

Yet the entrance into the public service, and the promotion in it, affect both the rights of individuals and 
those of the nation. Injustice in bestowing or withholding office ought to be so intolerable in 
democratic communities that the least trace of it should be like the scent of Treason. It is not 
universally true that all citizens of equal character háve an equal claim to knock at the dooř of every 
public office and demand admittance. When any man presents himself for service he has a right to 
aspire to the highest body at once, if he can show his fitness for such a beginning, that he is fitter than 
the rest who offer themselves for the samé post. The entry into it can only justly be made through the 
dooř of merit. And whenever any one aspires to and attains such high post, especially if by unfair and 
disreputable and indecent means, and is afterward found to be a signál failure, he should at once be 
beheaded. He is the worst among the public enemies. 

When a man sumciently reveals himself, all others should be proud to give him due precedence. When 
the power of promotion is abused in the grand passages of life whether by People, Legislature, or 
Executive, the unjust decision recoils on the judge at once. That is not only a gross, but a willful 
shortness of sight, that cannot discover the deserving. If one will look hard, long, and honestly, he will 
not fail to discern merit, genius, and qualification; and the eyes and voice of the Press and Public should 
condemn and denounce injustice wherever she rears her horrid head. 

"The tools to the workmen!" no other principle will savé a Republic from destruction, either by civil 
war or the dry-rot. They tend to decay, do all we can to prevent it, like human bodies. If they try the 
experiment of governing themselves by their smallest, they slide downward to the unavoidable abyss 
with tenfold velocity; and there nevěr has been a Republic that has not folio wed that fatal course. 

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But however palpable and gross the inherent defects of democratic governments, and fatal as the results 
finally and inevitably are, we need only glance at the reigns of Tiberius, Nero, and Caligula, of 
Heliogabalus and Caracalla, of Domitian and Commodus, to recognize that the difference between 
freedom and despotism is as wide as that between Heaven and Hell. 

The cruelty, baseness, and insanity of tyrants are incredible. Let him who complains of the fickle 
humors and inconstancy of a free people, read Pliny's character of Domitian. If the great man in a 
Republic cannot win omce without descending to low arts and whining beggary and the judicious use 
of sneaking lies, let him remain in retirement, and use the pen. Tacitus and Juvenal held no office. Let 
History and Satiře punish the pretender as they crucify the despot. The revenges of the intellect are 

Let Masonry use the pen and the printing-press in the free State against the Demagogue; in the 
Despotism against the Tyrant. History offers examples and encouragement. All history, for four 
thousand years, being filled with violated rights and the sufferings of the people, each period of history 
brings with it such protest as is possible to it. Under the Caesars there was no insurrection, but there 
was a Juvenal. The arousing of indignation replaces the Gracchi. Under the Caesars there is the exile of 
Syene; there is also the author of the Annals. As the Neros reign darkly they should be pictured so. 
Work with the graver only would be pale; into the grooves should be poured a concentrated prose that 

Despots are an aid to thinkers. Speech enchained is speech terrible. The writer doubles and triples his 
style, when silence is imposed by a master upon the people. There springs from this silence a certain 
mysterious fullness, which filters and freezes into brass in the thoughts. Compression in the history 
produces conciseness in the historian. The granitic solidity of some celebrated prose is only a 
condensation produced by the Tyrant. Tyranny constrains the writer to shortenings of diameter which 
are increases of strength. The Ciceronian period, hardly sumcient upon Verres, would lose its edge upon 

The Demagogue is the predecessor of the Despot. One springs from the otheťs loins. He who will 
basely fawn on those who háve office to bestow, will betray like Iscariot, and prove a miserable and 
pitiable failure. Let the new Junius lash such men as they deserve, and History make them immortal in 
infamy; since their influences culminate in ruin. The Republic that employs and honors the shallow, the 
superficial, the base, "who crouch Unto the offal of an office promised," at last weeps tears of blood for 
its fatal error. Of such supreme foliy, the sure fruit is damnation. Let the nobility of every great heart, 
condensed into justice and truth, strike such creatures like a thunderbolt ! If you can do no more, you 
can at least condemn by your vote, and ostracise by denunciation. 

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It is true that, as the Czars are absolute, they háve it in their power to select the best for the public 
service. It is true that the beginner of a dynasty generally does so; and that when monarchies are in their 
prime, pretence and shallowness do not thrive and prosper and get power, as they do in Republics. All 
do not gabble in the Parliament of a Kingdom, as in the Congress of a Democracy. The incapables do 
not go undetected there, all their lives. 

But dynasties speedily decay and run out. At last they dwindle down into imbecility; and the duli or 
flippant Members of Congresses are at least the intellectual peers of the vast majority of kings. The 
great man, the Julius Caesar, the Charlemagne, Cromwell, Napoleon, reigns of right. He is the wisest 
and the strongest. The incapables and imbeciles succeed and are usurpers; and fear makes them cruel. 
After Julius came Caracalla and Galba; after Charlemagne, the lunatic Charles the Sixth. So the 
Saracenic dynasty dwindled out; the Capets, the Stuarts, the Bourbons; the last of these producing 
Bomba, the ape of Domitian. 

Man is by nature cruel, like the tigers. The barbarian, and the tool of the tyrant, and the civilized 
fanatic, enjoy the sufferings of others, as the children enjoy the contortions of maimed flies. Absolute 
Power, once in fear for the safety of its tenure, cannot but be cruel. 

As to ability, dynasties invariably cease to possess any after a few lives. They become mere shams, 
governed by ministers, favorites, or courtesans, like those old Etruscan kings, slumbering for long ages 
in their golden royal robes, dissolving forever at the first breath of day. Let him who complains of the 
shortcomings of democracy ask himself if he would prefer a Du Barry or a Pompadour, governing in 
the name of a Louis the Fifteenth, a Caligula making his horše a consul, a Domitian, "that most savage 
monster," who sometimes drank the blood of relatives, sometimes employing himself with slaughtering 
the most distinguished citizens before whose gates fear and terror kept watch; a tyrant of frightful 
aspect, pride on his forehead, fire in his eye, constantly seeking darkness and secrecy, and only 
emerging from his solitude to make solitude. After all, in a free government, the Laws and the 
Constitution are above the Incapables, the Courts correct their legislation, and posterity is the Grand 
Inquest that passes judgment on them. What is the exclusion of worth and intellect and knowledge from 
civil office compared with trials before Jeffries, tortures in the dark caverns of the Inquisition, 
Alvabutcheries in the Netherlands, the Eve of Saint Bartholomew, and the Sicilian Vespers? 

The Abbe Barruel in his Memoirs for the History of Jacobinism, declares that Masonry in France gave, 
as its secret, the words Equality and Liberty, leaving it for every honest and religious Mason to explain 
them as would best suit his principles; but retained the privilege of unveiling in the higher Degrees the 

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meaning of those words, as interpreted by the French Revolution. And he also excepts English Masons 
from his anathemas, because in England a Mason is a peaceable subject of the civil authorities, no 
matter where he resides, engaging in no plots or conspiracies against even the worst government. 
England, he says, disgusted with an Equality and a Liberty, the consequences of which she had felt in 
the struggles of her Lollards, Anabaptists, and Presbyterians, had "purged her Masonry" from all 
explanations tending to overturn empires; but there still remained adepts whom disorganizing principles 
bound to the Ancient Mysteries. 

Because true Masonry, unemasculated, bore the banners of Freedom and Equal Rights, and was in 
rebellion against temporal and spirituál tyranny, its Lodges were proscribed in 1735, by an edict of the 
States of Holland. In 1737, Louis XV. forbade them in France. In 1738, Pope Clement XII issued against 
them his famous Bull of Excommunication, which was renewed by Benedict XIV.; and in 1743 the 
Council of Berne also proscribed them. The title of the Rull of Clement is, "The Condemnation of the 
Society of Conventicles de Liberi Muratori, or of the Freemasons, under the penalty of ipso facto 
excommunication, the absolution from which is reserved to the Pope alone, except at the point of 
death." And by it all bishops, ordinaries, and inquisitors were empowered to punish Freemasons, "as 
vehemently suspected of heresy," and to call in, if necessary, the help of the secular arm; that is, to 
cause the civil authority to put them to death. 

Also, falše and slavish political theories end in brutalizing the State. For example, adopt the theory that 
offices and employments in it are to be given as rewards for services rendered to party, and they soon 
become the prey and spoil of faction, the booty of the victory of faction; and leprosy is in the flesh of 
the State. The body of the commonwealth becomes a mass of corruption, like a living carcass rotten 
with syphilis. All unsound theories in the end develop themselves in one foul and loathsome disease or 
other of the body politic. The State, like the man, must use constant effort to stay in the paths of virtue 
and manliness. The hábit of electioneering and begging for office culminates in bribery with office, and 
corruption in office. 

A chosen man has a visible trust from God, as plainly as if the commission were engrossed by the 
notáry. A nation cannot renounce the executorship of the Divine decrees. As little can Masonry. It must 
labor to do its duty knowingly and wisely. We must remember that, in free States, as well as in 
despotisms, Injustice, the spouse of Oppression, is the fruitful parent of Deceit, Distrust, Hatred, 
Conspiracy, Treason, and Unfaithfulness. Even in assailing Tyranny we must háve Truth and Reason as 
our chief weapons. We must march into that fight like the old Puritans, or into the battle with the abuses 
that spring up in free government, with the flaming sword in one hand, and the Oracles of God in the 

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The citizen who cannot accomplish well the smaller purposes of public life, cannot compass the larger. 
The vast power of endurance, forbearance, patience, and performance, of a free people, is acquired only 
by continual exercise of all the functions, like the healthful physical human vigor. If the individual 
citizens háve it not, the State must equally be without it. It is of the essence of a free government, that 
the people should not only be concerned in making the laws, but also in their execution. No man ought 
to be more ready to obey and administer the law than he who has helped to make it. The business of 
government is carried on for the benefit of all, and every co-partner should give counsel and 

Remember also, as another shoal on which States are wrecked, that free States always tend toward the 
depositing of the citizens in strata, the creation of castes, the perpetuation of the jus divinurn to office 
in families. The more democratic the State, the more sure this result. For, as free States advance in 
power, there is a strong tendency toward centralization, not from deliberate evil intention, but from the 
cour se of events and the indolence of human nature. The executive power s swell and enlarge to 
inordinate dimensions; and the Executive is always aggressive with respect to the nation. Offices of all 
kinds are multiplied to reward partisans; the brute force of the sewerage and lower strata of the mob 
obtains large representation, first in the lower offices, and at last in Senates; and Bureaucracy raises its 
bald head, bristling with pens, girded with spectacles, and bunched with ribbon. The art of Government 
becomes like a Craft, and its guilds tend to become exclusive, as those of the Middle Ages. 

Political science may be much improved as a subject of speculation; but it should nevěr be divorced 
from the actual national necessity. The science of governing men must always be practical, rather than 
philosophical. There is not the samé amount of positive or universal truth here as in the abstract 
sciences; what is true in one country may be very falše in another; what is untrue to-day may become 
true in another generation, and the truth of to-day be reversed by the judgment of to-morrow. To 
distinguish the casual from the enduring, to separate the unsuitable from the suitable, and to make 
progress even possible, are the proper ends of policy. But without actual knowledge and experience, and 
communion of labor, the dreams of the political doctors may be no better than those of the doctors of 
divinity. The reign of such a caste, with its mysteries, its myrmidons, and its corrupting influence, may 
be as fatal as that of the despots. Thirty tyrants are thirty times worse than one. 

Moreover, there is a strong temptation for the governing people to become as much slothful and 
sluggards as the weakest of absolute kings. Only give them the power to get rid, when caprice prompts 
them, of the great and wise men, and elect the little, and as to all the rest they will relapse into 
indolence and indifference. The centrál power, creation of the people, organized and cunning if not 
enlightened, is the perpetual tribunál set up by them for the redress of wrong and the rule of justice. It 
soon supplies itself with all the requisite machinery, and is ready and apt for all kinds of interference. 
The people may be a child all its life. 

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The centrál power may not be able to suggest the best scientific solution of a problém; but it has the 
easiest means of carrying an idea into effect. If the purpose to be attained is a large one, it requires a 
large comprehension; it is proper for the action of the centrál power. If it be a small one, it may be 
thwarted by disagreement. The centrál power must step in as an arbitrator and prevent this. The people 
may be too averse to change, too slothful in their own business, unjust to a minority or a majority. The 
centrál power must také the reins when the people drop them. 

France became centralized in its government more by the apathy and ignorance of its people than by the 
tyranny of its kings. When the inmost parish-life is given up to the direct guardianship of the State, and 
the repair of the belfry of a country church requires a written order from the centrál power, a people is 
in its dotage. Men are thus nurtured in imbecility, from the dawn of sociál life. When the centrál 
government feeds part of the people it prepares all to be slaves. When it directs parish and county 
affairs, they are slaves already. The next step is to regulate labor and its wages. 

Nevertheless, whatever follies the free people may commit, even to the putting of the powers of 
legislation in the hands of the little competent and less honest, despair not of the finál result. The 
terrible teacher, EXPERIENCE, writing his lessons on hearts desolated with calamity and wrung by 
agony, will make thelll wiser in time. Pretence and grimace and sordid beggary for votes will some day 
cease to avail. Háve FAITH, and struggle on, against all evil influences and discouragements! FAITH is 
the Saviour and Redeemer of nations. When Christianity had grown weak, profitless, and powerless, the 
Arab Restorer and Iconoclast came, like a cleansing hurricane. When the battle of Damascus was about 
to be fought, the Christian bishop, at the early dawn, in his robes, at the head of his clergy, with the 
Cross once so triumphant raised in the air, came down to the gates of the city, and laid open before the 
army the Testament of Christ. The Christian generál, THOMAS, laid his hand on the book, and said, 
"Oh God! If our faith be true, aid us, and deliver us not into the hands of its enemies!" But KHALED, 
"the Sword of God," who had marched from victory to victory, exclaimed to his wearied soldiers, "Let 
no man sleep! There will be rest enough in the bowers of Paradise; sweet will be the repose nevěr more 
to be followed by labor." The faith of the Arab had become stronger than that of the Christian, and he 

The Sword is also, in the Bible, an emblém of SPEECH, or of the utterance of thought. Thus, in that 
vision or apocalypse of the sublime exile of Patmos, a protest in the name of the ideál, overwhelming 
the reál world, a tremendous satiře uttered in the name of Religion and Liberty, and with its fiery 
reverberations smiting the throne of the Gesars, a sharp two-edged sword comes out of the mouth of the 
Semblance of the Son of Man, encircled by the seven golden candlesticks, and holding in his right hand 
seven stars. "The Lord" says Isaiah, "hath made my mouth like a sharp sword." "I háve slain them" says 
Hosea, "by the words of my mouth". "The word of God" says the writer of the apostolic letter to the 
Hebrews, "is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing 
asunder of soul and spirit." "The sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God" says Paul, writing to 
the Christians at Ephesus. "I will fight against them with the sword of my mouth" it is said in the 

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Apocalypse, to the angel of the church at Pergamos. 

% % í[í ;[; % % 

The spoken discourse may roli on strongly as the great tidal wave; but, like the wave, it dies at last 
feebly on the sands. It is heard by few, remembered by still fewer, and fades away, like an echo in the 
mountains, leaving no token of power. It is nothing to the living and coming generations of men. It was 
the written hulllan speech, that gave power and permanence to human thought. It is this that makes the 
whole human history but one individual life. 

To write on the rock is to write on a solid parchment; but it requires a pilgrimage to see it. There is but 
one copy, and Time wears even that. To write on skins or papyrus was to give, as it were, but one tardy 
edition, and the rich only could procure it. The Chinese stereotyped not only the unchanging wisdom of 
oid sages, but also the passing events. The process tended to suffocate thought, and to hinder progress; 
for there is continual wandering in the wisest minds, and Truth writes her last words, not on clean 
tablets, but on the scrawl that Error has made and often mended. 

Printing made the movable letters prolific. Thenceforth the oratoř spoke almost visibly to listening 
nations; and the author wrote, like the Pope, his cecumenic decreesJ urbi et orbi, and ordered them to 
be posted up in all the market-places; remaining, if he chose, impervious to human sight. The doom of 
tyrannies was thenceforth sealed. Satiře and invective became potent as armies. The unseen hands of 
the Juniuses could launch the thunderbolts, and make the ministers tremble. One whisper from this 
giant fills the earth as easily as Demosthenes filled the Agora. It will soon be heard at the antipodes as 
easily as in the next street. It travels with the lightning under the oceans. It makes the mass one man, 
speaks to it in the samé comtnon language, and elicits a sure and single response. Speech passes into 
thought, and thence promptly into act. A nation becomes truly one, with one large heart and a single 
throbbing pulse. Men are invisibly present to each other, as if already spirituál beings; and the thinker 
who sits in an Alpine solitude, unknown to or forgotten by all the world, among the silent herds and 
hills, may flash his words to all the cities and over all the seas. 

Select the thinkers to be Legislators; and avoid the gabblers. Wisdom is rarely loquacious. Weight and 
depth of thougbt are unfavorable to volubility. The shallow and superficial are generally voluble and 
often pass for eloquent. More words, less thought, is the generál rule. The man who endeavors to say 
something worth remembering in every sentence, becomes fastidious, and condenses like Tacitus. The 
vulgar love a more diffuse stream. The ornamentation that does not cover strength is the gewgaws of 

Neither is dialectic subtlety valuable to public men. The Christian faith has it, had it formerly more than 
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now; a subtlety that might háve entangled Plato, and which has rivalled in a fruitless fashion the mystic 
lore of Jewish Rabbis and Indián Sages. It is not this which converts the heathen. It is a vain task to 
balance the great thoughts of the earth, like hollow straws, on the fingertips of disputation. It is not this 
kind of warfare which makes the Cross triumphant in the hearts of the unbelievers; but the actual power 
that lives in the Faith. 

So there is a political scholasticism that is merely useless. The dexterities of subtle logic rarely stir the 
hearts of the people, or convince them. The true apostle of Liberty, Fraternity and Equality makes it a 
matter of life and death. His combats are like those of Bossuet, combats to the death. The true apostolic 
fire is like the lightning: it flashes conviction into the soul. The true word is verily a two-edged sword. 
Matters of government and political science can be fairly dealt with only by sound reason, and the logic 
of common sense: not the common sense of the ignorant, but of the wise. The acutest thinkers rarely 
succeed in becoming leaders of men. A watchword or a catchword is more potent with the people than 
logic, especially if this be the least metaphysical. When a political prophet arises, to stir the dreaming, 
stagnant nation, and hold back its feet from the irretrievable descent, to heave the land as with an 
earthquake, and shake the silly-shallow idols from their seats, his words vvill come straight from Goďs 
own mouth, and be thundered into the conscience. He will reason, teach, warn, and rule. The reál 
"Sword of the Spirit" is keener than the brightest blade of Damascus. Such men rule a land, in the 
strength of justice, with wisdom and with power. Still, the men of dialectic subtlety often rule well, 
because in practice they forget their finely-spun theories, and use the trenchant logic of common sense. 
But when the great heart and large intellect are left to the růst in private life, and small attorneys, 
brawlers in politics, and those who in the cities would be only the clerks of notaries, or practitioners in 
the disreputable courts, are made national Legislators, the country is in her dotage. even if the beard has 
not yet grown upon her chin. 

In a free country, human speech must needs be free; and the State must listen to the maunderings of 
foliy, and the screechings of its geese, and the brayings of its asses, as well as to the golden oracles of 
its wise and great men. Even the despotic old kings allowed their wise fools to say what they liked. The 
true alchelllist will extract the lessons of wisdom from the babblings of foliy He will hear what a man 
has to say on any given subject, even if the speaker end only in proving himself prince of fools. Even a 
fool will sometimes hit the mark. There is some truth in all men who are not compelled to suppress 
their souls and speak other men's thoughts. The finger even of the idiot may point to the great highway. 

A people, as well as the sages, must learn to forget. If it neither learns the new nor forgets the old, it is 
fated, even if it has been royal for thirty generations. To unlearn is to learn; and also it is sometimes 
needful to learn again the forgotten. The antics of fools make the current follies more palpable, as 
fashions are shown to be absurd by caricatures, which so lead to their extirpation. The buffoon and the 
zany are useful in their places. The ingenious artificer and craftsman, like Solomon, searches the earth 
for his materials, and transforms the misshapen matter into glorious workmanship. The world is 
conquered by the head even more than by the hands. Nor will any assembly talk forever. After a time, 

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when it has listened long enough, it quietly puts the silly, the shallow, and the superficial to one side, it 
thinks, and sets to work. The human thought, especially in popular assemblies, runs in the most 
singularly crooked channels, harder to trace and follow than the blind currents of the oceán. No notion 
is so absurd that it may not find a pláce there. The master- workman must train these notions and 
vagaries with his two-handed hammer. They twist out of the way of the sword-thrusts; and are 
invulnerable all over, even in the heel, against logic. The martel or mace, the battle-axe, the great 
double-edged two-handed sword must deal with follies; the rapier is no better against them than a wand, 
unless it be the rapier of ridicule. 

The SWORD is also the symbol of war and of the soldier. Wars, like ťhunder-storms, are often 
necessary to purify the stagnant atmosphere. War is not a démon, without remorse or reward. It restores 
the brotherhood in letters of fire. When men are seated in their pleasant places, sunken in ease and 
indolence, with Pretence and Incapacity and Littleness usurping all the high places of State, war is the 
baptism of blood and fire, by which alone they can be renovated. It is the hurricane that brings the 
elemental equilibrium, the concord of Power and Wisdom. So long as these continue obstinately 
divorced, it will continue to chasten. 

In the mutual appeal of nations to God, there is the acknowledgment of His might. It lights the beacons 
of Faith and Freedom, and heats the furnace through which the earnest and loyal pass to immortal 
glory. There is in war the doom of defeat, the quenchless sense of Duty, the stirring sense of Honor, the 
measureless solemn sacrifice of devotedness, and the incense of success. Even in the fláme and smoke 
of battle, the Mason discovers his brother, and fulfills the sacred obligations of Fraternity. 

Two, or the Duad, is the symbol of Antagonism; of Good and Evil, Light and Darkness. It is Cain and 
Ábel, Eve and Lilith, Jachin and Boaz, Ormuzd and Ahriman, Osiris and Typhon. 

THREE, or the Triad, is most significantly expressed by the equilateral and the right-angled triangles. 
There are three principál colors or rays in the rainbow, which by intermixture make seven. The three are 
the blue, the yelloW, and the red. The Trinity of the Deity, in one mode or other, has been an article in 
all creeds. He creates, preserves, and destroys. He is the generative power, the productive capacity, and 
the result. The immaterial man, according to the Kabalah, is composed of vitality, or life, the breath of 
life; of soul or mind, and spirit. Salt, sulphur, and mercury are the great symbols of the alchemists. To 
them man was body, soul, and spirit. 

FOUR is expressed by the square, or four-sided right-angled figuře. Out of the symbolic Garden of 
Eden flowed a river, dividing into four streams, PISON, which flows around the land of gold, or light; 
GIHON, which flows around the land of Ethiopia or Darkness; HIDDEKEL, running eastward to 
Assyria; and the EUPHRATES. Zechariah saw four chariots coming out from between two mountains 

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of bronze, in the first of which were red horses; in the second, black; in the thřrd, white; and in the 
fourth, grizzled: "and these were the four winds of the heavens, that go forth from standing before the 
Lord of all the earth." Ezekiel saw the four living creatures, each with four faces and four wings, the 
faces of a man and a lion, an ox and an eagle; and the four wheels going upon their four sides; and Saint 
John beheld the four beasts, full of eyes before and behind, the LION, the young Ox, the MAN, and the 
flying EAGLE. Four was the signatuře of the Earth. Therefore, in the 148th Psalm, of those who must 
praise the Lord on the land, there are four times four, and four in particular of living creatures. Visible 
nature is described as the four quarters of the world, and the four corners of the earth. "There are four" 
says the old Jewish saying, "which také the first pláce in this world: man, among the creatures; the 
eagle among birds; the ox among cattle; and the lion among wild beasts." Daniel saw four great beasts 
come up from the sea. 

FIVE is the Duad added to the Triad. It is expressed by the five-pointed or blazing stár, the mysterious 
Pentalpha of Pythagoras. It is indissolubly connected with the number seven. Christ fed His disciples 
and the multitude with five loaves and two fishes, and of the fragments there remained twelve, that is, 
five and seven, baskets full. Again He fed them with seven loaves and a few little fishes, and there 
remained seven baskets full. The five apparently small planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and 
Saturn, with the two greater ones, the Sun and Moon, constituted the seven celestial spheres. 

SEVEN was the peculiarly sacred number. There were seven planets and spheres presided over by seven 
archangels. There were seven colors in the rainbow; and the Phoenician Deity was called the 
HEPTAKIS or God of seven rays; seven days of the week; and seven and five made the number of 
months, tribes, ancl apostles. Zechariah saw a golden candlestick, with seven lamps and seven pipes to 
the lamps, and an olive-tree on each side. Since he says, "the seven eyes of the Lord shall rejoice, and 
shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel." John, in the Apocalypse, writes seven epistles to the 
seven churches. In the seven epistles there are twelve promises. What is said of the churches in praise or 
blame, is completed in the number three. The refrain, "who has ears to hear," etc, has ten words, 
divided by three and seven, and the seven by three and four; and the seven epistles are also so divided. 
In the seals, trumpets, and vials, also, of this symbolic vision, the seven are divided by four and three. 
He who sends his message to Ephesus, "holds the seven stars in his right hand, and walks amid the 
seven golden lamps." 

In six days, or periods, God created the Universe, and paused on the seventh day. Of clean beasts, Noah 
was directed to také by sevens into the ark; and of fowls by sevens; because in seven days the rain was 
to commence. On the seventeenth day of the month. the rain began; on the seventeenth day of the 
seventh month, the ark rested on Ararat. When the dove returned, Noah waited seven days before he 
sent her forth again; and again seven, after she returned with the olive-leaf. Enoch was the seventh 
patriarch, Adam included, and Lámech lived 777 years. 

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There were seven lamps in the great candlestick of the Tabernacle and Temple, representing the seven 
planets. Seven times Moses sprinkled the anointing oil upon the altar. The days of consecration of 
Aaron and his sons were seven in number. A woman was unclean seven days after child-birth; one 
infected with leprosy was shut up seven days; seven times the leper was sprinkled with the blood of a 
slain bird; and seven days afterwards he must remain abroad out of his tent. Seven times, in purifying 
the leper, the priest was to sprinkle the consecrated oil; and seven times to sprinkle with the blood of 
the sacrificed bird the house to be purified. Seven times the blood of the slain bullock was sprinkled on 
the mercy-seat; and seven times on the altar. The seventh year was a Sabbath of rest; and at the end of 
seven times seven years came the great year of jubilee. Seven days the people ate unleavened bread, in 
the month of Abib. Seven weeks were counted from the time of first putting the sickle to the wheat. The 
Feast of the Tabernacles lasted seven days. 

Israel was in the hand of Midian seven years before Gideon delivered them. The bullock sacrificed by 
him was seven years old. Samson told Delilah to bind him with seven green withes; and she wove the 
seven locks of his head, and afterwards shaved them off. Balaam told Barák to build for him seven 
altars. Jacob served seven years for Leah and seven for Ráchel. Job had seven sons and three daughters, 
making the perfect number ten. He had also seven thousand sheep and three thousand camels. His 
friends sat down with him seven days and seven nights. His friends were ordered to sacrifice seven 
bullocks and seven rams; and again, at the end, he had seven sons and three daughters, and twice seven 
thousand sheep, and lived an hundred and fořty, or twice seven times ten years. Pharaoh saw in his 
dream seven fat and seven lean kině, seven good ears and seven blasted ears of wheat; and there were 
seven years of plenty, and seven of famine. Jericho fell, when seven priests, with seven trumpets, made 
the circuit of the city on seven successive days; once each day for six days, and seven times on the 
seventh. "The seven eyes of the Lord" says Zechariah, "run to and fro through the whole earth." 
Solomon was seven years in building the Temple. Seven angels, in the Apocalypse, pour out seven 
plagues, from seven vials of wrath. The scarlet-colored beast, on which the woman sits in the 
wilderness, has seven heads and ten horns. So also has the beast that rises Up out of the sea. Seven 
thunders uttered their voices. Seven angels sounded seven trumpets. Seven lamps of fire, the seven 
spirits of God, burned before the throne; and the Lamb that was slain had seven horns and seven eyes. 

EIGHT is the first cube, that of two. NINĚ is the square of three, and represented by the triple triangle. 

TEN includes all the other numbers. It is especially seven and three; and is called the number of 
perfection. Pythagoras represented it by the TETRACTYS, which had many mystic meanings. This 
symbol is sometimes composed of dots or points, sometimes of commas or yods, and in the Kabalah, of 
the letters of the name of Deity. It is thus arranged: 

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The Patriarchs from Adam to Noah, inclusive, are ten in number, and the samé number is that of the 

TWELVE is the number of the lineš of equal length that form a cube. It is the number of the months, 
the tribes, and the apostles; of the oxen under the Brazen Sea, of the stones on the breast-plate of the 
high priest. 


1 - Apprentice 

2 - Fellow-craft 

3 - Master 

4 - Secret Master 

5 - Perfect Master 

6 - Intimate Secretary 

7 - Provost and Judge 

8 - Intendant of the Building 

9 - Elu of the Nině 

10 - Elu of the Fifteen 

1 1 - Elu of the Twelve 

12 - Master Architect 

13 - Royal Arch of Solomon 

14 - Perfect Elu 

15 - Knight of the East 

16 - Prince of Jerusalem 

17 - Knight of the East and West 

18 - Knight Rose Croix 

19 - Pontiff 

20 - Master of the Symbolic Lodge 

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21 - Noachite or Prussian Knight 

22 - Knight of the Royal Axe or Prince of Libanus 

23 - Chief of the Tabernacle 

24 - Prince of the Tabernacle 

25 - Knight of the Brazen Serpent 

26 - Prince of Mercy 

27 - Knight Commander of the Temple 

28 - Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept ( Part 1 ) 
28 - Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept ( Part 2 ) 
28 - Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept ( Part 3 ) 
28 - Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept ( Part 4 ) 

30 - Knight Kadosh 

31 - Inspector Inquistor 

32 - Master of the Royal Secret 




To understand literally the symbols and allegories of Oriental books as to ante-historical matters, is 
willfully to close our eyes against the Light. To translate the symbols into the trivial and commonplace, 
is the blundering of mediocrity. 

All religious expression is symbolism; since we can describe only what we see, and the true objects of 
religion are THE SEEN. The earliest instruments of education were symbols; and they and all other 
religious forms differed and still differ according to external circumstances and imagery, and according 
to differences of knowledge and mental cultivation. All language is symbolic, so far as it is applied to 

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mental and spirituál phenomena and action. All words háve, primarily, a materiál sense, however they 
may afterward get, for the ignorant, a spirituál non-sense. "To retract," for example, is to draw back, and 
when applied to a statement, is symbolic, as much so as a picture of an arm drawn back, to express the 
samé thing, would be. The very word "spirit" means "breath," from the Latin verb spiro, breathe. 

To present a visible symbol to the eye of another is not necessarily to inform him of the meaning which 
that symbol has to you. Hence the philosopher soon superadded to the symbols explanations addressed 
to the ear, susceptible of more precision, but less effective and impressive than the painted or sculptured 
forms which he endeavored to explain. Out of these explanations grew by degrees a variety of 
narrations, whose true object and meaning were gradually forgotten, or lost in contradictions and 
incongruities. And when these were abandoned, and Philosophy resorted to definitions and formulas, 
its language was but a more complicated symbolism, attempting in the dark to grapple with and picture 
ideas impossible to be expressed. For as with the visible symbol, so with the word: to utter it to you 
does not inform you of the exact meaning which it has to me; and thus religion and philosophy became 
to a great extent disputes as to the meaning of words. The most abstract expression for DEITY, which 
language can supply, is but a sign or symbol for an object beyond our comprehension, and not more 
truthful and adequate than the images of OSIRIS and VISHNU, or their names, except as being less 
sensuous and explicit. We avoid sensuousness only by resorting to simple negation. We come at last to 
define spirit by saying that it is not matter. Spirit is spirit. 

A single example of the symbolism of words will indicate to you one branch of Masonic study. We find 
in the English Rite this phrase: "I will always hail, ever conceal, and nevěr reveal;" and in the 
Catechism, these: Q.'. "I hail." A.'. "I conceal," and ignorance, misunderstanding the word "hail," has 
interpolated the phrase, "From whence do you hail." 

But the word is really "hele," from the Anglo-Saxon verb elán, helan, to cover, hide, or conceal. And 
this word is rendered by the Latin verb tegere, to cover or roof over. "That ye fro me no thynge woll 
hele," says Gower. "They hele fro me no priuyte," says the Romaunt of the Rose. "To heal a house," is a 
common phrase in Sussex; and in the west of England, he that covers a house with slates is called a 
Healer. Wherefore, to "heal" means the samé thing as to "tile,"— itself symbolic, as meaning, primarily, 
to cover a house with tiles, and means to cover, hide, or conceal. Thus language too is symbolism, and 
words are as much misunderstood and misused as more materiál symbols are. 

Symbolism tended continually to become more complicated; and all the powers of Heaven were 
reproduced on earth, until a web of fiction and allegory was woven, partly by art and partly by the 
ignorance of error, which the wit of man, with his limited means of explanation, will nevěr unravel. 
Even the Hebrew Theism became involved in symbolism and image-worship, borrowed probably from 
an older creed and remote regions of Asia, the worship of the Great Semitic Nature-God AL or ELS 
and its symbolical representations of JEHOVA Himself were not even confined to poetical or 

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illustrative language. The priests were monotheists: the people idolaters. 

There are dangers inseparable from symbolism, which afford an impressive lesson in regard to the 
similar risks attendant on the use of language. The imagination, called in to assist the reason, usurps its 
pláce or leaves its ally helplessly entangled in itsweb. Names which stand for things are confounded 
with them; the means are mistaken for the end; the instrument of interpretation for the object; and thus 
symbols come to usurp an independent character as truths and persons. Though perhaps a necessary 
path, they were a dangerous one by which to approach the Deity; in which many, says PLUTARCH, 
"mistaking the sign for the thing signified, fell into a ridiculous superstition; while others, in avoiding 
one extréme, plunged into the no less hideous gulf of irreligion and impiety." 

It is through the Mysteries, CICERO says, that we háve learned the first principles of life; wherefore the 
term "initiation" is ušed with good reason; and they not only teach us to live more happily and 
agrceably, but they soften the pains of death by the hope of a better life hereafter. 

The Mysteries were a Sacred Drama, exhibiting some legend significant of nature's changes, of the 
visible Universe in which the Divinity is revealed, and whose import was in many respects as open to 
the Pagan as to the Christian. Nature is the great Teacher of man; for it is the Revelation of God. It 
neither dogmatizes nor attempts to tyrannize by compelling to a particular creed or speciál 
interpretation. It presents its symbols to us, and adds nothing by way of explanation. It is the text 
without the commentary; and, as we well know, it is chiefly the commentary and gloss that lead to error 
and heresesy and perseeution. The earliest instructors of mankind not only adopted the lessons of 
Nature, but as far as possible adhered to her method of imparting them. In the Mysteries, beyond the 
current traditions or sacred and enigimatic recitals of the Temples, few explanations were given to the 
spectators, who were left, as in the school of nature, to make inferences for themselves. No other 
method could háve suited every degree of cultivation and capacity. To employ nature's universal 
symbolism instead of the technicalities of language, rewards the humblest inquirer, and discloses its 
secrets to every one in proportion to his preparatory training and his power to conlprellend them. If 
their philosophical meaning was above the comlirellension of some, their moral and political meanlngs 
are within the reach of all. 

These mystic shows and performances were not the reading of a lecture, but the opening of a problém. 
Requiring research, they were calculated to arouse the dormant intellect. They implied no hostility to 
Philosophy, because Philosophy is the great expounder of symbolism; although its ancient 
interpretations were often illfounded and incorrect. The alteration from symbol to dogma is fatal to 
beauty of expression, and leads to intolerance and assumed infallibility. 

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If, in teaching the great doctrine of the divine nature of the Soul, and in striving to explain its longings 
after immortality, and in proving its superiority over the souls of the animals, which háve no aspirations 
Heavenward, the ancients struggled in vain to express the nature of the soul, by comparing it to FIRE 
and LIGHT, it will be well for us to consider whether, with all our boasted knowledge, we háve any 
better or clearer idea of its nature, and whether we háve not despairingly taken refuge in having none at 
all. And if they erred as to its originál pláce of abode, and understood literally the mode and path of its 
descent, these were but the accessories of the great Truth, and probably, to the Initiates, mere allegories, 
designed to make the idea more palpable and impressive to the mind. 

They are at least no more fit to be smiled at by the self-conceit of a vain ignorance, the wealth of whose 
knowledge consists solely in words, than the bosom of Abraham, as a home for the spirits of the just 
dead; the gulf of actual fire, for the eternal torture of spirits; and the City of the New Jerusalem, with its 
walls of jasper and its edifices of pure gold like clear glass, its foundations of precious stones, and its 
gates each of a single pearl. "I knew a man," says PAUL, "caught up to the third Heaven; that he was 
caught up into Paradise, and heard ineffable words, which it is not possible for a man to utter." And 
nowhere is the antagonism and conflict between the spirit and body more frequently and forcibly 
insisted on than in the writings of this apostle, nowhere the Divine nature of the soul more strongly 
asserted. "With the mind," he says, "I serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin. As many 
as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of GOD. The earnest expectation of the created waits for 
the manifestation of the sons of God. The created shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, of 
the flesh liable to decay, into the glorious liberty of the children of God." 

Two forms of government are favorable to the prevalence of falsehood and deceit. Under a Despotism, 
men are falše, treacherous, and deceitful through fear, like slaves dreading the lash. Under a Democracy 
they are so as a means of attaining popularity and office, and because of the greed for wealth. 
Experience will probably prove that these odious and detestable vices will grow most rankly and spread 
most rapidly in a Republic. When office and wealth become the gods of a people, and the most 
unworthy and unfit most aspire to the former, and fraud becomes the highway to the latter, the land will 
reek with falsehood and sweat lies and chicane. When the offices are open to all, merit and stern 
integrity and the dignity of unsullied honor will attain them only rarely and by accident. To be able to 
serve the country well, will cease to be a reason why the great and wise and learned should be selected 
to render service. Other qualifications, less honorable, will be more available. To adapt one's opinions 
to the popular humor; to defend, apologize for, and justify the popular follies; to advocate the expedient 
and the plausible; to caress, cajole, and flatter the elector; to beg like a spaniel for his vote, even if he be 
a negro three removes from barbarism; to profess friendship for a competitor and stab him by innuendo; 
to set on foot that which at third hand shall become a lie, being cousin-german to it when uttered, and 
yet capable of being explained away, who is there that has not seen these low arts and base appliances 

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put into practice, and becoming generál, until success cannot be surely had by any more honorable 
means? The result being a State ruled and ruined by ignorant and shallow mediocrity, pert self-conceit, 
the greenness of unripe intellect, vain of a school-boy's smattering of knowledge. 

The faithless and the falše in public and in political life, will be faithless and falše in private. The 
jockey in politics, like the jockey on the race-course, is rotten from skin to core. Everywhere he will see 
first to his own interests, and whoso leans on him will be pierced with a broken reed. His ambition is 
ignoble, like himself; and therefore he will seek to attain omce by ignoble means, as he will seek to 
attain any other coveted object, land, money, or reputation. 

At length, office and honor are divorced. The pláce that the small and shallow, the knave or the 
trickster, is deemed competent and fit to fill, ceases to be worthy the ambition of the great and capable; 
or if not, these shrink from a contest, the weapons to be ušed wherein are unfit for a gentleman to 
handle. Then the habits of unprincipled advocates in law courts are naturalized in Senates, and 
pettifoggers wrangle there, when the fate of the nation and the lives of millions are at stake. States are 
even begotten by villainy and brought forth by fraud, and rascalities are justified by legislators claiming 
to be honorable. Then contested elections are decided by perjured votes or party considerations; and all 
the practices of the worst times of corruption are revived and exaggerated in Republics. 

It is strange that reverence for truth, that manliness and genuine loyalty, and scorn of littleness and 
unfair advantage, and genuine faith and godliness and large-heartedness should diminish, among 
statesmen and people, as civilization advances, and freedom becomes more generál, and universal 
suffrage implies universal worth and fitness ! In the age of Elizabeth, without universal suffrage, or 
Societies for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, or popular lecturers, or Lycaea, the statesman, the 
merchant, the burgher, the sailor, were all alike heroic, fearing God only, and man not at all. Let but a 
hundred or two years elapse, and in a Monarchy or Republic of the samé race, nothing is less heroic 
than the merchant, the shrewd speculator, the office- seeker, fearing man only, and God not at all. 
Reverence for greatness dies out, and is succeeded by base envy of greatness. Every man is in the way 
of many, either in the path to popularity or wealth. There is a generál feeling of satisfaction when a 
great statesman is displaced, or a generál, who has been for his brief hour the popular idol, is 
unfortunate and sinks from his high estate. It becomes a misfortune, if not a crime, to be above the 
popular level. 

We should naturally suppose that a nation in distress would také counsel with the wisest of its sons. 
But, on the contrary, great men seem nevěr so scarce as when they are most needed, and small men 
nevěr so bold to insist on infesting pláce, as when mediocrity and incapable pretence and sophomoric 
greenness, and showy and sprightly incompetency are most dangerous. When France was in the 
extremity of revolutionary agony, she was governed by an assembly of provincial pettifoggers, and 
Robespierre, Marat, and Couthon ruled in the pláce of Mirabeau, Vergniaud, and Carnot. England was 

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governed by the Rump Parliament, after she had beheaded her king. Cromwell extinguished one body, 
and Napoleon the other. 

Fraud, falsehood, trickery, and deceit in national affairs are the signs of decadence in States and 
precede convulsions or paralysis. To bully the weak and crouch to the strong, is the policy of nations 
governed by small mediocrity. The tricks of the canvass for office are re-enacted in Senates. The 
Executive becomes the dispenser of patronage, chiefly to the most unworthy; and men are bribed with 
offices instead of money, to the greater ruin of the Commonwealth. The Divine in human nature 
disappears, and interest, grced, and selfishness takés it pláce. That is a sad and true allegory which 
represents the companions of Ulysses changed by the enchantments of Circe into swine. 

"Ye cannot," said the Great Teacher, "serve God and Mammon." When the thirst for wealth becomes 
generál, it will be sought for as well dishonestly as honestly; by frauds and overreachings, by the 
knaveries of trade, the heartlessness of greedy speculation, by gambling in stocks and commodities that 
soon demoralizes a whole community. Men will speculate upon the needs of their neighbors and the 
distresses of their country. Bubbles that, bursting, impoverish multitudes, will be blown up by cunning 
knavery, with stupid credulity as its assistants and instrument. Huge bankruptcies, that startle a country 
like the earthquakes, and are more fatal, fraudulent assignments, engulfment of the savings of the poor, 
expansions and collapses of the currency, the crash of banks, the depreciation of Government securities, 
prey on the savings of self-denial, and trouble with their depredations the first nourishment of infancy 
and the last sands of life, and fill with inmates the churchyards and lunatic asylums. But the sharper and 
speculator thrives and fattens. If his country is fighting by a levý en masse for her very existence, he 
aids her by depreciating her páper, so that he may accumulate fabulous amounts with little outlay. If his 
neighbor is distressed, he buys his property for a song. If he administers upon an estate, it turns out 
insolvent, and the orphans are paupers. If his bank explodes, he is found to háve taken care of himself in 
time. Society worships its paper-and-credit kings, as the old Hindus and Egyptians worshipped their 
worthless idols, and often the most obsequiously when in actual solid wealth they are the veriest 
paupers. No wonder men think there ought to be another world, in which the injustices of this may be 
atoned for, when they see the friends of ruined families begging the wealthy sharpers to give alms to 
prevent the orphaned victims from starving, until they may findways of supporting themselves. 

States are chiefly avaricious of commerce and of territory. The latter leads to the violation of treaties, 
encroachments upon feeble neighbors, and rapacity toward their wards whose lands are coveted. 
Republics are, in this, as rapacious and unprincipled as Despots, nevěr learning from history that 

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inordinate expansion by rapine and fraud has its inevitable consequences in dismenlberment or 
subjugation. When a Republic begins to plunder its neighbors, the words of doom are already written 
on its walls. There is a judgment already pronounced of God upon whatever is unrighteous in the 
conduct of national affairs. When civil war tears the vitals of a Republic, let it look back and see if it 
has not been guilty of injustices; and if it has, let it humble itself in the dust! 

When a nation becomes possessed with a spirit of commercial greed, beyond those just and fair limits 
set by a due regard to a moderate and reasonable degree of generál and individual prosperity, it is a 
nation possessed by the devil of commercial avarice, a passion as ignoble and demoralizing as avarice 
in the individual; and as this sordid passion is baser and more unscrupulous than ambition, so it is more 
hateful, and at last makes the infected nation to be regarded as the enemy of the human race. To grasp at 
the lion's share of commerce, has always at last proven the ruin of States, because it invariably leads to 
iojustices that make a State detestable; to a selfishness and crooked policy that forbid other nations to 
be the friends of a State that cares only for itself. 

Commercial avarice in India was the parent of more atrocities and greater rapacity, and cost more 
human lives, than the nobler ambition for extended empire of Consular Róme. The nation that grasps at 
the commerce of the world cannot but become selfish, calculating, dead to the noblest impulses and 
sympathies which ought to actuate States. It will submit to insults that wound its honor, rather than 
endanger its commercial interests by war; while, to subserve those interests, it will wage unjust war, on 
falše or frivolous pretexts, its free people cheerfully allying themselves with despots to crush a 
commercial rival that has dared to exile its kings and elect its own ruler. 

Thus the cold calculations of a sordid self-interest, in nations commercially avaricious, always at last 
displace the sentiments and lofty impulses of Honor and Generosity by which they rose to greatness; 
which made Elizabeth and Cromwell alike the protectors of Protestants beyond the four seas of 
England, against crowned Tyranny and mitred Persecution; and, if they had lasted, would háve 
forbidden alliances with Czars and Autocrats and Bourbons to re-enthrone the Tyrannies of Incapacity, 
and arm the Inquisition anew with its instruments of torture. The soul of the avaricious nation petrifies, 
like the soul of the individual who makes gold his god. The Despot will occasionally act upon noble 
and generous impulses, and help the weak against the strong, the right against the wrong. But 
commercial avarice is essentially egotistic, grasping, faithless, overreaching, crafty, cold, ungenerous, 
selfish, and calculating, controlled by considerations of self-interest alone. Heartless and merciless, it 
has no sentiments of pity, sympathy, or honor, to make it pause in its remorseless career; and it crushes 
down all that is of impediment in its way, as its keels of commerce crush under them the murmuring 
and unheeded waves. 

A war for a great principle ennobles a nation. A war for commercial supremacy, upon some shallow 
pretext, is despicable, and more than aught else demonstrates to what immeasurable depths of baseness 

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men and nations can descend. Commercial greed values the lives of men no more than it values the 
lives of ants. The slave-trade is as acceptable to a people enthralled by that greed, as the trade in ivory 
or spices, if the profits are as large. It will by-and-by endeavor to compound with God and quiet its own 
conscience, by compelling those to whom it sold the slaves it bought or stole, to set them free, and 
slaughtering them by hecatombs if they refuse to obey the edicts of its philanthropy. 

Justice in no wise consists in meting out to another that exact measure of reward or punishment which 
we think and decree his merit, or what we call his crime, which is more often merely his error, 
deserves. The justice of the father is not incompatible with forgiveness by him of the errors and 
offences of his child. The Infinite Justice of God does not consist in meting out exact measures of 
punishment for human frailties and sins. We are too apt to erect our own little and narrow notions of 
what is right and just into the law of justice, and to insist that God shall adopt that as His law; to 
measure off something with our own little tape-line, and call it Goďs love of justice. Continually we 
seek to ennoble our own ignoble love of revenge and retaliationJ by misnaming it justice. 

Nor does justice consist in strictly governing our conduct toward other men by the rigid rules of legal 
right. If there were a community anywhere, in which all stood upon the strictness of this rule, there 
should be written over its gates, as a warning to the unfortunates desiring admission to that inhospitable 
realm, the words which DANTE says are written over the great gate of Hell: LET THOSE WHO 
ENTER HERE LEAVE HOPE BEHIND ! It is not just to pay the laborer in field or factory or 
workshop his current wages and no more, the lowest market-value of his labor, for so long only as we 
need that labor and he is able to work; for when sickness or old age overtakes him, that is to leave him 
and his family to starve; and God will curse with calamity the people in which the children of the 
laborer out of work eat the boiled grass of the field, and mothers strangle their children, that they may 
buy food for themselves with the charitable pittance given for burial expenses. The rules of what is 
ordinarily termed "Justice," may be punctiliously observed among the fallen spirits that are the 
aristocracy of Hell. 

Justice, divorced from sympathy, is selfish indifference, not in the least more laudable than 
misanthropic isolation. There is sympathy even among the hair-like oscillatorias, a tribe of simple 
plants, armies of which may be discovered with the aid of the microscope, in the tiniest bit of scum 
from a stagnant pool. For these will pláce themselves, as if it were by agreement, in separate 
companies, on the side of a vessel containing them, and seem marching upward in rows; and when a 
swarm grows weary of its situation, and has a mind to change its quarters, each army holds on its way 
without confusion or intermixture, proceeding with great regularity and order, as if under the directions 
of wise leaders. The ants and bees give each other mutual assistance, beyond what is required by that 
which human creatures are apt to regard as the strict law of justice. 

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Surely we need but reflect a little, to be convinced that the individual man is but a fraction of the unit of 
society, and that he is indissolubly connected with the rest of his race. Not only the actions, but the will 
and thoughts of other men make or mar his fortunes, control his destinies, are unto him life or death, 
dishonor or honor. The epidemics, physical and moral, contagious and infectious, public opinion, 
popular delusions, enthusiasms, and the other great electric phenomena and currents, moral and 
intellectual, prove the universal sympaťhy. The vote of a single and obscure nlan, the utterance of self- 
will, ignorance, conceit, or špite, deciding an election and placing Foliy or Incapacity or Baseness in a 
Senáte, involves the country in war, sweeps away our fortunes, slaughters our sons, renders the labors of 
a life unavailing, and pushes on, helpless, with all our intellect to resist, into the grave. 

These considerations ought to teach us that justice to others and to ourselves is the samé; that we cannot 
define our duties by mathematical lineš ruled by the square, but must fill with them the great circle 
traced by the compasses; that the circle of humanity is the limit, and we are but the point in its centre, 
the drops in the great Atlantic, the atom or particle, bound by a mys terious law of attraction which we 
term sympathy to every other atom in the mass; that the physical and moral welfare of others cannot be 
indifferent to us; that we háve a direct and immediate interest in the public morality and popular 
intelligence, in the well-being and physical comfort of the people at large. The ignorance of the people, 
their pauperism and destitution, and consequent degradation, their brutalization and demoralization, are 
all diseases; and we cannot rise high enough above the people, nor shut ourselves up from them enough, 
to escape the miasmatic contagion and the great magnetic currents. 

Justice is peculiarly indispensable to nations. The unjust State is doomed of God to calamity and ruin. 
This is the teaching of the Eternal Wisdom and of history. "Righteousness exalteth a nation; but wrong 
is a reproach to nations." "The Throne is established by Righteousness. Let the lips of the Ruler 
pronounce the sentence that is Divine; and his mouth do no wrong in judgment!" The nation that adds 
province to province by fraud and violence, that encroaches on the weak and plunders its wards, and 
violates its treaties and the obligation of its contracts, and for the law of honor and fair-dealing 
substitutes the exigencies of greed and the base precepts of policy and craft and the ignoble tenets of 
expediency, is predestined to destruction; for here, as with the individual, the consequences of wrong 
are inevitable and eternal. 

A sentence is written against all that is unjust, written by God in the nature of man and in the nature of 
the Universe, because it is in the nature of the Infinite God. No wrong is really successful. The gain of 
injustice is a loss; its pleasure, suffering. Iniquity often seems to prosper, but its success is its defeat and 
shame. If its consequences pass by the doer, they fall upon and crush his children. It is a philosophical, 
physical, and moral truth, in the form of a threat, that God visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the 
children, to the third and fourth generation of those who violate His laws. After a long while, the day of 
reckoning always comes, to nation as to individual; and always the knave deceives himself, and proves a 

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Hypocrisy is the homage that vice and wrong pay to virtue and justice. It is Satan attemptiog to clothe 
himself in the angelic vesture of light. It is equally detestable in morals, politics, and religion; in the 
man and in the nation. To do injustice under the pretence of equity and fairness; to reprove vice in 
public and commit it in private; to pretend to charitable opinion and censoriously condemn; to profess 
the principles of Masonic beneficence, and close the ear to the wail of distress and the cry of suffering; 
to eulogize the intelligence of the people, and plot to deceive and betray them by means of their 
ignorance and simplicity; to prate of purity, and peculate; of honor, and basely abandon a sinking cause; 
of disinterestedness, and seli one's vote for pláce and power, are hypocrisies as common as they are 
infamous and disgraceful. To steal the livery of the Court of God to serve the Devil withal; to pretend to 
believe in a God of mercy and a Redeemer of love, and persecute those of a different faith; to devour 
widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers; to preach continence, and wallow in lust; to 
inculcate humility, and in pride surpass Lucifer; to pay tithe, and omit the weightier matters of the law, 
judgment, mercy and faith; to strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel; to make clean the outside of the 
cup and platter, keeping them full within of extortion and excess; to appear outwardly righteous unto 
men, but within be full of hypocrisy and iniquity, is indeed to be like unto whited sepulchres, which 
appear beautiful outward, but are within full of bones of the dead and of all uncleanness. 

The Republic cloaks its ambition with the pretence of a desire and duty to "extend the area of freedom," 
and claims it as its "manifest destiny" to annex other Republics or the States or Provinces of others to 
itself, by open violence, or under obsolete, empty, and fraudulent titles. The Empire founded by a 
successful soldier, claims its ancient or natural boundaries, and makes necessity and its safety tile plea 
for open robbery. The great Merchant Nation, gaining foothold in the Orient, finds a continual necessity 
for extending its dominion by arms, and subjugates India. The great Royalties and Despotisms, without 
a plea, partition among themselves a Kingdom, dismember Poland, and prepare to wrangle over the 
dominions of the Crescent. To maintain the balance of power is a plea for the obliteration of States. 
Carthage, Genoa, and Venice, commercial Cities only, must acquire territory by force or fraud, and 
become States. Alexander marches to the Indus; Tamerlane seeks universal empire; the Saracens 
conquer Spain and threaten Vienna. 

The thirst for power is nevěr satisfied. It is insatiable. Neither men nor nations ever háve power enough. 
When Róme was the mistress of the world, the Emperors caused themselves to be worshipped as gods. 
The Church of Róme claimed despotism over the soul, and over the whole life from the cradle to the 
grave. It gave and sold absolutions for past and future sins. It claimed to be infallible in matters of 
faith. It decimated Europe to purge it of heretics. It decimated America to convert the Mexicans and 
Peruvians. It gave and took away thrones; and by excommunication and interdict closed the gates of 
Paradise against Nations, Spain, haughty with its dominion over the Indies, endeavored to crush out 
Protestantism in the Netherlands, while Philip the Second married the Queen of England, and the pair 
sought to win that kingdom back to its allegiance to the Papal throne. Afterward Spain attempted to 
conquer it with her "invincible" Armáda. Napoleon set his relatives and captains on thrones, and 

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parcelled among them half of Europe. The Czar rules over an empire more gigantic than Róme. The 
history of all is or will be the samé, acquisition, dismemberment, ruin. There is a judgment of God 
against all that is unjust. 

To seek to subjugate the will of others and také the soul captive, because it is the exercise of thc highest 
power, seems to be the highest object of human ambition. It is at the bottom of all proselyting and 
propagandism, from that of Mesmer to that of the Church of Róme and the French Republic. That was 
the apoštoláte alike of Joshua and of Mahomet. 

Masonry alone preaches Toleration, the right of man to abide by his own faith, the right of all States to 
govern themselves. It rebukes alike the monarch who seeks to extend his dominions by conquest, the 
Church that claims the right to repress heresy by fire and steel, and the confederation of States that 
insist on maintaining a union by force and restoring brotherhood by slaughter and subjugation. 

It is natural, when we are wronged, to desire revenge; and to persuade ourselves that we desire it less for 
our own satisfaction than to prevent a repetition of the wrong, to which the doer would be encouraged 
by immunity coupled with the profit of the wrong. To submit to be cheated is to encourage the cheater 
to continue; and we are quite apt to regard ourselves as Goďs chosen instruments to inflict His 
vengeance, and for Him and in His stead to discourage wrong by making it fruitless and its punishment 
sure. Revenge has been said to be "a kind of wild justice;" but it is always taken in anger, and therefore 
is unworthy of a great soul, which ought not to suffer its equanimity to be disturbed by ingratitude or 
villainy. The injuries doně us by the base are as much unworthy of our angry notice as those doně us by 
the insects and the beasts; and when we crush the adder, or slay the wolf or hyena, we should do it 
without being moved to anger, and with no more feeling of revenge than we háve in rooting up a 
noxious weed. 

And if it be not in human nature not to také revenge by way of punishment, let the Mason truly consider 
that in doing so he is Goďs agent, and so let his revenge be measured by justice and tempered by mercy. 
The law of God is, that the consequences of wrong and cruelty and crime shall be their punishment; 
and the injured and the wronged and the indignant are as much His instruments to enforce that law, as 
the diseases and public detestation, and the verdict of history and the execration of posterity are. No one 
will say that the Inquisitor who has racked and burned the innocent; the Spaniard who hewed Indián 
infants, living, into pieces with his sword, and fed the mangled limbs to his bloodhounds; the military 
tyrant who has shot men without trial, the knave who has robbed or betrayed his State, the fraudulent 
banker or bankrupt who has beggared orphans, the public officer who has violated his oath, the judge 
who has sold injustice, the legislator who has enabled Incapacity to work the ruin of the State, ought 
not to be punished. Let them be so; and let the injured or the sympathizing be the instruments of Goďs 
just vengeance; but always out of a higher feeling than mere personál revenge. 

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Remember that every moral characteristic of man finds its prototype anlong creatures of lower 
intelligence; that the cruel foulness of the hyena, the savage rapacity of the wolf, the merciless rage of 
the tiger, the crafty treachery of the panther, are found among mankind, and ought to excite no other 
emotion, when found in the man, than when found in the beast. Why should the true man be angry with 
the geese that hiss, the peacocks that strut, the asses that bray, and the apes that imitate and chatter, 
although they wear the human form? Always, also, it remains true, that it is more noble to forgive than 
to také revenge; and that, in generál, we ought too much to despise those who wrong us, to feel the 
emotion of anger, or to desire revenge. 

At the sphere of the Sun, you are in the region of LIGHT. The Hebrew word for gold, ZAHAB, also 
means Light, of which the Sun is to the Earth the great source. So, in the great Oriental allegory of the 
Hebrews, the River PISON compasses the land of Gold or Light; and the River GIHON the land of 
Ethiopia or Darkness. 

What light is, we no more know than the ancients did. According to the modern hypothesis, it is not 
composed of luminous particles shot out from the sun with immense velocity; but that body only 
impresses, on the ether which fills all space, a powerful vibrátory movement that extends, in the form of 
luminous waves, beyond the most distant planets, supplying them with light and heat. To the ancients, it 
was an outflowing from the Deity. To us, as to them, it is the apt symbol of truth and knowledge. To us, 
also, the upward journey of the soul through the Spheres is symbolical; but we are as little informed as 
they whence the soul comes, where it has its origin, and whither it goes after death. They endeavored to 
háve some belief and faith, some creed, upon those points. At the present day, men are satisfied to think 
nothing in regard to all that, and only to believe that the soul is a something separate from the body and 
out-living it, but whether existing before it, neither to inquire nor care. No one asks whether it emanates 
from the Deity, or is created out of nothing, or is generated like the body, and the issue of the souls of 
the father and the mother. Let us not smile, therefore, at the ideas of the ancients, until we háve a better 
belief; but accept their symbols as meaning that the soul is of a Divine nature, originating in a sphere 
nearer the Deity, and returning to that when freed from the enthralhment of the body; and that it can 
only return there when purified of all the sordidness and sin which háve, as it were, become part of its 
substance, by its connection with the body. 

It is not strange that, thousands of years ago, men worshipped the Sun, and that to-day that worship 
continues among the Parsees. Originally they looked beyond the orb to the invisible God, of whom the 
Sun's light, seemingly identical with generation and life, was the manifestation and outflowing. Long 
before the Chaldean shepherds watched it on their plains, it came up regularly, as it now does, in the 
morning, like a god, and again sank, like a king retiring, in the west, to return again in due time in the 
samé array of majesty. We worship Immutability. It was that steadfast, immutable character of the Sun 
that the men of Baalbec worshipped. His light-giving and life-giving powers were secondary attributes. 
The one grand idea that compelled worship was the characteristic of God which they saw reflected in 
his light, and fancied they saw in its originality the changelessness of Deity. He had seen thrones 

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crwnble, earthquakes shake the world and hurl down mountains. 

Beyond Olympus, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, he had gone daily to his abode, and had come daily 
again in the morning to behold the temples they built to his worsllip. They personified him as 
nations that did so grew old and died. Moss grew on the capitals of the great columns of his temples, 
and he shone on the moss. Grain by grain the dust of his temples crumbled and fell, and was borne off 
on the wind, and still he shone on crumbling column and architrave. The roof fell crashing on the 
pavement, and he shone in on the Holý of Holies with unchanging rays. It was not strange that men 
worshipped the Sun. 

There is a water-plant, on whose broad leaves the drops of water roli about without uniting, like drops 
of mercury. So arguments on points of faith, in politics or religion, roli over the surface of the mind. An 
argument that convinces one mind has no effect on another. Few intellects, or souls that are the 
negations of intellect, háve any logical power or capacity. There is a singulár obliquity in the human 
mind that makes the falše logic more effective than the true with nine-tenths of those who are regarded 
as men of intellect. Even among the judges, not one in ten can argue logically. Each mind sees the truth, 
distorted through its own medium. Truth, to most men, is like matter in the spheroidal statě. Like a drop 
of cold water on the surface of a red-hot metal plate, it dances, trembles, and spins, and nevěr comes 
into contact with it; and the mind may be plunged into truth, as the hand moistened with sulphurous 
acid may into melted metal, and be not even warmed by the immersion. 

The word Khairum or Khurum is a compound one. Gesenius renders Khurum by the word noble or 
free-born: Khur meaning white, noble. It also means the opening of a window, the socket of the eye. 
Khri also means white, or an opening; and Khris, the orb of the Sun, in Job viii. 13 and x. 7. Krishna is 
the Hindu Sun-God. Khur, the Parsi word, is the literal name of the Sun. 

From Kur or Khur, the Sun, comes Khora, a name of Lower Egypt. The Sun, Bryant says in his 
Mythology, was called Kur; and Plutarch says that the Persians called the Sun Kuros. Kurios, Lord, in 
Greek, like Adonai, Lord, in Phcenician and Hebrew, was applied to the Sun. Many places were sacred 
to the Sun, and called Kúra, Kuria, Kuropolis, Kurene, Kureschata, Kuresta, and Corusia in Scythia. 

The Egyptian Deity called by the Greeks "Horus," was Her-Ra, or Har-oeris, Hor or Har, the Sun. Hari 
is a Hindu name of the Sun. Ari-al, Ar-es, Ar, Aryaman, Areimonios, the AR meaning Fire or Fláme, 
are of the samé kindred. Hewnes or Har-mes, (Aram, Remus, Haram, Harameias), was Kadmos, the 
Divine Light or Wisdom. Mar-kuri, says Movers, is Mar, the Sun. 

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In the Hebrew, AOOR, is Light, Fire, or the Sun. Cyrus, said Ctesias, was so named from Kuros, the 
Sun. Kuris, Hesychius says, was Adonis. Apollo, the Sun-god, was called Kurraios, from Kurra, a city 
in Phocis. The people of Kurene, originally Ethiopians or Cuthites, worshipped the Sun under the title 
of Achoor and Achor. 

We know, through a precise testimony in the ancient annals of Tsur, that the principál festivity of Mal- 
karth, the incarnation of the Sun at the Winter Solstice, held at Tsur, was called his rebirth or his 
awakening, and that it was celebrated by means of a pyre, on which the god was supposed to regain, 
through the aid of fire, a new life. This festival was celebrated in the month Peritius (Barith), the second 
day of which corresponded to the 25th of December. KHUR-UM, King of Tyre, Movers says, first 
performed this ceremony. These facts we learn from Josephus, Servius on the AEneid, and the 
Dionysiacs of Nonnus; and through a coincidence that cannot be fortuitous, the samé day was at Róme 
the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the festal day of the invincible Sun. Under this title, HERCULES, HAR- 
acles, was worshipped at Tsur. Thus, while the temple was being erected, the death and resurrection of 
a Sun-God was annually represented at Tsur, by Solomoďs ally, at the winter solstice, by the pyre of 
MAL-KARIH, the Tsurian Haracles. 

AROERIS or HAR-oeris, the elder HORUS, is from the samé old root that in the Hebrew has the form 
Aur, or, with the definite article prefixed, Haur, Light, or the Light, splendor, fláme, the Sun and his 
rays. The hieroglyphic of the younger HORUS was the point in a circle; of the Elder, a pařr of eyes; and 
the festival of the thirtieth day of the month Epiphi, when the sun and moon were supposed to be in the 
samé right line with the earth, was called "The birth-day of the eyes of Horus." 

In a papyrus published by Champollion, this god is styled "Haroeri, Lord of the Solar Spirits, the 
beneficent eye of the Sun." Plutarch calls him "Har-pocrates," but there is no trace of the latter part of 
the name in the hieroglyphic legends. He is the son of OSIRIS and Isis and is represented sitting on a 
throne supported by lions; the samé word, in Egyptian, meaning Lion and Sun. So Solomon made a 
great throne of ivory, plated with gold, with six steps, at each arm of which was a lion, and one on each 
side to each step, making seven on each side. 

Again, the Hebrew word Khi, means "living" and ram, "was, or shall be, raised or lifted up." The latter 
is the samé as room, aroom, harum, whence Aram, for Syria, or Aramoea, High-land. Khairum, 
therefore, would mean "was raised up to life, or living." 

So, in Arábie, hrm, an unused root, meant, "was high", "made great", "exalted" and Hirm means an ox, 
the symbol of the Sun in Taurus, at the Vernal Equinox. 

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KHURUM, therefore, improperly called Hiram, is KHUR-OM, the samé as Her-ra, Her-mes, and Her- 
acles, the "Heracles Tyrius Invictus," the personification of Light and the Son, the Mediator, Redeemer, 
and Saviour. From the Egyptian word Ra came the Coptic Ouro, and the Hebrew Aur, Light. Har-oeri, 
is Hor or Har, the chief or master. Hor is also heat; and hora, season or hour; and hence in several 
Afričan dialects, as names of the Sun, Airo, Ayero, eer, uiro, ghurrah, and the like. The royal name 
rendered Pharaoh, was PHRA, that is, Pai-ra, the Sun. 

The legend of the contest between Hor-ra and Set, or Set-nu-bi, the samé as Bar or Bal, is older than 
that of the strife between Osiris and Typhon; as old, at least, as the nineteenth dynasty. It is called in the 
Book of the Dead, "The day of the battle between Horus and Set." The later myth connects itself with 
Phoenicia and Syria. The body of OSIRIS went ashore at Gebal or Byblos, sixty miles above Tsur. You 
will not fail to notice that in the name of each murderer of Khurum, that of the Evil God Bal is found. 

Har-oeri was the god of TIME, as well as of Life. The Egyptian legend was that the King of Byblos cut 
down the tamarisk-tree containing the body of OSIRIS, and made of it a column for his paláce. Isis, 
employed in the paláce, obtained possession of the column, took the body out of it, and carried it away. 
Apuleius describes her as "a beautiful female, over whose divine neck her long thick hair hung in 
graceful ringlets ;" and in the procession female attendants, with ivory combs, seemed to dress and 
ornament the royal hair of the goddess. The palm-tree, and the lamp in the shape of a boat, appeared in 
the procession. If the symbol we are speaking of is not a mere modern invention, it is to these things it 

The identity of the legends is also confirmed by this hieroglyphic picture, copied from an ancient 
Egyptian monument, which may also enlighten you as to the Lion's grip and the Masteťs gavel. 

In the ancient Phoenician character, and in the Samaritán, A B, (the two letters representing the 
numbers 1, 2, or Unity and Duality, means Father, and is a primitive noun, common to all the Semitic 
languages. It also means an Ancestor, Originator, Inventor, Head, Chief or Ruler, Manager, Overseer, 
Master, Priest, Prophet. 

Is simply Father, when it is in construction, that is, when it precedes another word, and in English the 
preposition "of" is interposed, as Abi-Al, the Father of AI. Also, the finál Yod means "my"; so that by 
itself means "My father. David my father, 2 Chron. ii. 3. 

(Vav) finál is the possessive pronoun "his"; and Abiu (which we read "Abif") means "of my fatheťs." 
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Its full meaning, as connected with the name of Khurum, no doubt is, "formerly one of my fatheťs 
servants," or "slaves." 

The name of the Phoenician artificer is, in Samuel and Kings, [2 Sam. v. 11; 1 Kings v. 15; 1 Kings vii. 
40]. In Chronicles it is with the addition of [2 Chron. ii. 12]; and of [2 Chron. iv. 16]. 

It is merely absurd to add the word "Abif," or "Abiff," as part of the name of the artificer. And it is 
almost as absurd to add the word "Abi," which was a title and not part of the name. Joseph says [Gen. 
xlv. 8], "God has constituted me Ab 1'Paraah, as Father to Paraah, i.e., Vizier or Prime Minister." So 
Hamán was called the Second Father of Artaxerxes; and when King Khurum ušed the phrase "Khurum 
Abi," he meant that the artificer he sent Schlomoh was the principál or chief workman in his line at 

A medal copied by Montfaucon exhibits a female nursing a child, with ears of wheat in her hand, and 
the legend (Iao). She is seated on clouds, a stár at her head, and three ears of wheat rising from an altar 
before her. 

HORUS was the mediator, who was buried three days, was regenerated, and triumphed over the evil 

The word HERI, in Sanscrit, means Shepherd, as well as Savior. CRISHNA is called Heri, as Jesus 
called Himself the Good Shepherd. 

Khur, means an apertuře of a window, a cave, or the eye. Also it means white. It also means an opening, 
and noble, free-born, high-born. 

KHURM means consecrated, devoted; in AEthiopic. It is the name of a city, [Josh. xix. 38]; and of a 
man, [Ezr. ii. 32, x. 31; Neh. iii. 11]. 

Khirah, means nobility, a noble race. 

Buddha is declared to comprehend in his own person the essence of the Hindu Trimurti; and hence the 
tri-literal monosyllable Om or Aum is applied to him as being essentially the samé as Brahma-Vishnu- 
Siva. He is the samé as Hermes, Thoth, Taut, and Teutates. One of his names is Heri-maya or Hermaya, 
which are evidently the samé name as Hermes and Khirm or Khurm. Heri, in Sanscrit, means Lord. 

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A learned Brother places over the two symbolic pillars, from right to left, the two words IHU and BAL: 
followed by the hieroglyphic equivalent, of the Sun-God, Amun-ra. Is it an accidental coincidence, that 
in the name of each murderer are the two names of the Good and Evil Deities of the Hebrews; for Yu- 
bel is but Yehu-Bal or Yeho-Bal? and that the three finál syllables of the names, a, o, um, make 
A.'.U.'.M.'. the sacred word of the Hindoos, meaning the Triune God, Life-giving, Life-preserving, Life- 
destroying: represented by the mystic character? 

The genuine acacia, also, is the thorny tamarisk, the samé tree which grew up around the body of 
Osiris. It was a sacred tree among the Arabs, who made of it the idol Al-Uzza, which Mohammed 
destroyed. It is abundant as a bush in the Desert of Thur: and of it the "crown of thorns" was composed, 
which was set on the forehead of Jesus of Nazareth. It is a fit type of immortality on account of its 
tenacity of life; for it has been known, when planted as a door-post, to také root again and shoot out 
budding boughs over the threshold. 

Every commonwealth must háve its periods of trial and transition, especially if it engages in war. It is 
certain at some time to be wholly governed by agitators appealing to all the baser elements of the 
popular nature; by moneyed corporations; by those enriched by the depreciation of government 
securities or páper; by small attorneys, schemers, money-jobbers, speculators and adventurers an 
ignoble oligarchy, enriched by the distresses of the State, and fattened on the miseries of the people. 
Then all the deceitful visions of equality and the rights of man end; and the wronged and plundered 
State can regain a reál liberty only by passing through "great varieties of untried being," purified in its 
transmigration by fire and blood. 

In a Republic, it soon comes to pass that parties gather round the negative and positive poles of some 
opinion or notion, and that the intolerant spirit of a triumphant majority will allow no deviation from 
the standard of orthodoxy which it has set up for itself. Freedom of opinion will be professed and 
pretended to, but every one will exercise it at the peril of being banished from political communion 
with those who hold the reins and prescribe the policy to be pursued. Slavishness to party and 
obsequiousness to the popular whims go hand in hand. Political independence only occurs in a fossil 
statě; and men's opinions grow out of the acts they háve been constrained to do or sanction. Flattery, 
either of individual or people, corrupts both the receiver and the giver; and adulation is not of more 
service to the people than to kings. A Caesar, securely seated in power, cares less for it than a free 
democracy; nor will his appetite for it grow to exorbitance, as that of a people will, until it becomes 
insatiate. The effect of liberty to individuals is, that they may do what they please; to a people, it is to a 
great extent the samé. If accessible to flattery, as this is always interested, and resorted to on low and 
base motives, and for evil purposes, either individual or people is sure, in doing what it pleases, to do 

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what in honor and conscience should háve been left undone. One ought not even to risk 
congratulations, which may soon be turned into complaints; and as both individuals and peoples are 
prone to make a bad use of power, to flatter them, which is a sure way to mislead them, well deserves to 
be called a crime. 

The first principle in a Republic ought to be, "that no man or set of men is entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of public services; which 
not being descendible, neither ought the omces of magistráte, legislature, nor judge, to be hereditary." It 
is a volume of Truth and Wisdom, a lesson for the study of nations, embodied in a single sentence, and 
expressed in language which every man can understand. If a deluge of despotism were to overthrow the 
world, and destroy all institutions under which freedom is protected, so that they should no longer be 
remembered among men, this sentence, preserved, would be sufficient to rekindle the fires of liberty 
and revive the race of freemen. 

But, to preserve liberty, another must be added: "that a free State does not confer office as a reward, 
especially for questionable services, unless she seeks her own ruin; but all officers are employed by her, 
in consideration solely of their will and ability to render service in the future; and therefore that the best 
and most competent are always to be preferred." 

For, if there is to be any other rule, that of hereditary succession is perhaps as good as any. By no other 
rule is it possible to preserve the liberties of the State. By no other to intrust the power of making the 
laws to those only who háve that keen instinctive sense of injustice and wrong which enables them to 
detect baseness and corruption in their most secret hiding-places, and that moral courage and generous 
manliness and gallant independence that make them fearless in dragging out the perpetrators to the light 
of day, and calling down upon them the scorn and indignation of the world. The flatterers of the people 
are nevěr such men. On the contrary, a time always comes to a Republic, when it is not content, like 
Liberius, with a single Sejanus, but must háve a host; and when those most prominent in the lead of 
affairs are men without reputation, statesmanship, ability, or information, the mere hacks of party, 
owing their places to trickery and want of qualification, with none of the qualities of head or heart that 
make great and wise men, and, at the samé time, filled with all the narrow conceptions and bitter 
intolerance of political bigotry. These die; and the world is none the wiser for what they háve said and 
doně. Their names sink in the bottomless pit of oblivion; but their acts of foliy or knavery curse the 
body politic and at last pro ve its ruin. 

Politicians, in a free State, are generally hollow, heartless, and selfish. Their own aggrandisement is the 
end of their patriotism; and they always look with secret satisfaction on the disappointment or fall of 
one whose loftier genius and superior talents overshadow their own self-importance, or whose integrity 
and incorruptible honor are in the way of their selfish ends. The influence of the small aspirants is 
always against the great man. His accession to power may be almost for a lifetime. One of themselves 

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will be more easily displaced, and each hopes to succeed him; and so it at length comes to pass that 
men impudently aspire to and actually win the highest stations, who are unfit for the lowest clerkships; 
and incapacity and mediocrity become the surest passports to once. 

The consequence is, that those who feel themselves competent and qualified to serve the people, refuse 
with digust to enter into the struggle for office, where the wicked and jesuitical doctrine that all is fair 
in politics is an excuse for every species of low villainy; and those who seek even the highest places of 
the State do not rely upon the power of a magnanimous spirit, on the sympathizing impulses of a great 
soul, to stir and move the people to generous, noble, and heroic resolves, and to wise and manly action; 
but, like spaniels erect on their hind legs, with fore-paws obsequiously suppliant, fawn, flatter, and 
actually beg for votes. Rather than descend to this, they stand contemptuously aloof, disdainfully 
refusing to court the people, and acting on the maxim, that "mankind has no title to demand that we 
shall serve them in špite of themselves". 

It is lamentable to see a country split into factions, each following this or that great or brazen-fronted 
leader with a blind, unreasoning, unquestioning hero-worship; it is contemptible to see it divided into 
parties, whose sole end is the spoils of victory, and their chiefs the low, the base, the venal and the 
snlall. Such a country is in the last stages of decay, and near its end, no matter how prosperous it may 
seem to be. It wrangles over the volcano and the earthquake. But it is certain that no government can be 
conducted by the men of the people, and for the people, without a rigid adherence to those principles 
which our reason commends as fixed and sound. These must be the tests of parties, men, and measures. 
Once determined, they must be inexorable in their application, and all must either come up to the 
standard or declare against it. Men may betray: principles nevěr can. Oppression is one invariable 
consequence of misplaced confidence in treacherous man, it is nevěr the result of the working or 
application of a sound, just, well-tried principle. Compromises which bring fundamental principles into 
doubt, in order to unitě in one party men of antagonistic creeds, are frauds, and end in ruin, the just and 
natural consequence of fraud. Whenever you háve settled upon your theory and creed, sanction no 
departure from it in practice, on any ground of expediency. It is the Masteťs word. Yield it up neither to 
flattery nor force! Let no defeat or persecution rob you of it! Believe that he who once blundered in 
statesmanship will blunder again; that such blunders are as fatal as crimes; and that political near- 
sightedness does not improve by age. There are always more impostors than seers among public men, 
more falše prophets than true ones, more prophets of Baal than of Jehovah; and Jerusalem is always in 
danger from the Assyrians. 

Sallust said that after a State has been corrupted by luxury and idleness, it may by its mere greatness 
bear up under the burden of its vices. But even while he wrote, Róme, of which he spoke, had played 
out her masquerade of freedom Other causes than luxury and sloth destroy Republics. If small, their 

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larger neighbors extinguish them by absorption. If of great extent, the cohesive force is too feeble to 
hold them together, and they fall to pieces by their own weight. The paltry ambition of small men 
disintegrates them. The want of wisdom in their councils creates exasperating issues. Usurpation of 
power plays its part, incapacity seconds corruption, the storm rises, and the fragments of the incoherent 
raft strew the sandy shores, reading to mankind another lesson for it to disregard. 

The Forty-seventh Proposition is older than Pythagoras. It is this: "In every right-angled triangle, the 
sum of the squares of the base and perpendicular is equal to the square of the hypothenuse". 

The square of a number is the product of that number, multiplied by itself. Thus, 4 is the square of 2, 

The first ten numbers are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 

i *-"i -'J ') •"'J w 5 'i w ? ■* ) J - v -'? 

their squares are 1, 4, 9,16,25,36,49,64,81,100; 

and 3, 5, 7, 9,11,13,15,17, 19 

are the differences between each square and that which precedes it; giving us the sacred numbers, 3, 5, 
7, and 9 

Of these numbers, the square of 3 and 4, added together, gives the square of 5; and those of 6 and 8, the 
square of 10; and if a right-angled triangle be formed, the base measuring 3 or 6 parts, and the 
perpendicular 4 or 8 parts, the hypothenuse will be 5 or 10 parts; and if a square is erected on each side, 
these squares being subdivided into squares each side of which is one part in length, there will be as 
many of these in the square erected on the hypothenuse as in the other two squares together. 

Now the Egyptians arranged their deities in Triads the FATHER or the Spirit or Active Principle or 
Generative Power; the MOTHER, or Matter, or the Passive Principle, or the Conceptive Power; and the 
SON, Issue or Product, the Universe, proceeding from the two principles. These were OSRIS, ISIS, and 
HORUS. In the samé way, PLATO gives us thought the Father; Primitive Matter the Mother; and 
Kosmos the World, the Son, the Universe animated by a soul. Triads of the samé kind are found in the 

PLUTARCH says, in his book De Iside et Osiride, "But the better and diviner nature consists of three, 
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that which exists within the Intellect only, and Matter, and that which proceeds from these, which the 
Greeks call Kosmos; of which three, Plato is wont to call the Intelligible, the 'Idea, Exemplár, and 
Fatheť, Matter, 'the Mother, the Nurse, and the pláce and receptacle of generation'; and the issue of 
these two, 'the Offspring and Genesis,'" the KOSMOS, "a word signifying equally Beauty and Order, or 
the Universe itself." You will not fail to notice that Beauty is symbolized by the Junior Warden in the 
South. Plutarch continues to say that the Egyptians compared the universal nature to what they called 
the most beautiful and perfect triangle, as Plato does, in that nuptial diagram, as it is termed, which he 
has introduced into his Commonwealth. When he adds that this triangle is right-angled, and its sides 
respectively as 3, 4, and 5; and he says, "We must suppose that the perpendicular is designed by them to 
represent the masculine nature, the base the feminine, and that the hypothenuse is to be looked upon as 
the offspring of both; and accordingly the first of them will aptly enough represent OSIRIS, or the 
prime cause; the second, ISIS, or the receptive capacity; the last, HORUS, or the common effect of the 
other two. For 3 is the first number which is composed of even and odd; and 4 is a square whose side is 
equal to the even number 2; but 5, being generated, as it were, out of the preceding numbers, 2 and 3, 
may be said to háve an equal relation to both of them, as to its common parents." 

The clasped hands is another symbol which was ušed by PYTHAGORAS. It represented the number 
10, the sacred number in which all the preceding numbers were contained; the number expressed by the 
mysterious TERACTYS, a figuře borrowed by him and the Hebrew priests alike from the Egyptian 
sacred science, and which ought to be replaced among the symbols of the Masteťs degree, where it of 
right belongs. The Hebrews formed it thus, with the letters of the Divine name: 

The Tetractys thus leads you, not only to the study of the Pythagorean philosophy as to numbers, but 
also to the Kabalah, and will aid you in discovering the True Word, and understanding what was meant 
by "The Music of the Spheres". Modern science strikingly confirms the ideas of Pythagoras in regard 
to the properties of numbers, and that they govern in the Universe. Long before his time, nature had 
extracted her cube-roots and her squares. 

All the FORCES at man's disposal or under man's control, or subject to man's influence, are his 
working tools. The friendship and sympathy that knit heart to heart are a force like the attraction of 
cohesion, by which the sandy particles became the solid rock. If this law of attraction or cohesion were 
taken away, the materiál worlds and suns would dissolve in an instant into thin invisible vapor. If the 
ties of friendship, affection, and love were annulled, mankind would become a raging multitude of wild 
and savage beasts of prey. The sand hardens into rock under the immense superincumbent pressure of 

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the oceán, aided sometimes by the irresistible energy of fire; and when the pressure of calamity and 
danger is upon an order or a country, the members or the citizens ought to be the more dosely united by 
the cohesion of sympathy and inter-dependence. 

Morality is a force. It is the magnetic attraction of the heart toward Truth and Virtue. The needle, 
imbued with this mystic property, and pointing unerringly to the north, carries the mariner safely over 
the trackless oceán, through storm and darkness, until his glad eyes behold the beneficent beacons that 
welcome him to safe and hospitable harbor. Then the hearts of those who love him are gladdened, and 
his home made happy; and this gladness and happiness are due to the silent, unostentatious, unerring 
monitor that was the sailoťs guide over the weltering waters. But if drifted too far north ward, he finds 
the needle no longer true, but pointing elsewhere than to the north, what a feeling of helplessness falls 
upon the dismayed mariner, what utter loss of energy and courage! It is as if the great axioms of 
morality were to fail and be no longer true, leaving the human soul to drift helplessly, eyeless like 
Prométheus, at the mercy of the uncertain, faithless currents of the deep. 

Honor and Duty are the pole-stars of a Mason, the Dioscuri, by nevěr losing sight of which he may 
avoid disastrous shipwreck. These Palinurus watched, until, overcome by sleep, and the vessel no longer 
guided truly, he fell into and was swallowed up by the insatiable sea. So the Mason who loses sight of 
these, and is no longer governed by their beneficent and potential force, is lost, and sinking out of sight, 
will disappear unhonored and unwept. 

The force of electricity, analogous to that of sympathy, and by means of which great thoughts or base 
suggestions, the utterances of noble or ignoble natures, flash instantaneously over the nerveš of nations; 
the force of growth, fit type of immortality, Iying dormant three thousand years in the wheat-grains 
buried with their mummies by the old Egyptians; the forces of expansion and contraction, developed in 
the earthquake and the tornádo, and giving birth to the wonderful achievements of steam, háve their 
parallelisms in the moral world, in individuals, and nations. Growth is a necessity for nations as for 
men. Its cessation is the beginning of decay. In the nation as well as the plant it is mysterious, and it is 
irresistible. The earthquakes that rend nations asunder, overturn thrones, and engulf monarchies and 
republics, háve been long prepared for, like the volcanic eruption. Revolutions háve long roots in the 
past. The force exerted is in direct proportion to the previous restraint and compression. The true 
statesman ought to see in progress the causes that are in due time to produce them; and he who does not 
is but a blind leader of the blind. 

The great changes in nations, like the geological changes of the earth, are slowly and continuously 
wrought. The waters, falling from Heaven as rain and dews, slowly disintegrate the granite mountains; 
abrade the plains, leaving hills and ridges of denudation as their monuments; scoop out the valleys, fill 
up the seas, narrow the rivers, and after the lapse of thousands on thousands of silent centuries, prepare 
the great alluvia for the growth of that plant, the snowy envelope of whose seeds is to employ the looms 

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of the world, and the abundance or penury of whose crops shall determine whether the weavers and 
spinners of other realms shall háve work to do or starve. 

So Public Opinion is an immense force; and its currents are as inconstant and incomprehensible as 
those of the atmosphere. Nevertheless, in free governments, it is omnipotent; and the business of the 
statesman is to find the means to shape, control, and direct it. According as that is doně, it is beneficial 
and conservative, or destructive and ruinous. The Public Opinion of the civilized world is International 
Law; and it is so great a force, though with no certain and fixed boundaries, that it can even constrain 
the victorious despot to be generous, and aid an oppressed people in its struggle for independence. 

Hábit is a great force; it is second nature, even in trees. It is as strong in nations as in men. So also are 
Prejudices, which are given to men and nations as the passions are, as forces, valuable, if properly and 
skillfully availed of; destructive, if unskillfully handled. 

Above all, the Love of Country, State Pride, the Love of Home, are forces of immense power. 
Encourage them all. Insist upon them in your public men. Permanency of home is necessary to 
patriotism. A migratory race will háve little love of country. State pride is a mere theory and chiméra, 
where men remove from State to State with indifference, like the Arabs, who camp here to-day and 
there to-morrow. 

If you háve Eloquence, it is a mighty force. See that you use it for good purposes-to teach, exhort, 
ennoble the people, and not to mislead and corrupt them. Corrupt and venal orators are the assassins of 
the public liberties and of public morals. 

The Will is a force; its limits as yet unknown. It is in the power of the will that we chiefly see the 
spirituál and divine in man. There is a seeming identity between his will that moves other men, and the 
Creative Will whose action seems so incomprehensible. It is the men of will and action, not the men of 
pure intellect, that govern the world. 

Finally, the three greatest moral forces are FAITH, which is the only true WISDOM, and the very 
foundation of all government; HOPE, which is STRENGTH, and insures success; and CHARITY, 
which is BEAUTY, and alone makes animated, united effort possible. These forces are within the reach 
of all men; and an association of men, actuated by them, ought to exercise an immense power in the 
world. If Masonry does not, it is because she has ceased to possess them. 

Wisdom in the man or statesman, in king or priest, largely consists in the due appreciation of these 
forces; and upon the generál non- appreciation of some of them the fate of nations often depends. What 

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hecatombs of lives often hang upon the not weighing or not sumciently weighing the force of an idea, 
such as, for example, the reverence for a flag, or the blind attachment to a form or constitution of 

What errors in political economy and statesmanship are committed in consequence of the over- 
estimation or under-estimation of particular values, or the non-estimation of some among them! 
Everything, it is asserted, is the product of human labor; but the gold or the diamond which one 
accidentally finds without labor is not so. What is the value of the labor bestowed by the husbandman 
upon his crops, compared with the value of the sunshine and rain, without which his labor avails 
nothing? Commerce carried on by the labor of man, adds to the value of the products of the field, the 
mine, or the workshop, by their transportation to different markcts; but how much of this increase is 
due to the rivers down which these products float, to the winds that urge the keels of commerce over the 

Who can estimate the value of morality and manliness in a State, of moral worth and intellectual 
knowledge? These are the sunshine and rain of the State. The winds, with their changeable, fickle, 
fluctuating currents, are apt emblems of the fickle humors of the populace, its passions, its heroic 
impulses, its enthusiasms. Woe to the statesman who does not estimate these as values! 

Even music and song are sometimes found to háve an incalculable value. Every nation has some song 
of a proven value, more easily counted in lives than dollars. The Marseillaise was worth to 
revolutionary France, who shall say how many thousand men? 

Peace also is a great element of prosperity and wealth; a value not to be calculated. Sociál intercourse 
and association of men in beneficent Orders háve a value not to be estimated in coin. The illustrious 
examples of the Past of a nation, the memories and immortal thoughts of her great and wise thinkers, 
statesmen, and heroes, are the invaluable legacy of that Past to the Present and Future. And all these 
háve not only the values of the loftier and more excellent and priceless kind, but also an actual money- 
value, since it is only when co-operating with or aided or enabled by these, that human labor creates 
wealth. They are of the chief elements of materiál wealth, as they are of national manliness, heroism, 
glory, prosperity, and immortal renown. 

Providence has appointed the three great disciplines of War, the Monarchy and the Priesthood, all that 
the CAMP, the PALÁCE, and the TEMPLE may symbolize, to train the multitudes forward to 
intelligent and premeditated combinations for all the great purposes of society. The result will at length 
be free governments among men, when virtue and intelligence become qualities of the multitudes; but 
for ignorance such governments are impossible. Man advances only by degrees. The removal of one 
pressing calamity gives courage to attempt the removal of the remaining evils, rendering men more 

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sensitive to them, or perhaps sensitive for the first time. Serfs that writhe under the whip are not 
disquieted about their political rights; manumitted from personál slavery, they be come sensitive to 
political oppression. Liberated from arbitrary power, and governed by the law alone, they begin to 
scrutinize the law itself, and desire to be governed, not only by law, but by what they deem the best law. 
And when the civil or temporal despotism has been set aside, and the municipal law has been moulded 
on the principles of an enlightened jurisprudence, they may wake to the discovery that they are living 
under some priestly or ecclesiastical despotism, and become desirous of working a reformation there 

It is quite true that the advance of humanity is slow, and that it often pauses and retrogrades. In the 
kingdoms of the earth we do not see despotisms retiring and yielding the ground to self-governing 
communities. We do not see the churches and priesthoods of Christendom relinquishing their old task 
of governing men by imaginary terrors. Nowhere do we see a populace that could be safely manumitted 
from such a government. We do not see the great religious teachers aiming to discover truth for 
themselves and for others; but still ruling the world, and contented and compelled to rule the world, by 
whatever dogma is already accredited; themselves as much bound down by this necessity to govern, as 
the populace by their need of government. Poverty in all its most hideous forms still exists in the great 
cities; and the cancer of pauperism has its roots in the hearts of kingdoms. Men there také no measure 
of their wants and their own power to supply them, but live and multiply like the beasts of the field, 
Providence having apparently ceased to care for them. Intelligence nevěr visits these, or it makes its 
appearance as some new development of villainy. War has not ceased; still there are battles and sieges. 
Homes are still unhappy, and tears and anger aud špite make hells where there should be heavens. So 
much the more necessity for Masonry! So much wider the field of its labors! So much the more need 
for it to begin to be true to itself, to revive from its asphyxia, to repent of its apo stasy to its true creed! 

Undoubtedly, labor and death and the sexual passion are essential and permanent conditions of human 
existence, and render perfection and a millennium on earth impossible. Always, it is the decree of Fate! 
The vast majority of men must toil to live, and cannot find time to cul ti vatě the intelligence. Man, 
knowing he is to die, will not sacrifice the present enjoyment for a greater one in the future. The love of 
woman cannot die out; and it has a terrible and uncontrollable fate, increased by the refinements of 
civilization. Woman is the veritable sirén or goddess of the young. But society can be improved; and 
free government is possible for States; and freedom of thought and conscience is no longer wholly 
utopian. Already we see that Emperors prefer to be elected by universal suffrage; that States are 
conveyed to Empires by vote; and that Empires are administered with something of the spirit of a 
Republic, being little else than democracies with a single head, ruling through one man, one 
representative, instead of an assembly of representatives. And if Priesthoods still govern, they now 
come before the laity to prove, by stress of argument, that they ougllt to govern. They are obliged to 
evoke the very reason which they are bent on supplanting. 

Accordingly, men become daily more free, because the freedom of the man lies in his reason. He can 
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reflect upon his own future conduct, and summon up its consequences; he can také wide views of 
human life, and lay down rules for constant guidance. Thus he is relieved of the tyranny of sense and 
passion, and enabled at any time to live according to the whole light of the knowledge that is within 
him, instead of being driven, like a dry leaf on the wings of the wind, by every present impulse. Herein 
lies the freedom of the man as regarded in connection with the necessity imposed by the omnipotence 
and fóre -knowledge of God. So much light, so much liberty. When emperor and church appeal to reason 
there is naturally universal suffrage. 

Therefore no one need lose courage, nor believe that labor in the cause of Progress will be labor wasted. 
There is no waste in nature, either of Matter, Force, Act, or Thought. A Thought is as much the end of 
life as an Action; and a single Thought sometimes works greater results than a Revolution, even 
Revolutions themselves. Still there should not be divorce between Thought and Action. The true 
Thought is that in which life culminates. But all wise and true Thought produces Action. It is 
generative, like the light; and light and the deep shadow of the passing cloud are the gifts of the 
prophets of the race. Knowledge, laboriously acquired, and inducing habits of sound Thought, the 
reflective character, must necessarily be rare. The multitude of laborers cannot acquire it. Most men 
attain to a very low standard of it. It is incompatible with the ordinary and indispensable avocations of 
life. A whole world of error as well as of labor, go to make one reflective man. In the most advanced 
nation of Europe there are more ignorant than wise, more poor than rich, more autornatic laborers, the 
mere creatures of hábit, than reasoning and reflective men. The proportion is at least a thousand to one. 
Unanimity of opinion is so obtained. It only exists among the multitude who do not think, and the 
political or spirituál priesthood who think for that multitude, who think how to guide and govern them. 
When men begin to reflect, they begin to differ. The great problém is to find guides who will not seek 
to be tyrants. This is needed even more in respect to the heart than the head. Now, every man earns his 
speciál share of the produce of human labor, by an incessant scramble, by trickery and deceit. Useful 
knowledge, honorably acquired, is too often ušed after a fashion not honest or reasonable, so that the 
studies of youth are far more noble than the practices of manhood. The labor of the farmer in his fields, 
the generous returns of the earth, the benignant and favoring skies, tend to make him earnest, provident, 
and grateful; the education of the market-place makes him querulous, crafty, envious, and an intolerable 

Masonry seeks to be this beneficent, unambitious, disinterested guide; and it is the very condition of all 
great structures that the sound of the hammer and the clink of the trowel should be always heard in 
some part of the building. With faith in man, hope for the future of humanity, loving-kindness for our 
fellows, Masonry and the Mason must always work and teach. Let each do that for which he is best 
fitted. The teacher also is a workman. Praiseworthy as the active navigátor is, who comes and goes and 
makes one clime partake of the treasures of the other, and one to share the treasures of all, he who 
keeps the beacon-light upon the hill is also at his post. 

Masonry has already helped cast down some idols from their pedestals, and grind to impalpable dust 
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some of the links of the chains that held men's souls in bondage. That there has been progress needs no 
other demonstration than that you may now reason with men, and urge upon them, without danger of 
the rack or stake, that no doctrines can be apprehended as truths if they contradict each other, or 
contradict other truths given us by God. Long before the Reformation, a monk, who had found his way 
to heresy without the help of Martin Luther, not venturine to breathe aloud into any living ear his anti- 
papal and treasonable doctrines, wrote them on parchment, and sealing up theperilous record, hid it in 
the massive walls of his monastery. There was no friend or brother to whom he could intrust his secret 
or pour forth his soul. It was some consolation to imagine that in a future age some one might find the 
parchment, and the seed be found not to háve been sown in vain. What if the truth should háve to lie 
dormant as long before germinating as the wheat in the Egyptian mummy ? Speak it, nevertheless, 
again and again, and let it také its chance! 

The rose of Jericho grows in the sandy deserts of Arabia and on the Syrian housetops. Scarcely six 
inches high, it loses its leaves after the flowering season, and dries up into the form of a balí. Then it is 
uprooted by the winds, and carried, blown, or tossed across the desert, into the sea. There, feeling the 
contact of the water, it unfolds itself, expands its branches, and expels its seeds from their seed-vessels. 
These, when saturated with water, are carried by the tide and laid on the sea-shore. Many are lost, as 
many individual lives of men are useless. But many are thrown back again from the sea-shore into the 
desert, where, by the virtue of the sea- water that they háve imbibed, the roots and leaves sprout and 
they grow into fruitful plants, which will, in their turns, like their ancestors, be whirled into the sea. 
God will not be less careful to provide for the germination of the truths you may boldly utter forth. 
"Cast" He has said, "thy bread upon the waters, and after many days it shall return to thee again". 

Initiation does not change: we find it again and again, and always the samé, through all the ages. The 
last disciples of Pascalis Martinez are still the children of Orpheus; but they adore the realizer of the 
antique philosophy, the Incarnate Word of the Christians. 

Pythagoras, the great divulger of the philosophy of numbers, visited all the sanctuaries of the world. He 
went into Judaea, where he procured himself to be circumcised, that he might be admitted to the secrets 
of the Kabalah, which the prophets Ezekiel and Daniel, not without some reservations, communicated 
to him. Then, not without some difficulty, he succeeded in being admitted to the Egyptian initiation, 
upon the recommendation of King Amasis. The power of his genius supplied the deficiencies of the 
imperfect Communications of the Hierophants, and he himself became a Master and a Revealer. 

Pythagoras defined God: a Living and Absolute Verity clothed with Light. He said that the Word was 
Number manifested by Form. He made all descend from the Tetyactys, that is to say, from the 
Quaternary. God, he said again, is the Supreme Music, the nature of which is Harmony. 

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Pythagoras gave the magistrates of Crotona this great religious, political and sociál precept: "There is 
no evil that is not preferable to Anarchy." 

Pythagoras said, "Even as there are three divine notions and free intelligible regions, so there is a triple 
word, for the Hierarehical Order always manifests itself by threes. There are the word simple, the word 
hieroglyphical, and the word symbolic: in other terms, there are the word that expresses, the word that 
conceals, and the word that signifies; the whole hieratic intelligence is in the perfect knowledge of these 
three degrees." 

Pythagoras enveloped doctrine with symbols, but carefully eschewed personifications and images, 
which, he thought, sooner or later produced idolatry. 

The Holý Kabalah, or tradition of the children of Seth, was carried from Chaldcea by Abraham, taught 
to the Egyptian priesthood by Joseph, recovered and purified by Moses, concealed under symbols in the 
Bible, revealed by the Saviour to Saint John, and contained, entire, under hieratic figures analogous to 
those of all antiquity, in the Apocalypse of that Apostle. 

The Kabalists consider God as the Intelligent, Animated, Living Infinite. He is not, for them, either the 
aggregate of existences, or existence in the abstract, or a being philosophically definable. He is in all, 
distinct from all, and greater than all. His name even is ineffable; and yet this name only expresses the 
human ideál of His divinity. What God is in Himself, it is not given to man to comprehend. 

God is the absolute of Faith; but the absolute of Reason is BEING, "I am that I am," is a wretched 

Being, Existence, is by itself, and because it Is. The reason of Being, is Being itself. We may inquire, 
"Why does something exist?" that is, "Why does such or such a thing exist?" But we cannot, without 
being absurd, ask, "Why Is Being?" That would be to suppose Being before Being. If Being had a 
cause, that cause would necessarily Be; that is, the cause and effect would be identical. 

Reason and science demonstrate to us that the modes of Existence and Being balance each other in 
equilibrium according to harmonious and hierarchie laws. But a hierarchy is synthetized, in ascending, 
and becomes ever more and more monarchial. Yet the reason cannot pause at a šimle chief, without 
being alarmed at the abysses which it seems to leave above this Supreme Monarch. Therefore it is 
silent, and gives pláce to the Faith it adores. 

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What is certain, even for science and the reason, is, that the idea of God is the grandest, the most holý, 
and the most useful of all the aspirations of man; that upon this belief morality reposes, with its eternal 
sanction. This belief, then, is in humanity, the most reál of the phenomena of being; and if it were falše, 
nature would affirm the absurd; nothingness would give form to life, and God would at the samé time 
be and not be. 

It is to this philosophic and incontestable reality, which is termed The Idea of God, that the Kabalists 
give a name. In this name all others are contained. Its cyphers contain all the numbers; and the 
hieroglyphics of its letters express all the laws and all the things of nature. 

BEING IS BEING: the reason of Being is in Being: in the Beginning is the Word, and the Word in 
logic formulated Speech, the spoken Reason; the Word is in God, and is God Himself, manifested to the 
Intelligence. Here is what is above all the philosophies. This we must believe, under the penalty of 
nevěr truly knowing anything, and relapsing into the absurd skepticism of Pyrrho. The Priesthood, 
custodian of Faith, wholly rests upon this basis of knowledge, and it is in its teachings we must 
recognize the Divine Principle of the Eternal Word. 

Light is not Spirit, as the Indián Hierophants believed it to be; but only the instrument of the Spirit. It is 
not the body of the Protoplastes, as the Theurgists of the school of Alexandria taught, but the first 
physical manifestation of the Divine afflatus. God eternally creates it, and man, in the image of God, 
modifies and seems to multiply it. 

The high magie is styled "The Sacerdotal Art," and "The Royal Art." In Egypt, Greece, and Róme, it 
could not but share the greatnesses and decadences of the Priesthood and of Royalty. Every philosophy 
hostile to the national worship and to its mysteries, was of necessity hostile to the great political powers, 
whichlose their grandeur, if they cease, in the eyes of the multitudes, to be the images of the Divine 
Power. Every Crown is shattered, when it clashes against the Tiara. 

Plato, writing to Dionysius the Younger, in regard to the nature of the First Principle, says: "I must write 
to you in enigmas, so that if my letter be intercepted by land or sea, he who shall read it may in no 
degree comprehend it." And then he says, "All things surround their King; they are, on account of Him, 
and He alone is the cause of good things, Second for the Seconds and Third for the Thřrds." 

There is in these few words a complete summary of the Theology of the Sephiroth. "The King" is 
AINSOPH, Being Supreme and Absolute. From this centre, which is everywhere, all things ray forth; 
but we especially conceive of it in three manners and in three different spheres. In the Divine world 
(AZILUTH), which is that of the First Cause, and wherein the whole Eternity of Things in the 
beginning existed as Unity, to be afterward, during Eternity uttered forth, clothed with form, and the 

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attributes that constitute them matter, the First Principle is Single and First, and yet not the VĚRY 
Illimitable Deity, incomprehensible, undefinable; but Himself in so far as manifested by the Creative 
Thought. To compare littleness with infinity, Arkwright, as inventor of the spinning-jenny, and not the 
man Arkwright otherwise and beyond that. All we can know of the Věry God is, compared to His 
Wholeness, only as an infinitesimal fraction of a unit, compared with an infinity of Units. In the World 
of Creation, which is that of Second Causes [the Kabalistic World BRIAH], the Autocracy of the First 
Principle is complete, but we conceive of it only as the Cause of the Second Causes. Here it is 
manifested by the Binary, and is the Creative Principle passive. Finally: in the third world, YEZIRAH, 
or of Formation, it is revealed in the perfect Form, the Form of Forms, the World, the Supreme Beauty 
and Excellence, the Created Perfection. Thus the Principle is at once the First, the Second, and the 
Third, since it is All in All, the Centre and Cause of all. It is not the genius of Plato that we here 
admire. We recognize only the exact knowledge of the Initiate. 

The great Apostle Saint John did not borrow from the philosophy of Plato the opening of his Gospel. 
Plato, on the contrary, drank at the samé springs with Saint John and Philo; and John in the opening 
verses of his paraphrase, states the first principles of a dogma common to many schools, but in 
language especially belonging to Bhilo, whom it is evident he had read. The philosophy of Plato, the 
greatest of human Revealers, could yearn toward the Word made man; the Gospel alone could give him 
to the world. 

Doubt, in presence of Being and its harmonies; skepticism, in the face of the eternal mathematics and 
the immutable laws of Life which make the Divinity present and visible everywhere, as the Human is 
known and visible by its utterances of word and act, is this not the most foolish of superstitions, and the 
most inexcusable as well as the most dangerous of all credulities ? Thought, we know, is not a result or 
consequence of the organization of matter, of the chemical or other action or reaction of its particles, 
like effervescence and gaseous explosions. On the contrary, the fact that Thought is manifested and 
realized in act human or act divine, proves the existence of an Entity, or Unity, that thinks. And the 
Universe is the Infinite Utterance of one of an infinite number of Infinite Thoughts, which cannot but 
emanate from an Infinite and Thinking Source. 

The cause is always equal, at least, to the effect; and matter cannot think, nor could it cause itself, or 
exist without cause, nor could nothing produce either forces or things; for in void nothingness no Forces 
can inhere. Admit a self-existent Force, and its Intelligence, or an Intelligent cause of it is admitted, and 
at once GOD Is. 

The Hebrew allegory of the Fall of Man, which is but a speciál variation of a universal legend, 
symbolizes one of the grandest and most universal allegories of science. 

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Moral Evil is Falsehood in actions, as Falsehood is Crime in words. Injustice is the essence of 
Falsehood; and every falše word is an injustice. Injustice is the death of the Moral Being, as Falsehood 
is the poison of the Intelligence. 

The perception of the Light is the dawn of the Eternal Life, in Being. The Word of God, which creates 
the Light, seems to be uttered by every Intelligence that can také cognizance of Forms and will look. 
"Let the Light BE! The Light, in fact, exists, in its condition of splendor, for those eyes alone that gáze 
at it; and the Soul, amorous of the spectacle of the beauties of the Universe, and applying its attention 
to that luminous writing of the Infinite Book, which is called "The Visible," seems to utter, as God did 
on the dawn of the first day, that sublime and creative word, "BE! LIGHT!" 

It is not beyond the tomb, but in life itself, that we are to seek for the mysteries of death. Salvation or 
reprobation begins here below, and the terrestrial world too has its Heaven and its Hell. Always, even 
here below, virtue is rewarded; always, even here below, vice is polished; and that which makes us 
sometimes believe in the impunity of evil-doers is that riches, those instruments of good and of evil, 
seem sometimes to be given them at hazard. But woe to unjust men, when they possess the key of gold ! 
It opens, for them, only the gate of the tomb and of Hell. All the true Initiates háve recognized the 
usefulness of toil and sorrow. "Sorrow," says a German poet, "is the dog of that unknown shepherd who 
guides the flock of men." To learn to suffer, to learn to die, is the disciplině of Eternity, the immortal 

The allegorical picture of Cebes, in which the Divine Comedy of Dante was sketched in Plato's time, 
the description whereof has been preserved for us, and which many painters of the middle age háve 
reproduced by this description, is a monument at once philosophical and magical. It is a most complete 
moral synthesis, and at the samé time the most audacious demonstration ever given of the Grand 
Arcanum, of that secret whose revelation would overturn Earth and Heaven. Let no one expect us to 
give them its explanation! He who passes behind the veil that hides this mystery, understands that it is 
in its very nature inexplicable, and that it is death to those who win it by surprise, as well as to him who 
reveals it. 

This secret is the Royalty of the Sages, the Crown of the Initiate whom we see redescend victorious 
from the summit of Trials, in the fine allegory of Cebes. The Grand Arcanum makes him master of 
gold and the light, which are at bottom the samé thing, he has solved the problém of the quadrature of 
the circle, he directs the perpetual movement, and he possesses the philosophical stone. Here the 
Adepts will understand us. There is neither interruption in the toil of nature, nor gap in her work. The 
Harmonies of Heaven correspond to those of Earth, and the Eternal Life accomplishes its evolutions in 
accordance with the samé laws as the life of a dog. "God has arranged all things by weight, number, and 
measure," says the Bible; and this luminous doctrine was also that of Plato. 

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Humanity has nevěr really had but one religion and one worship. This universal light has had its 
uncertain mirages, its deceitful reflections, and its shadows; but always, after the nights of Error, we see 
it reappear, one and pure like the Sun. 

The magnificences of worship are the life of religion, and if Christ wishes poor ministers, His 
Sovereign Divinity does not wish paltry altars. Some Protestants háve not comprehended that worship 
is a teaching, and that we must not create in the imagination of the multitude a mean or miserable God. 
Those oratories that resemble poorly-furnished offices or inns, and those worthy ministers clad like 
notaries or lawyeťs clerks, do they not necessarily cause religion to be regarded as a mere puritanic 
formality, and God as a Justice of the Peace? 

We scoff at the Augurs. It is so easy to scoff, and so difficult well to comprehend. Did the Deity leave 
the whole world without Light for two score centuries, to illuminate only a little corner of Palestině and 
a brutal, ignorant, and ungrateful people? Why always calumniate God and the Sanctuary? Were there 
nevěr any others than rogues among the priests? Could no honest and sincere men be found among the 
Hierophants of Ceres or Diana, of Dionusos or Apollo, of Hermes or Mithras? Were these, then, all 
deceived, like the rest? Who, then, constantly deceived them, without betraying themselves, during a 
series of centuries? For the cheats are not immortal ! Arago said, that outside of the pure mathematics, 
he who utters the word "impossible," is wanting in prudence and good sense. 

The true name of Satan, the Kabalists say, is that of Yahveh reversed; for Satan is not a black god, but 
the negation of God. The Devil is the personification of Atheism or Idolatry. 

For the Initiates, this is not a Person, but a Force, created for good, but which may serve for evil. It is 
the instrument of Liberty or Free Will. They represent this Force, which presides over the physical 
generation, under the mythologie and horned form of the God PAN; thence came the he-goat of the 
Sabbat, brother of the Ancient Serpent, and the Light-bearer or Phosphor, of which the poets háve made 
the falše Lucifer of the legend. 

Gold, to the eyes of the Initiates, is Light condensed. They style the sacred numbers of the Kabalah 
"golden numbers," and the moral teachings of Pythagoras his "golden verses." For the samé reason, a 
mysterious book of Apuleius, in which an ass figures largely, was called "The Golden Ass." 

The Pagans aceused the Christians of worshipping an ass, and they did not invent this reproach, but it 
came from the Samaritán Jews, who, figuring the data of the Kabalah in regard to the Divinity by 
Egyptian symbols, also represented the Intelligence by the figuře of the Magical Star adored under the 
name of Remphan, Science under the emblém of Anubis, whose name they changed to Nibbas, and the 
vulgar faith or credulity under the figuře of Thartac, a god represented with a book, a cloak, and the 

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head of an ass. According to the Samaritán Doctors, Christianity was the reign of Thartac, blind Faith 
and vulgar credulity erected into a universal oracle, and preferred to Intelligence and Science. 

Synesius, Bishop of Ptolemais, a great Kabalist, but of doubtful orthodoxy, wrote: 

"The people will always mock at things easy to be misunderstood; it must needs háve impostures." 

"A Spirit," he said, "that loves wisdom and contemplates the Trufh close at hand, is forced to disguise 
it, to induce the multitudes to accept it. Fictions are necessary to the people, and the Tram becomes 
deadly to those who are not strong enough to contemplate it in all its brilliance. If the sacerdotal laws 
allowed the reservation of judgments and the allegory of words, I would accept the proposed dignity on 
condition that I might be a philosopher at home, and abroad a narrator of apologues and parables. In 
fact, what can there be in common between the vile multitude and sublime wisdom? The truth must be 
kept secret, and the masses need a teaching proportioned to their imperfect reason." 

Moral disorders produce physical ugliness, and in some sort realize those frightful faces which tradition 
assigns to the demons. 

The first Druids were the true children of the Magi, and their initiation came from Egypt and Chaldaea, 
that is to say, from the pure sources of the primitive Kabalah. They adored the Trinity under the names 
of Isis or Hesus, the Supreme Harmony; of Belerl or Bel, which in Assyrian means Lord, a name 
corresponding to that of ADONAI; and of Camul or Camael, a name that in the Kabalah personifies the 
Divine Justice. Below this triangle of Light they supposed a divine reflection, also composed of three 
personified rays: first, Teutates or Teuth, the samé as the Thoth of the Egyptians, the Word, or the 
Intelligence formulated; then Force and Beauty, whose names varied like their emblems. Finally, they 
completed the sacred Septenary by a mysterious image that represented the progress of the dogma and 
its future realizations. This was a young girl veiled, holding a child in her arms; and they dedicated this 
image to "The Virgin who will become a moťher;-Virgini pariturae". 

Hertha or Wertha, the young Isis of Gaul, Queen of Heaven, the Virgin who was to bear a child, held 
the spindle of the Fates, filled with wool half white and half black; because she presides over all forms 
and all symbols, and weaves the garment of the Ideas. 

One of the most mysterious pantacles of the Kabalah, contained in the Enchiridion of Leo III., 
represents an equilateral triangle reversed, inscribed in a double circle. On the triangle are written, in 
such manner as to form the prophetic Tau, the two Hebrew words so often found appended to the 
Ineffable Name, and ALOHAYIM, or the Powers, and TSABAOTH, or the starry Armies and their 

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guiding spirits; words also which symbolize the Equilibrium of the Forces of Nature and the Harmony 
of Numbers. To the three sides of the triangle belong the three great Names IAHAVEH, ADONAI, and 
AGLA. Above the first is written in Latin, Formatio, above the second Reformatio, and above the third, 
Transformation. So Creation is ascribed to the FATHER, Redemption or Reformation to the SON, and 
Sanctification or Transformation to the HOLÝ SPIRIT, answering unto the mathematical laws of 
Action, Reaction, and Equilibrium. IAHAVEH is also, in effect, the Genesis or Formation of dogma, by 
the elementary signification of the four letters of the Sacred Tetragram; ADONAI; is the realization of 
this dogma in the Human Form, in the Visible LORD, who is the Son of God or the perfect Man; and 
AGLA (formed of the initials of the four words Ath Gebur Laulaim Adonai) expresses the synthesis of 
the whole dogma and the totality of the Kabali.stic science, clearly indicating by the hieroglyphics of 
which this admirable name is formed the Triple Secret of the Great Work. 

Masonry, like all the Religions, all the Mysteries, Hermeticism and Alchemy, conceals its secrets from 
all except the Adepts and Sages, or the Elect, and uses falše explanations and misinterpretations of its 
symbols to mislead those who deserve only to be misled; to conceal the Truth, which it calls Light, 
from tilem, and todraw them away from it. Truth is not for those who are unworthy or unable to receive 
it, or would pervert it. So God Himself incapacitates many men, by color-blindness, to distinguish 
colors, and leads the masses away from the highest Truth, giving them the power to attain only so much 
of it as it is profitable to them to know. Every age has had a religion suited to its capacity. 

The Teachers, even of Christianity, are, in generál, the most ignorant of the true meaning of that which 
they teach. There is no book of which so little is known as the Bible. To most who read it, it is as 
incomprehensible as the Sohar. 

So Masonry jealously conceals its secrets, and intentionally leads conceited interpreters astray. There is 
no sight under the sun more pitiful and ludicrous at once, than the spectacle of the Prestons and the 
Webbs, not to mention the later incarnations of Dullness and Commonplace, undertaking to "explain" 
the old symbols of Masonry, and adding to and "improving" them, or inventing new ones. 

To the Circle inclosing the centrál point, and itself traced between two parallel lineš, a figuře purely 
Kabalistic, these persons háve added the superimposed Bible, and even reared on that the ladder with 
three or nine rounds, and then given a vapid interpretation of the whole, so profoundly absurd as 
actually to excite admiration. 


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MASONRY is a succession of allegories, the mere vehicles of great lessons in morality and philosophy. 
You will more fully appreciate its spirit, its object, its purposes, as you advance in the different 
Degrees, which you will find to constitute a great, complete, and harmonious systém. 

If you háve been disappointed in the first three Degrees, as you háve received them, and if it has seemed 
to you that the performance has not come up to the promise, that the lessons of morality are not new, 
and the scientific instruction is but rudimentary, and the symbols are imperfectly explained, remember 
that the ceremonies and lessons of those Degrees háve been for ages more and more accommodating 
themselves, by curtailment and sinking into commonplace, to the often limited memory and capacity of 
the Master and Instructor, and to the intellect and needs of the Pupil and Initiate; that they háve come to 
us from an age when symbols were ušed, not to reveal but to conceal; when the commonest learning 
was confined to a select few, and the simplest principles of morality seemed newly discovered truths; 
and that these antique and simple Degrees now stand like the broken columns of a roofless Druidic 
temple, in their rudé and mutilated greatness; in many parts, also, corrupted by time, and disfigured by 
modern additions and absurd interpretations. They are but the entrance to the great Masonic Temple, 
the triple columns of the portico. 

You háve taken the first step over its threshold, the first step toward the inner sanctuary and heart of the 
temple. You are in the path that leads up the slope of the mountain of Truth; and it depends upon your 
secrecy, obedience, and fidelity, whether you will advance or remain stationary. 

Imagine not that you will become indeed a Mason by learning what is commonly called the "work," or 
even by becoming familiar with our traditions. Masonry has a history, a literatuře, a philosophy. Its 
allegories and traditions will teach you much; but much is to be sought elsewhere. The streams of 
learning that now flow full and broad must be followed to their heads in the springs that well up in the 
remote past, and you will there find the origin and meaning of Masonry. 

A few rudimentary lessons in architecture, a few universally admitted maxims of morality, a few 
unimportant traditions, whose reál meaning is unknown or misunderstood, will no longer satisfy the 
earnest inquirer after Masonic truth. Let whoso is content with these, seek to climb no higher. He who 
desires to understand the harmonious and beautiful proportions of Freemasonry must read, study, 
reflect, digest, and discriminate. The true Mason is an ardent seeker after knowledge; and he knows that 
both books and the antique symbols of Masonry are vessels which come down to us full-freighted with 
the intellectual riches of the Past; and that in the lading of these argosies is much that sheds light on the 
history of Masonry, and proves its claim to be acknowledged the benefactor of mankind, born in the 
very cradle of the race. 

Knowledge is the most genuine and reál of human treasures; for it is Light, as Ignorance is Darkness. It 
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is the development of the human soul, and its acquisition the growth of the soul, which at the birth of 
man knows nothing, and therefore, in one sense, may be said to be nothing. It is the seed, which has in 
it the power to grow, to acquire, and by acquiring to be developed, as the seed is developed into the 
shoot, the plant, the tree. "We need not pause at the common argument that by learning man excelleth 
man, in that wherein man excelleth beasts; that by learning man ascendeth to the heavens and their 
motions, where in body he cannot come, and the like. Let us rather regard the dignity and excellency of 
knowledge and learning in that whereunto man's nature doth most aspire, which is immortality or 
continuance. For to this tendeth generation, and raising of Houses and Families; to this buildings, 
foundations, and monuments; to this tendeth the desire of memory, fame, and celebration, and in effect 
the strength of all other human desires." That our influences shall survive us, and be living forces when 
we are in our graves; and no merely that our names shall be remembered; but rather that our works shall 
be read, our acts spoken of, our names recollected an mentioned when we are dead, as evidences that 
those influences live and rule, sway and control some portion of mankind and of the world, this is the 
aspiration of the human soul. "We see then how far the monuments of genius and learning are more 
durable than monuments of power or of the hands. For háve not the verses of Homer continued twenty- 
five hundred years or more, without the loss of a syllable or letter, during which time infinite palaces, 
temples, castles, cities, háve decayed and been demolished? It is no possible to háve the true pictures or 
statues of Cyrus, Alexander Caesar, no, nor of the Kings or great personages of much latě years; for the 
originals cannot last, and the copies cannot but lose of the life and truth. But the images of men's genius 
and knowledge remain in books, exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of perpetual 
renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and cast their seeds in 
the minds of others, provoking and causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding ages; so that if 
the invention of the ship was thought so noble, which carrieth riches and commodities from pláce to 
pláce, and consociateth the most remote regions in participation of their fruits, how much more are 
letters to be magnified which, as ships, pass through the vast seas of time, and make age so distant to 
participate of the wisdom, illumination, and inventions, the one of the other." 

To learn, to attain knowledge, to be wise, is a necessity for ever truly noble soul; to teach, to 
communicate that knowledge, to share that wisdom with others, and not churlishly to lock up his 
exchequer, and pláce a sentinel at the dooř to drive away the needy, is equally an impulse of a noble 
nature, and the worthies work of man. 

"There was a little city," says the Preacher, the son of David "and few men within it; and there came a 
great King against it and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now there was found in it a 
poor wise man, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that samé poor man. 
Then said I, wisdom is better than strength: nevertheless, the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his 
words are not heard." If it should chance to you, my brother, to do mankind good service, and be 
rewarded with indifference and forgetfulness only, still be not discouraged, but remember the further 
advice of the wise King. "In the morning sow the seed, and in the evening withhold not thy hand; for 
thou knowest not which shall prosper, this or that, or whether both shall be alike good." Sow you the 
seed, whoever reaps. Learn, that you may be enabled to do good; and do so because it is right, finding 

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in the act itself ample reward and recompense. 

To attain the truth, and to serve our fellows, our country, and mankind this is the noblest destiny of 
man. Hereafter and all your life it is to be your object. If you desire to ascend to that destiny, advance! If 
you háve other and less noble objects, and are contented with a lower flight, halt here ! let others scale 
the heights, and Masonry fulfill her mission. 

If you will advance, gird up your loins for the struggle! For the way is long and toilsome. Pleasure, all 
smiles, will beckon you on the one hand, and Indolence will invite you to sleep among the flowers, 
upon the other. Prepare, by secrecy, obedience, and fidelity, to resist the allurements of both! 

Secrecy is indispensable in a Mason of whatever Degree. It is the first and almost the only lesson taught 
to the Entered Apprentice. The obligations which we háve each assumed toward every Mason that lives, 
requiring of us the performance of the most serious and onerous duties toward those personally 
unknown to us until they demand our aid, duties that must be performed, even at the risk of life, or our 
solemn oaths be broken and violated, and we be branded as falše Masons and faithless men, teach us 
how profound a foliy it would be to betray our secrets to those who, bound to us by no tie of common 
obligation, might, by obtaining them, call on us in their extremity, when the urgency of the occasion 
should allow us no time for inquiry, and the peremptory mandáte of our obligation compel us to do a 
brotheťs duty to a base impostor. 

The secrets of our brother, when communicated to us, must be sacred, if they be such as the law of our 
country warrants us to keep. We are required to keep none other, when the law that we are called on to 
obey is indeed a law, by having emanated from the only source of power, the People. Edicts which 
emanate from the mere arbitrary will of a despotic power, contrary to the law of God or the Great Law 
of Nature, destructive of the inherent rights of man, violative of the right of free thought, free speech, 
free conscience, it is lawful to rebel against and strive to abrogate. 

For obedience to the Law does not mean submission to tyranny nor that, by a profligate sacrifice of 
every noble feeling, we should offer to despotism the homage of adulation. As every new victim falls, 
we may lift our voice in still louder flattery. We may fall at the proud feet, we may beg, as a boon, the 
honour of kissing that bloody hand which has been lifted against the helpless. We may do more: we 
may bring the altar and the sacrifice, and implore the God not to ascend too soon to Heaven. This we 
may do, for this we háve the sad remembrance that beings of a human form and soul háve doně. But 
this is all we can do. We can constrain our tongues to be falše, our features to bend themselves to the 
semblance of that passionate adoration which we wish to express, our knees to fall prostrate; but our 
heart we cannot constrain. There virtue must still háve a voice which is not to be drowned by hymns and 
acclamations; there the crimes which we laud as virtues, are crimes still, and he whom we háve made a 

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God is the most contemptible of mankind; if, indeed, we do not feel, perhaps, that we are ourselves still 
more contemptible. 

But that law which is the fair expression of the will and judgment of the people, is the enactment of the 
whole and of every individual. Consistent with the law of God and the great law of nature, consistent 
with pure and abstract right as tempered by necessity and the generál interest, as contra-distinguished 
from the private interest of individuals, it is obligatory upon all, because it is the work of all, the will of 
all, the solemn judgment of all, from which there is no appeal. 

In this Degree, my brother, you are especially to learn the duty of obedience to that law. There is one 
true and originál law, conformable to reason and to nature, diffused over all, invariable, eternal, which 
calls to the fulfillment of duty and to abstinence from injustice, and calls with that irresistible voice 
which is felt 1 in all its authority wherever it is heard. This law cannot be abrogated or diminished, or its 
sanctions affected, by any law of man. A whole senáte, a whole people, cannot dissent from its 
paramount obligation. It requires no commentator to render it distinctly intelligible: nor is it one thing 
at Róme, another at Athens; one thing now, and another in the ages to come; but in all times and in all 
nations, it is, and has been, and will be, one and everlasting; one as that God, its great Author and 
Promulgator, who is the Common Sovereign of all mankind, is Himself One. No man can disobey it 
without flying, as it were, from his own bosom, and repudiating his nature; and in this very act he will 
inflict on himself the severest of retributions, even though he escape what is regarded as punishment. 

It is our duty to obey the laws of our country, and to be careful that prejudice or passion, fancy or 
affection, error and illusion, be not mistaken for conscience. Nothing is more usual than to pretend 
conscience in all the actions of man which are public and cannot be concealed. The disobedient refuse 
to submit to the laws, and they also in many cases pretend conscience; and so disobedience and 
rebellion become conscience, in which there is neither knowledge nor revelation, nor truth nor charity, 
nor reason nor religion. Conscience is tied to laws. Right or sure conscience is right reason reduced to 
practice, and conducting moral actions, while perverse conscience is seated in the fancy or affections a 
heap of irregular principles and irregular defects and is the samé in conscience as deformity is in the 
body, or peevishness in the affections. 

It is not enough that the conscience be taught by nature; but it must be taught by God, conducted by 
reason, made operative by discourse, assisted by choice, instructed by laws and sober principles; and 
then it is right, and it may be sure. All the generál measures of justice, are the laws of God, and 
therefore they constitute the generál rules of government for the conscience; but necessity also hath a 
large voice in the arrangement of human affairs, and the disposal of human relations, and the 
dispositions of human laws; and these generál measures, like a great river into little streams, are 
deduced into little rivulets and particularities, by the laws and customs, by the sentences and 
agreements of men, and by the absolute despotism of necessity, that will not allow perfect and abstract 

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justice and equity to be the sole rule of civil government in an imperfect world; and that must needs be 
law which is for the greatest good of the greatest number. 

When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it. It is better thou shouldest not vow than thou 
shouldest vow and not pay. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter anything 
before God: for God is in Heaven, and thou art upon earth; therefore let thy words be few. Weigh well 
what it is you promise; but once the promise and pledge are given remember that he who is falše to his 
obligation will be falše to his family, his friends, his country, and his God. 

Fides servailda est: Faith plighted is ever to be kept, was a maxim and an axiom even among pagans. 
The virtuous Roman said, either let not that which seems expedient be base, or if it be base, let it not 
seem expedient. What is there which that so-called expediency can bring, so valuable as that which it 
takés away, if it deprives you of the name of a good man and robs you of your integrity and honour? In 
all ages, he who violates his plighted word has been held unspeakably base. The word of a Mason, like 
the word of a knight in the times of chivalry, once given must be sacred; and the judgment of his 
brothers, upon him who violates his pledge, should be stern as the judgments of the Roman Censors 
against him who violated his oath. Good faith is revered among Masons as it was among the Romans, 
who placed its statue in the capitol, next to that of Jupiter Maximus Optimus; and we, like them, hold 
that calamity should always be chosen rather than baseness; and with the knights of old, that one should 
always die rather than be dishonoured. Be faithful, therefore, to the promises you make, to the pledges 
you give, and to the vows that you assume, since to break either is base and dishonourable. 

Be faithful to your family, and perform all the duties of a good father, a good son, a good husband, and 
a good brother. 

Be faithful to your friends; for true friendship is of a nature not only to survive through all the 
vicissitudes of life, but to continue through an endless duration; not only to stand the shock of 
conflicting opinions, and the roar of a revolution that shakes the world, but to last when the heavens are 
no more, and to spring fresh from the ruins of the universe. 

Be faithful to your country, and prefer its dignity and honour to any degree of popularity and honour for 
yourself; Consulting its interest rather than your own, and rather than the pleasure and gratification of 
the people, which are often at variance with their welfare. 

Be faithful to Masonry, which is to be faithful to the best interests of mankind. Labour, by precept and 
example, to elevate the standard of Masonic character, to enlarge its sphere of influence, to popularize 
its teachings, and to make all men know it for the Great Apostle of Peace, Harmony, and Good- will on 
earth among men; of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. 

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Masonry is useful to all men: to the learned, because it affords them the opportunity of exercising their 
talents upon subjects eminently worthy of their attention; to the illiterate, because it offers them 
important instraction; to the young, because it presents them with salutary precepts and good examples, 
and accustoms them to reflect on the proper mode of living; to the man of the world, whom it furnishes 
with noble and useful recreation; to the traveller, whom it enables to find friends and brothers in 
countries where else he would be isolated and solitary; to the worthy man in misfortune, to whom it 
gives assistance; to the afflicted, on whom it lavishes consolation; to the charitable man, whom it 
enables to do more good, by uniting with those who are charitable like himself; and to all who háve 
souls capable of appreciating its importance, and of enjoying the charms of a friendship founded on the 
samé principles of religion, morality, and philanthropy. 

A Freemason, therefore, should be a man of honour and of conscience, preferring his duty to everything 
beside, even to his life; independent in his opinions, and of good morals, submissive to the laws, 
devoted to humanity, to his country, to his family; kind and indulgent to his brethren, friend of all 
virtuous men, and ready to assist his fellows by all means in his power. 

Thus will you be faithful to yourself, to your fellows, and to God, and thus will you do honour to the 
name and rank of SECRET MASTER; which, like other Masonic honours, degrades if it is not 


The Master Khurum was an industrious and an honest man. What he was employed to do he did 
diligently, and he did it well and faithfully He received no wages that were not his due. Industry and 
honesty are the virtues peculiarly inculcated in this Degree. They are common and homely virtues; but 
not for that beneath our notice. As the bees do not love or respect the drones, so Masonry neither loves 
nor respects the idle and those who live by their wits; and least of all those parasitic acari that live upon 
themselves. For those who are indolent are likely to become dissipated and vicious; and perfect honesty, 
which ought to be the common qualification of all, is more rare than diamonds. To do earnestly and 
steadily, and to do faithfully and honestly that which we háve to do-perhaps this wants but little, when 
looked at from every point of view, of including the whole body of the moral law; and even in their 
commonest and homeliest application, these virtues belong to the character of a Perfect Master. 

Idleness is the burial of a living man. For an idle person is so useless to any purposes of God and man, 
that he is like one who is dead, unconcerned in the changes and necessities of the world; and he only 
lives to spend his time, and eat the fruits of the earth. Like a vermin or a wolf, when his time comes, he 

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dies and perishes, and in the meantime is nought. He neither ploughs nor carries burdens: all that he 
does is either unprofitable or mischievous. 

It is a vast work that any man may do, if he nevěr be idle: and it is a huge way that a man may go in 
virtue, if he nevěr go out of his way by a vicious hábit or a great crime and he who perpetually reads 
good books, if his parts be answerable, will háve a huge stock of knowledge. 

St. Ambrose, and from his example, St. Augustine, divided every day into these tertias of employment: 
eight hours they spent in the necessities of nature and recreation: eight hours in charity, in doing 
assistance to others, dispatching their business, reconciling their enmities, reproving their vices, 
correcting their errors, instructing their ignorance, and in transacting the affařrs of their dioceses; and 
the other eight hours they spent in study and prayer. 

We think, at the age of twenty, that life is much too long for that which we háve to learn and do; and 
that there is an almost fabulous distance between our age and that of our grandfather. But when, at the 
age of sixty, if we are fortunate enough to reach it, or unfortunate enough, as the čase may be, and 
according as we háve profitably invested or wasted our time, we halt, and look back along the way we 
háve come, and cast up and endeavour to balance our accounts with time and opportunity, we find that 
we háve made life much too short, and thrown away a huge portion of our time. Then we, in our mind, 
deduct from the sum total of our years the hours that we háve needlessly passed in sleep; the working- 
hours each day, during which the surface of the minďs sluggish pool has not been stirred or ruffied by a 
single thought; the days that we háve gladly got rid of, to attain some reál or fancied object that lay 
beyond, in the way between us and which stood irksomely the intervening days; the hours worse than 
wasted in follies and dissipation, or misspent in useless and unprofitable studies; and we acknowledge, 
with a sigh, that we could háve learned and doně, in half a score of years well spent, more than we háve 
doně in all our fořty years of manhood. 

To learn and to do this is the soul's work here below. The soul grows as truly as an oak grows. As the 
tree takés the carbon of the air, the dew, the rain, and the light, and the food that the earth supplies to its 
roots, and by its mysterious chemistry transmutes them into sap and fibre, into wood and leaf, and 
flower and fruit, and colour and perfume, so the soul imbibes knowledge and by a divine alchemy 
changes what it learns into its own substance, and grows from within outwardly with an inherent force 
and power like those that lie hidden in the grain of wheat. 

The soul hath its senses, like the body, that may be cultivated, enlarged, refined, as itself grows in 
stature and proportion; and he who cannot appreciate a fine painting or statue, a noble poem, a sweet 
harmony, a heroic thought, or a disinterested action, or to whom the wisdom of philosophy is but 
foolishness and babble, and the loftiest truths of less importance than the price of stocks or cotton, or 

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the elevation of baseness to once, merely lives on the level of commonplace, and fitly prides himself 
upon that inferiority of the soul's senses, which is the inferiority and imperfect development of the soul 

To sleep little, and to study much; to say little, and to hear and think much; to learn, that we may be 
able to do, and then to do, earnestly and vigorously, whatever may be required of us by duty, and by the 
good of our fellows, our country, and mankind, these are the duties of every Mason who desires to 
imitate the Master Khurum. 

The duty of a Mason as an honest man is plain and easy. It requires of us honesty in contracts, sincerity 
in arming, simplicity in bargaining, and faithfulness in performing. Lie not at all, neither in a little thing 
nor in a great, neither in the substance nor in the circumstance, neither in word nor deed: that is, 
pretend not what is falše; cover not what is true; and let the measure of your affirmation or denial be the 
understanding of your contractor; for he who deceives the buyer or the seller by speaking what is true, 
in a sense not intended or understood by the other, is a liar and a thief. A Perfect Master must avoid that 
which deceives, equally with that which is falše. 

Let your prices be according to that measure of good and evil which is established in the fame and 
common accounts of the wisest and most merciful men, skilled in that manufacture or commodity; and 
the gain such, which, without scandal, is allowed to persons in all the samé circumstances. 

In intercourse with others, do not do all which thou mayest lawfully do; but keep something within thy 
power; and, because there is a latitude of gain in buying and selling, také not thou the utmost penny that 
is lawful, or which thou thinkest so; for although it be lawful, yet it is not safe; and he who gains all that 
he can gain lawfully, this year, will possibly be tempted, next year, to gain something unlawfully. 

Let no man, for his own poverty, become more oppressing and cruel in his bargain; but quietly, 
modestly, diligently, and patiently recommend his estate to God, and follow his interest, and leave the 
success to Him. 

Detain not the wages of the hireling; for every degree of detention of it beyond the time, is injustice and 
uncharitableness, and grinds his face till tears and blood come out; but pay him exactly according to 
covenant, or according to his needs. 

Religiously keep all promises and covenants, though made to your disadvantage, though afterward you 
perceive you might háve doně better; and let not any precedent act of yours be altered by any after- 
accident. Let nothing make you break your promise, unless it be unlawful or impossible; that is, either 

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out of your nature or out of your civil power, yourself being under the power of another; or that it be 
intolerably inconvenient to yourself, and of no advantage to another; or that you háve leave expressed or 
reasonably presumed. 

Let no man také wages or fees for a work that he cannot do, or cannot with probability undertake; or in 
some sense profitably, and with ease, or with advantage manage. Let no man appropriate to his own 
use, what God, by a speciál mercy, or the Republic, hath made common; for that is against both Justice 
and Charity. 

That any man should be the worse for us, and for our direct act, and by our intention, is against the rule 
of equity, of justice, and of charity. We then do not that to others, which we would háve doně to 
ourselves; for we grow richer upon the ruins of their fortuně. 

It is not honest to receive anything from another without returning him an equivalent therefor. The 
gamester who wins the money of another is dishonest. There should be no such thing as bets and 
gaming among Masons: for no honest man should desire that for nothing which belongs to another. The 
merchant who sells an inferior article for a sound price, the speculator who makes the distresses and 
needs of others fill his exchequer are neither fair nor honest, but base, ignoble, unfit for immortality. 

It should be the earnest desire of every Perfect Master so to live and deal and act, that when it comes to 
him to die, he may be able to say, and his conscience to adjudge, that no man on earth is poorer, 
because he is richer; that what he hath he has honestly earned, and no man can go before God, and 
claim that by the rules of equity administered in His great chancery, this house in which we die, this 
land we devise to our heirs this money that enriches those who survive to bear our name, is his and not 
ours, and we in that forum are only his trustees. For it is most certain that God is just, and will sternly 
enforce every such trust; and that to all whom we despoil, to all whom we defraud, to all from whom 
we také or win anything whatever, without fair consideration and equivalent, He will decree a full and 
adequate compensation. 

Be careful, then, that thou receive no wages, here or elsewhere, that are not thy due ! For if thou doest, 
thou wrongst some one, by taking that which in Goďs chancery belongs to him; and whether that which 
thou takest thus be wealth, or rank, or influence, or reputation or affection, thou wilt surely be held to 
make full satisfaction. 

VI. INTIMATE SECRETARY. (Confidential Secretary) 

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You are especially taught in this Degree to be zealous and faithful; to be disinterested and benevolent; 
and to act the peacemaker, in čase of dissensions, disputes, and quarrels among the brethren. 

Duty is the moral magnetism which controls and guides the true Masoďs course over the tumultuous 
seas of life. Whether the stars of honour, reputation, and reward do or do not shine, in the light of day or 
in the darkness of the night of trouble and adversity, in calm or storm, that unerring magnet still shows 
him the true course to steer, and indicates with certainty where-away lies the port which not to reach 
involves shipwreck and dishonour. He follows its silent bidding, as the mariner, when land is for many 
days not in sight, and the oceán without path or landmark spreads out all around him, follows the 
bidding of the needle, nevěr doubting that it points truly to the north. To perform that duty, whether the 
performance be rewarded or unrewarded, is his sole care. And it doth not matter, though of this 
performance there may be no witnesses, and though what he does will be forever unknown to all 

A little consideration will teach us that Fame has other limits than mountains and oceans; and that he 
who places happiness in the frequent repetition of his name, may spend his life in propagating it, 
without any danger of weeping for new worlds, or necessity of passing the Atlantic sea. 

If, therefore, he who imagines the world to be filled with his actions and praises, shall subduct from the 
number of his encomiasts all those who are placed below the flight of fame, and who hear in the valley 
of life no voice but that of necessity; all those who imagine themselves too important to regard him, and 
consider the mention of his name as a usurpation of their time; all who are too much or too little 
pleased with themselves to attend to anything external; all who are attracted by pleasure, or chained 
down by pain to unvaried ideas; all who are withheld from attending his triumph by different pursuits; 
and all who slumber in universal negligence; he will find his renown straitened by nearer bounds than 
the rocks of Caucasus; and perceive that no man can be venerable or formidable, but to a small part of 
his fellow-creatures. And therefore, that we may not languish in our endeavors after excellence, it is 
necessary that, as Africanus counsels his descendants, we raise our eyes to higher prospects, and 
contemplate our future and eternal statě, without giving up our hearts to the praise of crowds, or fixing 
our hopes on such rewards as human power can bestow. 

We are not born for ourselves alone; and our country claims her share, and our friends their share of us. 
As all that the earth produces is created for the use of man, so men are created for the saké of men, that 
they may mutually do good to one another. In this we ought to také nature for our guide, and throw into 
the public stock the ounces of generál utility, by a reciprocation of duties; sometimes by receiving, 
sometimes by giving, and sometimes to cement human society by arts, by industry, and by our 

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Suffer others to be praised in thy presence, and entertain their good and glory with delight; but at no 
hand disparage them, or lessen the report, or make an objection; and think not the advancement of thy 
brother is a lessening of thy worth. Upbraid no man's weakness to him to discomfit him, neither report 
it to disparage him, neither delight to remember it to lessen him, or to set thyself above him; nor ever 
praise thyself or dispraise any man else, unless some sufficient worthy end do hallow it. 

Remember that we usually disparage others upon slight grounds and little instances; and if a man be 
highly recommended, we think him sufficiently lessened, if we can but charge one sin of foliy or 
inferiority in his account. We should either be more severe to ourselves, or less so to others, and 
consider that whatsoever good any one can think or say of us, we can telí him of many unworthy and 
foolish and perhaps worse actions of ours, any one of which, doně by another, would be enough, with 
us, to destroy his reputation. 

If we think the people wise and sagacious, and just and appreciative, when they praise and make idols 
of us, let us not call them unlearned and ignorant, and ill and stupid judges, when our neighbour is cried 
up by public fame and popular noises. 

Every man hath in his own life sins enough, in his own mind trouble enough, in his own fortunes evil 
enough, and in performance of his offices failings more than enough, to entertain his own inquiry; so 
that curiosity after the affairs of others can not be without envy and an ill mind. The generous man will 
be solicitous and inquisitive into the beauty and order of a well-governed family, and after the virtues of 
an excellent person; but anything for which men keep locks and bars, or that blushes to see the light, or 
that is either shameful in manner or private in nature, this thing will not be his care and business. 

It should be objection sufficient to exclude any man from the society of Masons, that he is not 
disinterested and generous, both in his acts, and in his opinions of men, and his constructions of their 
conduct. He who is selfish and grasping, or censorious and ungenerous, will not long remain within the 
strict limits of honesty and truth, but will shortly commit injustice. He who loves himself too much 
must needs love others too little; and he who habitually gives harsh judgment will not long delay to give 

The generous man is not careful to return no more than he receives; but prefers that the balances upon 
the ledgers of benefits shall be in his favour. He who hath received pay in full for all the benefits and 
favours that he has conferred, is like a spendthrift who has consumed his whole estate, and laments over 
an empty exchequer. He who requites my favours with ingratitude adds to, instead of diminishing, my 
wealth; and he who cannot return a favour is equally poor, whether his inability arises from poverty of 
spirit, sordidness of soul, or pecuniary indigence. 

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If he is wealthy who hath large sums invested, and the mass of whose fortuně consists in obligations 
that bind other men to pay him money, he is still more so to whom many owe large returns of 
kindnesses and favours. Beyond a moderate sum each year, the wealthy man merely invests his means: 
and that which he nevěr uses is still like favours unreturned and kindnesses unreciprocated, an actual 
and reál portion of his fortuně. 

Generosity and a liberal spirit make men to be humane and genial, open-hearted, frank, and sincere, 
earnest to do good, easy and contented, and well-wishers of mankind. They protéct the feeble against 
the strong, and the defenceless against rapacity and craft. They succour and comfort the poor, and are 
the guardians, under God, of his innocent and helpless wards. They value friends more than riches or 
fame, and gratitude more than money or power. They are noble by Goďs patent, and their escutcheons 
and quarterings are to be found in heaveďs great book of heraldry. Nor can any man any more be a 
Mason than he can be a gentleman, unless he is generous, liberal, and disinterested. To be liberal, but 
only of that which is our own; to be generous, but only when we háve first been just; to give, when to 
give deprives us of a luxury or a comfort, this is Masonry indeed. 

He who is worldly, covetous, or sensual must change before he can be a good Mason. If we are 
governed by inclination and not by duty; if we are unkind, severe, censorious, or injurious, in the 
relations or intercourse of life; if we are unfaithful parents or undutiful children; if we are harsh masters 
or faithless servants; if we are treacherous friends or bad neighbours or bitter competitors or corrupt 
unprincipled politicians or overreaching dealers in business, we are wandering at a great distance from 
the true Masonic light. 

Masons must be kind and affectionate one to another. Frequenting the samé temples, kneeling at the 
samé altars, they should feel that respect and that kindness for each other, which their common relation 
and common approach to one God should inspire. There needs to be much more of the spirit of the 
ancient fellowship among us; more tenderness for each otheťs faults, more forgiveness, more solicitude 
for each otheťs improvement and good fortuně; somewhat of brotherly feeling, that it be not shame to 
use the word "brother." 

Nothing should be allowed to interfere with that kindness and affection: neither the spirit of business, 
absorbing, eager, and overreaching, ungenerous and hard in its dealings, keen and bitter in its 
competitions, low and sordid in its purposes; nor that of ambition, selfish, mercenary, restless, 
circumventing, living only in the opinion of others, envious of the good fortuně of others, miserably 
vain of its own success, unjust, unscrupulous, and slanderous. 

He that does me a favour, hath bound me to make him a return of thankfulness. The obligation comes 
not by covenant, nor by his own express intention; but by the nature of the thing; and is a duty springing 

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up within the spirit of the obliged person, to whom it is more natural to love his friend, and to do good 
for good, than to return evil for evil; because a man may forgive an injury, but he must nevěr forget a 
good turn. He that refuses to do good to them whom he is bound to love, or to love that which did him 
good, is unnatural and monstrous in his affections, and thinks all the world born to minister to him; 
with a greediness worse than that of the sea, which, although it receives all rivers into itself, yet it 
furnishes the clouds and springs with a return of all they need. Our duty to those who are our 
benefactors is, to esteem and love their persons, to make them proportionable returns of service, or 
duty, or profit, according as we can, or as they need, or as opportunity presents itself; and according to 
the greatness of their kindnesses. 

The generous man cannot but regret to see dissensions and disputes among his brethren. Only the base 
and ungenerous delight in discord. It is the poorest occupation of humanity to labour to make men think 
worse of each other, as the press, and too commonly the pulpit, changing places with the hustings and 
the tribune, do. The duty of the Mason is to endeavour to make man think better of his neighbour; to 
quiet, instead of aggravating difficulties; to bring together those who are severed or estranged; to keep 
friends from becoming foes, and to persuade foes to become friends. To do this, he must needs control 
his own passions, and be not rash and hasty, nor swift to také offence, nor easy to be angered. 

For anger is a professed enemy to counsel. It is a direct storm, in which no man can be heard to speak or 
call from without; for if you counsel gently, you are disregarded; if you urge it and be vehement, you 
provoke it more. It is neither manly nor ingenuous. It makes marriage to be a necessary and unavoidable 
trouble; friendships and societies and familiarities, to be intolerable. It multiplies the evils of 
drunkenness, and makes the levities of wine to run into madness. It makes innocent jesting to be the 
beginning of tragedies. It turns friendship into hatred; it makes a man lose himself, and his reason and 
his argument, in disputation. It turns the desires of knowledge into an itch of wrangling. It adds 
insolency to power. It turns justice into cruelty, and judgment into oppression. It changes disciplině into 
tediousness and hatred of liberal institution. It makes a prosperous man to be envied, and the 
unfortunate to be unpitied. 

See, therefore, that first controlling your own temper, and governing your own passions, you fit yourself 
to keep peace and harmony among other men, and especially the brethren. Above all remember that 
Masonry is the realm of peace, and that "among Masons there must be no dissension, but only that 
noble emulation., which can best work and best agree." Wherever there is strife and hatred among the 
brethren, there is no Masonry; for Masonry is Peace, and Brotherly Love, and Concord. 

Masonry is the great Peace Society of the world. Wherever it exists, it struggles to prevent international 
difficulties and disputes; and to bind Republics, Kingdoms, and Empires together in one great band of 
peace and amity. It would not so often struggle in vain, if Masons knew their power and valued their 

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Who can sum up the horrors and woes accumulated in a single war? Masonry is not dazzled with all its 
pomp and circumstance, all its glitter and glory. War comes with its bloody hand into our very 
dwellings. It takés from ten thousand homes those who lived there in peace and comfort, held by the 
tender ties of family and kindred. It drags them away, to die untended, of fever or exposure, in 
infectious climes; or to be hacked, torn, and mangled in the fierce fight; to fall on the gory field, to rise 
no more, or to be borne away, in awful agony, to noisome and horrid hospitals. The groans of the battle- 
field are echoed in sighs of bereavement from thousands of desolated hearths. There is a skeleton in 
every house, a vacant chair at every table. Returning, the soldier brings worse sorrow to his home, by 
the infection which he has caught, of camp-vices. The country is demoralized. The national mind is 
brought down, from the noble interchange of kind offices with another people, to wrath and revenge, 
and base pride, and the hábit of measuring brute strength against brute strength, in battle. Treasures are 
expended, that would suffice to build ten thousand churches, hospitals, and universities, or rib and tie 
together a continent with rails of iron. If that treasure were sunk in the sea, it would be calamity 
enough; but it is put to worse use; for it is expended in cutting into the veins and arteries of human life, 
until the earth is deluged with a sea of blood. 

Such are the lessons of this Degree. You háve vowed to make them the rule, the law, and the guide of 
your life and conduct. If you do so, you will be entitled, because fitted, to advance in Masonry. If you 
do not, you háve already gone too far. 


The lesson which this Degree inculcates is JUSTICE, in decision and judgment, and in our intercourse 
and dealing with other men. 

In a country where trial by jury is known, every intelligent man is liable to be called on to act as a 
judge, either of fact alone, or of fact and law mingled; and to assume the heavy responsibilities which 
belong to that character. 

Those who are invested with the power of judgment should judge the causes of all persons uprightly 
and impartially, without any personál consideration of the power of the mighty, or the bribe of the rich, 
or the needs of the poor. That is the cardinal rule, which no one will dispute; though many fail to 
observe it. But they must do more. They must divest themselves of prejudice and preconception. They 
must hear patiently, remember accurately, and weigh carefully the facts and the arguments offered 
before them. They must not leap hastily to conclusions, nor form opinions before they háve heard all. 
They must not presume crime or fraud. They must neither be ruled by stubborn pride of opinion, nor be 

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too facile and yielding to the views and arguments of others. In deducing the motive from the pro ven 
act, they must not assign to the act either the best or the worst motives, but those which they would 
think it just and fair for the world to assign to it, if they thmselves had doně it; nor must they endeavour 
to make many little circumstances, that weigh nothing separately, weigh much together, to prove their 
own acuteness and sagacity. These are sound rules for every juror, also, to observe. 

In our intercourse with others, there are two kinds of injustice: the first, of those who offer an injury; 
the second, of those who háve it in their power to avert an injury from those to whom it is offered, and 
yet do it not. So active injustice may be doně in two ways by force and by fraud, of which force is lion- 
like, and aud fox-like, both utterly repugnant to sociál duty, but fraud the more detestable. 

Every wrong doně by one man to another, whether it affect his person, his property, his happiness, or 
his reputation, is an offense against the law of justice. The field of this Degree is therefore a wide and 
vast one; and Masonry seeks for the most impressive mode of enforcing the law of justice, and the most 
effectual means of preventing wrong and injustice. 

To this end it teaches this great and momentous truth: that wrong and injustice once doně cannot be 
undone; but are eternal in their consequences; once committed, are numbered with the irrevocable Past; 
that the wrong that is doně contains its own retributive penalty as surely and as naturally as the acorn 
contains the oak. Its consequences are its punishment; it needs no other, and can háve no heavier; they 
are involved in its commission, and cannot be separated from it. A wrong doně to another is an injury 
doně to our own Nature, an offence against our own souls, a disfiguring of the image of the Beautiful 
and Good. Punishment is not the execution of a sentence, but the occurrence of an effect. It is ordained 
to follow guilt, not by the decree of God as a judge, but by a law enacted by Him as the Creator and 
Legislator of the Universe. It is not an arbitrary and artificial annexation, but an ordinary and logical 
consequence; and therefore must be borne by the wrong-doer, and through him may flow on to others. 
It is the decision of the infinite justice of God, in the form of law. 

There can be no interference with, or remittance of, or protection from, the natural effects of our 
wrongful acts. God will not interpose between the cause and its consequence; and in that sense there 
can be no forgiveness of sins. The act which has debased our soul may be repented of, may be turned 
from; but the injury is doně. The debasement may be redeemed by after-efforts, the stain obliterated by 
bitterer struggles and severer sufferings; but the efforts and the endurance which might háve raised the 
soul to the loftiest heights are now exhausted in merely regaining what it has lost. There must always be 
a wide difference between him who only ceases to do evil, and him who has always doně well. 

He will certainly be a far more scrupulous watcher over his conduct, and far more careful of his deeds, 
who believes that those deeds will inevitably bear their natural consequences, exempt from after 

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intervention, than he who believes that penitence and pardon will at any time unlink the chain of 
sequences. Surely we shall do less wrong and injustice, if the conviction is fixed and embedded in our 
souls that everything doně is doně irrevocably, that even the Omnipotence of God cannot uncommit a 
deed, cannot make that undone which has been doně; that every act of ours must bear its allotted frait, 
according to the everlasting laws, --must remain forever ineffaceably inscribed on the tablets of 
Universal Nature. 

If you háve wronged another, you may grieve, repent, and resolutely determine against any such 
weakness in future. You may, so far as it is possible, make reparation. It is well. The injured party may 
forgive you, according to the meaning of human language; but the deed is doně; and all the powers of 
Nature, were they to conspire in your behalf, could not make it undone; the consequences to the body, 
the consequences to the soul, though no man may perceive them, are there, are written in the annals of 
the Past, and must reverberate throughout all time. 

Repentance for a wrong doně, bears, like every other act, its own fruit, the fruit of purifying the heart 
and amending the Future, but not of effacing the Past. The commission of the wrong is an irrevocable 
act; but it does not incapacitate the soul to do right for the future. Its consequences cannot be expunged; 
but its course need not be pursued. Wrong and evil perpetrated, though ineffaceable, call for no despair, 
but for efforts more energetic than before. Repentance is still as valid as ever; but it is valid to secure 
the Future, not to obliterate the Past. 

Even the pulsations of the air, once set in motion by the human voice, cease not to exist with the sounds 
to which they gave rise. Their quickly-attenuated force soon becomes inaudible to human ears. But the 
waves of air thus raised perambulate the surface of earth and oceán, and in less than twenty hours, 
every atom of the atmosphere takés up the altered movement due to that infinitesimal portion of 
primitive motion which has been conveyed to it through countless channels, and which must continue to 
influence its path throughout its future existence. The air is one vast library, on whose pages is forever 
written all that man has ever said or even whispered. There, in their mutable, but unerring characters, 
mixed with the earliest, as well as the latest signs of mortality, stand forever recorded, vows 
unredeemed, promises unfulfilled; perpetuating, in the movements of each particle, all in unison, the 
testimony of man's changeful will. God reads that book, though we cannot. 

So earth, air, and oceán are the eternal witnesses of the acts that we háve doně. No motion impressed by 
natural causes or by human agency is ever obliterated. The track of every keel which has ever disturbed 
the surface of the oceán remains forever registered in the future movements of all succeeding particles 
which may occupy its pláce. Every criminal is by the laws of the Almighty irrevocably chained to the 
testimony of his crime; for every atom of his mortal frame, through whatever changes its particles may 
migrate, will still retain, adhering to it through every combination, some movement derived from that 
very muscular effort by which the crime itself was perpetrated. 

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What if our faculties should be so enhanced in a future life as to enable us to perceive and trace the 
ineffaceable consequences of our idle words and evil deeds, and render our remorse and grief as eternal 
as those consequences themselves? No more fearful punishment to a superior intelligence can be 
conceived, than to see still in action, with the consciousness that it must continue in action forever, a 
cause of wrong put in motion by itself ages before. 

Masonry, by its teachings, endeavours to restrain men from the commission of injustice and acts of 
wrong and outrage. Though it does not endeavour to usurp the pláce of religion, still its code of morals 
proceeds upon other principles than the municipal law; and it condemns and punishes offences which 
neither that law punishes nor public opinion condemns. In the Masonic law, to cheat and overreach in 
trade, at the bar, in politics, are deemed no more venial than theft; nor a deliberate lie than perjury; nor 
slander than robbery; nor seduction than murder. 

Especially it condemns those wrongs of which the doer induces another to partake. He may repent; he 
may, after agonizing struggles, regain the path of virtue; his spirit may reachieve its purity through 
much anguish, after many strifes; but the weaker fellow-creature whom he led astray, whom he made a 
sharer in his guilt, but whom he cannot make a sharer in his repentance and amendment, whose 
downward course (the first step of which he taught) he cannot check, but is compelled to witness, what 
forgiveness of sins can avail him there? There is his perpetual, his inevitable punishment, which no 
repentance can alleviate, and no mercy can remit. 

Let us be just, also, in judging of other men's motives. We know but little of the reál merits or demerits 
of any fellow creature. We can rarely say with certainty that this man is more guilty than that, or even 
that this man is very good or very wicked. Often the basest men leave behind them excellent 
reputations. There is scarcely one of us who has not, at some time in his life, been on the edge of the 
commission of a crime. Every one of us can look back, and shuddering see the time when our feet stood 
upon the slippery crags that overhung the abyss of guilt; and when, if temptation had been a little more 
urgent, or a little longer continued, if penury had pressed us a little harder, or a little more wine had 
further disturbed our intellect, dethroned our judgment, and aroused our passions, our feet would háve 
slipped, and we should háve fallen, nevěr to rise again. 

We may be able to say "This man has lied, has pilfered, has forged, has embezzled moneys intrusted to 
him; and that man has gone through life with clean hands." But we cannot say that the former has not 
struggled long, though unsuccessfully, against temptations under which the second would háve 
succumbed without an effort. We can say which has the cleanest hands before man; but not which has 
the cleanest soul before God. We may be able to say, this man has committed adultery, and that man has 
been ever chaste; but we cannot telí but that the innocence of one may háve been due to the coldness of 
his heart, to the absence of a motive, to the presence of a fear, to the slight degree of the temptation; nor 

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but that the fall of the other may háve been preceded by the most vehement self-contest, caused by the 
most over-mastering frenzy, and atoned for by the most hallowing repentance. Generosity as well as 
niggardliness may be a mere yielding to native temperament; and in the eye of Heaven, a long life of 
beneficence in one man may háve cost less effort, and may indicate less virtue and less sacrifice of 
interest, than a few rare hidden acts of kindness wrung by duty out of the reluctant and unsympathizing 
nature of the other. There may be more reál merit, more self-sacrificing effort, more of the noblest 
elements of moral grandeur, in a life of failure, sin, and shame, than in a career, to our eyes, of stainless 

When we condemn or pity the fallen, how do we know that, tempted like him, we should not háve fallen 
like him, as soon, and perhaps with less resistance? How can we know what we should do if we were 
out of employment, famine crouching, gaunt, and hungry, on our fireless hearth, and our children 
wailing for bread? We fall not because we are not enough tempted! He that hath fallen may be at heart 
as honest as we. How do we know that our daughter, sister, wife, could resist the abandonment, the 
desolation, the distress, the temptation, that sacrificed the virtue of their poor abandoned sister of 
shame? Perhaps they also háve not fallen, because they háve not been sorely tempted! Wisely are we 
directed to pray that we may not be expo sed to temptation. 

Human justice must be ever uncertain. How many judicial murders háve been committed through 
ignorance of the phenomena of insanity ! How many men hung for murder who were no more murderers 
at heart than the jury that tried and the judge that sentenced them! It may well be doubted whether the 
administration of human laws, in every country, is not one gigantic mass of injustice and wrong. God 
seeth not as man seeth; and the most abandoned criminal, black as he is before the world, may yet háve 
continued to keep some little light burning in a corner of his soul, which would long since háve gone 
out in that of those who walk proudly in the sunshine of immaculate fame, if they had been tried and 
tempted like the poor outcast. 

We do not know even the outside life of men. We are not competent to pronounce even on their deeds. 
We do not know half the acts of wickedness or virtue, even of our most immediate fellows. We cannot 
say, with certainty, even of our nearest friend, that he has not committed a particular sin, and broken a 
particular commandment. Let each man ask his own heart! Of how many of our best and of our worst 
acts and qualities are our most intimate associates utterly unconscious! How many virtues does not the 
world give us credit for, that we do not possess; or vices condemn us for, of which we are not the slaves! 
It is but a small portion of our evil deeds and thoughts that ever comes to light; and of our few 
redeeming goodnesses, the largest portion is known to God alone. 

We shall, therefore, be just in judging of other men, only when we are charitable; and we should assume 
the prerogative of judging others only when the duty is forced upon us; since we are so almost certain to 
err, and the consequences of error are so serious. No man need covet the office of judge; for in 

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assuming it he assumes the gravest and most oppressive responsibility. Yet you háve assumed it; we all 
assume it; for man is ever ready to judge, and ever ready to condemn his neighbour, while upon the 
samé statě of čase he acquits himself See, therefore, that you exercise your once cautiously and 
chari tably, lest, in passing judgment upon the criminal, you commit a greater wrong than that for which 
you condemn him, and the consequences of which must be eternal. 

The faults and crimes and follies of other men are not unimportant to us; but form a part of our moral 
disciplině. War and bloodshed at a distance, and frauds which do not affect our pecuniary interest, yet 
touch us in our feelings, and concern our moral welfare. They háve much to do with all thoughtful 
hearts. The public eye may look unconcernedly on the miserable victim of vice, and that shattered 
wreck of a man may move the multitude to laughter or to scorn. But to the Mason, it is the form of 
sacred humanity that is before him; it is an erring fellow-being; a desolate, forlorn, forsaken soul; and 
his thoughts, enfolding the poor wretch, will be far deeper than those of indifference, ridicule, or 
contempt. All human offences, the whole systém of dishonesty, evasion, circumventing, forbidden 
indulgence, and intriguing ambition, in which men are struggling with each other, will be looked upon 
by a thoughtful Mason, not merely as a scene of mean toils and strifes, but as the solemn conflicts of 
immortal minds, for ends vast and momentous as their own being. It is a sad and unworthy strife, and 
may well be viewed with indignation; but that indignation must melt into pity. For the stakes for which 
these gamesters play are not those which they imagine, not those which are in sight. For example, this 
man plays for a petty once, and gains it; but the reál stake he gains is sycophancy, uncharitableness, 
slander, and deceit. 

Good men are too proud of their goodness. They are respectable; dishonour comes not near them; their 
countenance has weight and influence; their robes are unstained; the poisonous breath of calumny as 
nevěr been breathed upon their fair name. How easy it is for them to look down with scorn upon the 
poor degraded offender; to pass him by with a lofty step; to draw up the folds of their garment around 
them, that they may not be soiled by his touch ! Yet the Great Master of Virtue did not so; but 
descended to familiar intercourse with publicans and sinners, with the Samaritán woman, with the 
outcasts and the Pariahs of the Hebrew world. 

Many men think themselves better, in proportion as they can detect sin in others! When they go over the 
catalogue of their neighbouťs unhappy derelictions of temper or conduct, they often, amidst much 
apparent concern, feel a secret exultation, that destroys all their own pretensions to wisdom and 
moderation, and even to virtue. Many even také actual pleasure in the sins of others; and this is the čase 
with every one whose thoughts are often employed in agreeable comparisons of his own virtues with 
his neighbours' faults. 

The power of gentleness is too little seen in the world; the subduing influences of pity, the might of 
love, the control of mildness over passion, the commanding majesty of that perfect character which 

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mingles grave displeasure with grief and pity for the offender. So it is that a Mason should treat his 
brethren who go astray. Not with bitterness; nor yet with good-natured easiness, nor with worldly 
indifference, nor with the philosophic coldness, nor with a laxity of conscience, that accounts 
everything well, that passes under the seal of public opinion; but with charity, with pitying loving- 

The human heart will not bow willingly to what is infirm and wrong in human nature. If it yields to us, 
it must yield to what is divine in us. The wickedness of my neighbour cannot submit to my wickedness; 
his sensuality, for instance, to my anger against his vices. My faults are not the instruments that are to 
arrest his faults. And therefore impatient reformers, and denouncing preachers, and hasty reprovers, and 
angry parents, and irri table relatives generally fail, in their several departments, to reclaim the erring. 

A moral offence is sickness, pain, loss, dishonour, in the immortal part of man. It is guilt, and misery 
added to guilt. It is itself calamity; and brings upon itself, in addition, the calamity of Goďs 
disapproval, the abhorrence of all virtuous men, and the soufs own abhorrence. Deal faithfully, but 
patiently and tenderly, with this evil! It is no matter for petty provocation, nor for personál strife, nor for 
selfish irritation. 

Speak kindly to your erring brother! God pities him: Christ has died for him: Providence waits for him: 
Heaveďs mercy yearns toward him; and Heaveďs spirits are ready to welcome him back with joy. Let 
your voice be in unison with all those powers that God is using for his recovery! 

If one defrauds you, and exults at it, he is the most to be pitied of human beings. He has doně himself a 
far deeper injury than he has doně you. It is he, and not you, whom God regards with mingled 
displeasure and compassion; and His judgment should be your law. Among all the benedictions of the 
Holý Mount there is not one for this man; but for the merciful, the peacemakers, and the persecuted 
they are poured out freely. 

We are all men of like passions, propensities, and exposures. There are elements in us all, which might 
háve been perverted, through the successive processes of moral deterioration, to the worst of crimes. 
The wretch whom the execration of the thronging crowd pursues to the scaffold, is not worse than any 
one of that multitude might háve become under similar circumstances. He is to be condemned indeed, 
but also deeply to be pitied. 

It does not become the frail and sinful to be vindictive toward even the worst criminals. We owe much 
to the good Providence of God, ordaining for us a lot more favourable to virtue. We all had that within 
us, that might háve been pushed to the samé excess: Perhaps we should háve fallen as he did, with less 
temptation. Perhaps we háve doně acts, that, in proportion to the temptation or provocation, were less 

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excusable than his great crime. Silent pity and sorrow for the victim should mingle with our detestation 
of the guilt. Even the piráte who murders in cold blood on the high seas, is such a man as you or I 
might háve been. Orphanage in childhood, or base and dissolute and abandoned parents; an unfriended 
youth; evil companions; ignorance and want of moral cultivation; the temptations of sinful pleasure or 
grinding poverty; familiarity with vice; a scorned and blighted name; seared and crushed affections; 
desperate fortunes; these are steps that might háve led any one among us to unfurl upon the high seas 
the bloody flag of universal defiance; to wage war with our kind; to live the life and die the death of the 
reckless and remorseless free-booter. Many affecting relationships of humanity plead with us to pity 
him. His head once rested on a moťheťs bosom. He was once the object of sisterly love and domestic 
endearment. Perhaps his hand, since often red with blood, once clasped another little loving hand at the 
altar. Pity him then; his blighted hopes and his crushed heart! It is proper that frail and erring creatures 
like us should do so; should feel the crime, but feel it as weak, tempted, and rescued creatures should. It 
may be that when God weighs men's crimes, He will také into consideration the temptations and the 
adverse circumstances that led to them, and the opportunities for moral culture of the offender; and it 
may be that our own offences will weigh heavier than we think, and the murdereťs lighter than 
according to man's judgment. 

On all accounts, therefore, let the true Mason nevěr forget the solemn injunction, necessary to be 
observed at almost every moment of a busy life: 'JUDGE NOT, LEST YOU YOURSELVES BE 
SHALL IN TURN BE MEASURED UNTO YOU. Such is the lesson taught the Pravost and Judge of 


IN this Degree you háve been taught the important lesson, that none are entitled to advance in the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, who háve not by study and application made themselves familiar 
with Masonic learning and jurisprudence. The Degrees of this Rite are not for those who are content 
with the mere work and ceremonies, and do not seek to explore the mineš of wisdom that lie buried 
beneath the surface. You still advance toward the Light, toward that stár, blazing in the distance, which 
is an emblém of the Divine Truth, given by God to the first men, and preserved amid all the vicissitudes 
of ages in the traditions and teachings of Masonry. How far you will advance, depends upon yourself 
alone. Here, as everywhere in the world, Darkness struggles with Light, and clouds and shadows 
intervene between you and the Truth. 

When you shall háve become imbued with the morality of Masonry, with which you yet are, and for 
some time will be exclusively occupied, when you shall háve learned to practice all the virtues which it 
inculcates; when they become familiar to you as your Household Gods; then will you be prepared to 

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receive its lofty philosophical instruction, and to scale the heights upon whose summit Light and Truth 
sit enthroned. Step by step men must advance toward Perfection; and each Masonic Degree is meant to 
be one of those steps. Each is a development of a particular duty; and in the present you are taught 
charity and benevolence; to be to your brethren an example of virtue; to correct your own faults; and to 
endeavour to correct those of your brethren. 

Here, as in all the degrees, you meet with the emblems and the names of Deity, the true knowledge of 
whose character and attributes it has ever been a chief object of Masonry to perpetuate. To appreciate 
His infinite greatness and goodness, to rely implicitly upon His Providence, to revere and venerate Him 
as the Supreme Architect, Creator, and Legislator of the universe, is the first of Masonic duties. 

The Battery of this Degree, and the five circuits which you made around the Lodge, allude to the five 
points of fellowship, and are intended to recall them vividly to your mind. To go upon a brotheťs errand 
or to his reliéf, even barefoot and upon flinty ground; to remember him in your supplications to the 
Deity; to clasp him to your heart, and protéct him against malice and evil speaking; to uphold him when 
about to stumble and fall; and to give him prudent, honest, and friendly counsel, are duties plainly 
written upon the pages of Goďs great code of law, and first among the ordinances of Masonry. 

The first sign of the Degree is expressive of the diffidence and humility with which we inquire into the 
nature and attributes of the Deity; the second, of the profound awe and reverence with which we 
contemplate His glories; and the third, of the sorrow with which we reflect upon our insufficient 
observance of our duties, and our imperfect compliance with His statutes. 

The distinguishing property of man is to search for and follow after truth. Therefore, when relaxed from 
our necessary cares and concerns, we then covet to see, to hear, and to learn somewhat; and we esteem 
knowledge of things, either obscure or wonderful, to be the indispensable means of living happily. 
Truth, Simplicity, and Candor are most agreeable to the nature of mankind. Whatever is virtuous 
consists either in Sagacity, and the perception of Truth; or in the preservation of Human Society, by 
giving to every man his due, and observing the faith of contracts; or in the greatness and firmness of an 
elevated and unsubdued mind; or in observing order and regularity in all our words and in all our 
actions; in which consist Moderation and Temperance. 

Masonry has in all times religiously preserved that enlightened faith from which flow sublime 
Devotedness, the sentiment of Fraternity fruitful of good works, the spirit of indulgence and peace, of 
sweet hopes and effectual consolations; and inflexibility in the accomplishment of the most painful and 
arduous duties. It has always propagated it with ardor and perseverance; and therefore it labours at the 
present day more zealously than ever. Scarcely a Masonic discourse is pronounced, that does not 
demonstrate the necessity and advantages of this faith, and especially recall the two constitutive 

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principles of religion, that make all religion, love of God, and love of neighbour. Masons carry these 
principles into the bosoms of their families and of society. While the Sectarians of former times 
enfeebled the religious spirit, Masonry, forming one great People over the whole globe, and marching 
under the great banner of Charity and Benevolence, preserves that religious feeling, strengthens it, 
extends it in its purity and simplicity, as it has always existed in the depths of the human heart, as it 
existed even under the dominion of the most ancient forms of worship, but where gross and debasing 
superstitions forbade its recognition. 

A Masonic Lodge should resemble a bee-hive, in which all the members work together with ardor for 
the common good. Masonry is not made for cold souls and narrow minds, that do not comprehend its 
lofty mission and sublime apoštoláte. Here the anathema against lukewarm souls applies. To comfort 
misfortunes to popularize knowledge, to teach whatever is true and pure in religion and philosophy, to 
accustom men to respect order and the proprieties of life, to point out the way to genuine happiness, to 
prepare for that fortunate period, when all the factions of the Human Family, united by the bonds of 
Toleration and Fraternity, shall be but one household, these are labours that may well excite zeal and 
even enthusiasm. 

We do not now enlarge upon or elaboráte these ideas. We but utter them to you briefly, as hints, upon 
which you may at your leisure reflect. Hereafter, if you continue to advance, they will be unfolded, 
explained, and developed. 

Masonry utters no impracticable and extravagant precepts, certain, because they are so, to be 
disregarded. It asks of its initiates nothing that it is not possible and even easy for them to perform. Its 
teachings are eminently practical; and its statutes can be obeyed by every just, upright, and honest man, 
no matter what his faith or creed. Its object is to attain the greatest practical good, without seeking to 
make men perfect. It does not meddle with the domain of religion, nor inquire into the mysteries of 
regeneration. It teaches those truths that are written by the finger of God upon the heart of man, those 
views of duty which háve been brought out by the meditations of the studious, confirmed by the 
allegiance of the good and wise, and stamped as sterling by the response they find in every uncorrupted 
mind. It does not dogmatize, nor vainly imagine dogmatic certainty to be attainable. 

Masonry does not occupy itself with crying down this world, with its splendid beauty, its thrilling 
interests, its glorious works, its noble and holý affections; nor exhort us to detach our hearts from this 
earthly life, as empty, fleeting, and unworthy, and fix them upon Heaven, as the only sphere deserving 
the love of the loving or the meditation of the wise. It teaches that man has high duties to perform, and 
a high destiny to fulfill, on this earth; that this world is not merely the portál to another; and that this 
life, though not our only one, is an integrál one, and the particular one with which we are here meant to 
be concerned; that the Present is our scene of action, and the Future for speculation and for trust; that 
man was sent upon the earth to live in it, to enjoy it, to study it, to love it, to embellish it, to make the 

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most of it. It is his country, on which he should lavish his affections and his efforts. It is here his 
influences are to operáte. It is his house, and not a tent; his home, and not merely a school. He is sent 
into this world, not to be constantly hankering after, dreaming of, preparing for another; but to do his 
duty and fulfill his destiny on this earth; to do all that lies in his power to improve it, to render it a scene 
of elevated happiness to himself, to those around him, to those who are to come after him. His life here 
is part of his immortality; and this world, also, is among the stars. 

And thus, Masonry teaches us, will man best prepare for that Future which he hopes for. The Unseen 
cannot hold a higher pláce in our affections than the Seen and the Familiar. The law of our being is 
Love of Life, and its interests and adornments; love of the world in which our lot is cast, engrossment 
with the interests and affections of earth. Not a low or sensual love, not love of wealth, of fame, of ease, 
of power, of splendour. Not low worldliness; but the love of Earth as the garden on which the Creator 
has lavished such miracles of beauty; as the habitation of humanity, the aréna of its conflicts, the scene 
of its illimitable progress, the dwelling-place of the wise, the good, the active, the loving, and the dear; 
the pláce of opportunity for the development by means of sin and suffering and sorrow, of the noblest 
passions the loftiest virtues, and the tenderest sympathies. 

They také very unprofitable pains, who endeavour to persuade men that they are obliged wholly to 
despise this world, and all that is in it, even whilst they themselves live here. God hath not taken all that 
pains in forming and framing and furnishing and adorning the world, that they who were made by Him 
to live in it should despise it. It will be enough, if they do not love it too immoderately. It is useless to 
attempt to extinguish all those affections and passions which are and always will be inseparable from 
human nature. As long as he world lasts, and honour and virtue and industry háve reputation in the 
world, there will be ambition and emulation and appetite in the best and most accomplished men in it; 
and if there were not, more barbarity and vice and wickedness would cover every nation of the world, 
than it now suffers under. 

Those only who feel a deep interest in, and affection for, this world, will work resolutely for its 
amelioration. Those who undervalue this rife, naturally become querulous and discontented, and lose 
their interest in the welfare of their fellows. To serve them, and so to do our duty as Masons, we must 
feel that the object is worth the exertion; and be content with this world in which God has placed us, 
until He permits us to remove to a better one. He is here with us, and does not deem this an unworthy 

It a serious thing to defame and belie a whole world; to speak of it as the abode of a poor, toiling, 
drudging, ignorant, contemptible race. You would not so discredit your family, your friendly circle, your 
village, your city, your country. The world is not a wretched and a worthless one; nor is it a misfortune, 
but a thing to be thankful for, to be a man. If life is worthless, so also is immortality. 

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In society itself, in that living mechanism of human relationships that spreads itself over the world, 
there is a finer essence within, that as truly moves it, as any power, heavy or expansive, moves the 
sounding manufactory or the swift-flying car. The man-machine hurries to and fro upon the earth, 
stretches out its hands on every side, to toil, to barter, to unnumbered labours and enterprises; and 
almost always the motive, that which moves it, is something that takés hold of the comforts, affections, 
and hopes of sociál existence. True, the mechanism often works with difficulty, drags heavily, grates 
and screams with harsh collision. True, the essence of finer motive, becoming intermixed with baser 
and coarser ingredients, often clogs, obstructs, jars, and deranges the free and noble action of sociál 
life. But he is neither grateful nor wise, who looks cynically on all this, and loses the fine sense of 
sociál good in its perversions. That I can be a friend, that I can háve a friend, though it were but one in 
the world; that fact, that wondrous good fortuně, we may set against all the sufferings of our sociál 
nature. That there is such a pláce on earth as a home, that resort and sanctuary of in-walled and 
shielded joy, we may set against all the surrounding desolations of life. That one can be a true, sociál 
man, can speak his true thoughts, amidst all the Tanglings of controversy and the warring of opinions; 
that fact from within, outweighs all facts from without. 

In the visible aspect and action of society, often repulsive and annoying, we are apt to lose the due 
sense of its invisible blessings. As in Nature it is not the coarse and palpable, not soils and rains, nor 
even fields and flowers, that are so beautiful, as the invisible spirit of wisdom and beauty that pervades 
it; so in society, it is the invisible, and therefore unobserved, that is most beautiful. 

What nerveš the arm of toil? If man minded himself alone, he would fling down the spade and axe, and 
rush to the desert; or roam through the world as a wilderness, and make that world a desert. His home, 
which he sees not, perhaps, but once or twice in a day, is the invisible bond of the world. It is the good, 
strong, and noble faith that men háve in each other, which gives the loftiest character to business, trade, 
and commerce. Fraud occurs in the rush of business; but it is the exception. Honesty is the rule; and all 
the frauds in the world cannot tear the great bond of human confidence. If they could, commerce would 
furl its sails on every sea, and all the cities of the world would crumble into ruins. The bare character of 
a man on the other side of the world, whom you nevěr saw, whom you nevěr will see, you hold good for 
a bond of thousands. The most striking feature of the political statě is not governments, nor 
constitutions, nor laws, nor enactments, nor the judicial power, nor the police; but the universal will of 
the people to be governed by the common weal. Také off that restraint, and no government on earth 
could stand for an hour. 

Of the many teachings of Masonry, one of the most valuable is, that we should not depreciate this life. 
It does not hold, that when we reflect on the destiny that awaits man on earth, we ought to bedew his 
cradle with our tears; but, like the Hebrews, it hails the birth of a child with joy, and holds that his 
birthday should be a festival. 

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It has no sympathy with those who profess to háve proved this life, and found it little worth; who háve 
deliberately made up their minds that it is far more miserable than happy; because its employments are 
tedious, and their schemes often baffled, their friendships broken, or their friends dead, its pleasures 
palled, and its honours faded, and its paths beaten, familiar, and duli. 

Masonry deems it no mark of great piety toward God to disparage, if not despise, the statě that He has 
ordained for us. It does not absurdly set up the claims of another world, not in comparison merely, but 
in competition, with the claims of this. It looks upon both as parts of one systém. It holds that a man 
may make the best of this world and of another at the samé time. It does not teach its initiates to think 
better of other works and dispensations of God, by thinking meanly of these. It does not look upon life 
as so much time lost; nor regard its employments as trifles unworthy of immortal beings; nor telí its 
folio wers to fold their arms, as if in disdain of their statě and species; but it looks soberly and cheerfully 
upon the world, as a theatre of worthy action, of exalted usefulness, and of rational and innocent 

It holds that, with all its evils, life is a blessing. To děny that is to destroy the basis of all religion, 
natural and revealed. The very foundation of all religion is laid on the firm belief that God is good; and 
if this life is an evil and a curse, no such belief can be rationally entertained. To level our satiře at 
humanity and human existence, as mean and contemptible; to look on this world as the habitation of a 
miserable race, fit only for mockery and scorn; to consider this earth as a dungeon or a prison, which 
has no blessing to offer but escape from it, is to extinguish the primal light of faith and hope and 
happiness, to destroy the basis of religion, and Truth's foundation in the goodness of God. If it indeed 
be so, then it matters not what else is true or not true; speculation is vain and faith is vain; and all that 
belongs to man's highest being is buried in the ruins of misanthropy, melancholy, and despair. 

Our love of life; the tenacity with which, in sorrow and suffering, we cling to it; our attachment to our 
home, to the spot that gave us birth, to any pláce, however rudé, unsightly, or barren, on which the 
history of our years has been written, all show how dear are the ties of kindred and society. Misery 
makes a greater impression upon us than happiness; because the former is not the hábit of our minds. It 
is a strange, unusual guest, and we are more conscious of its presence. Happiness lives with us, and we 
forget it. It does not excite us, nor disturb the order and course of our thoughts. A great agony is an 
epoch in our life. We remember our afflictions, as we do the storm and earthquake, because they are out 
of the common course of things. They are like disastrous events, recorded because extraordinary; and 
with whole and unnoticed periods of prosperity between. We mark and signalize the times of calamity; 
but many happy days and unnoted periods of enjoyment pass, that are unrecorded either in the book of 
memory, or in the scanty annals of our thanksgiving. We are little disposed and less able to call up from 
the dim remembrances of our past years, the peaceful moments, the easy sensations, the bright 
thoughts, the quiet reveries, the throngs of kind affections in which life flowed on, bearing us almost 
unconsciously upon its bosom, because it bore us calmly and genťly. 

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Life is not only good; but it has been glorious in the experience of millions. The glory of all human 
virtue clothes it. The splendours of devotedness, beneficence, and heroism are upon it; the crown of a 
thousand martyrdoms is upon its brow. The brightness of the soul shines through this visible and 
sometimes darkened life; through all its surrounding cares and labours. The humblest life may feel its 
connection with its Infinite Source. There is something mighty in the frail inner man; something of 
immortality in this momentary and transient being. The mind stretches away, on every side, into 
infinity. Its thoughts flash abroad, far into the boundless, the immeasurable, the infinite; far into the 
great, dark, teeming future; and become powers and influences in other ages. To know its wonderful 
Author, to bring down wisdom from the Eternal Stars, to bear upward its homage, gratitude, and love, 
to the Ruler of all worlds, to be immortal in our influences projected far into the slow-approaching 
Future, makes life most worthy and most glorious. 

Life is the wonderful creation of God. It is light, sprung from void darkness; power, waked from 
inertness and impotence; being created from nothing; and the contrast may well enkindle wonder and 
delight. It is a rill from the infinite, overflowing goodness; and from the moment when it first gushes up 
into the light, to that when it mingles with the oceán of Eternity, that Goodness attends it and ministers 
to it. It is a great and glorious gift. There is gladness in its infant voices; joy in the buoyant step of its 
youth; deep satisfaction in its strong maturity; and peace in its quiet age. There is good for the good; 
virtue for the faithful; and victory for the valiant. There is, even in this humble life, an infinity for those 
whose desires are boundless. There are blessings upon its birth; there is hope in its death; and eternity 
in its prospect. Thus earth, which binds many in chains, is to the Mason both the starting-place and goal 
of immortality, Many it buries in the rubbish of duli cares and wearying vanities; but to the Mason it is 
the lofty mount of meditation, where Heaven, and Infinity and Eternity are spread before him and 
around him. To the lofty-minded, the pure, and the virtuous, this life is the beginning of Heaven, and a 
part of immortality. 

God hath appointed one remedy for all the evils in the world; and that is a contented spirit. We may be 
reconciled to poverty and a low fortuně, if we suffer contentedness and equanimity to make the 
proportions. No man is poor who doth not think himself so; but if, in a full fortuně, with impatience he 
desires more, he proclaims his wants and his beggarly condition. This virtue of contentedness was the 
sum of all the old moral philosophy, and is of most universal use in the whole course of our lives, and 
the only instrument to ease the burdens of the world and the enmities of sad chances. It is the great 
reasonableness of complying with the Divine Providence, which governs all the world, and hath so 
ordered us in the administration of His great family. It is fit that God should dispense His gifts as He 
pleases; and if we murmur here, we may, at the next melancholy, be troubled that He did not make us to 
be angels or stars. 

We ourselves make our fortunes good or bad; and when God lets loose a Tyrant upon us, or a sickness, 
or scorn, or a lessened fortuně, if we fear to die, or know not how to be patient, or are proud, or 
covetous, then the calamity sits heavy on us. But if we know how to manage a noble principle, and fear 

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not death so much as a dishonest action, and think impatience a worse evil than a fever, and pride to be 
the greatest disgrace as well as the greatest foliy, and poverty far preferable to the torments of avarice, 
we may still bear an even mind and smile at the reverses of fortuně and the ill-nature of Fate. 

If thou hast lost thy land, do not also lose thy constancy; and if thou must die sooner than others, or 
than thou didst expect, yet do not die impatiently. For no chance is evil to him who is content, and to a 
man nothing is miserable unless it be unreasonable. No man can make another man to be his slavě, 
unless that other hath first enslaved himself to life and death, to pleasure or pain, to hope or fear; 
command these passions, and you are freer than the Parthian Kings. 

When an enemy reproaches us, let us look on him as an impartial relator of our faults; for he will telí us 
truer than our fondest friend will, and we may forgive his anger, whilst we make use of the plainness of 
his declamation. The ox, when he is weary, treads truest; and if there be nothing else in abuse, but that 
it makes us to walk warily, and tread sure for fear of our enemies, that is better than to be flattered into 
pride and carelessness. 

If thou fallest from thy employment in public, také sanctuary in an honest retirement, being indifferent 
to thy gain abroad, or thy safety at home. When the north wind blows hard, and it rains sádly, we do not 
sit down in it and cry; but defend ourselves against it with a warm garment, or a good fire and a dry 
roof. So when the storm of a sad mischance beats upon our spirits, we may turn it into something that is 
good, if we resolve to make it so; and with equanimity and patience may shelter ourselves from its 
inclement pitiless pelting. If it develop our patience, and give occasion for heroic endurance, it hath 
doně us good enough to recompense us sufficiently for all the temporal affliction; for so a wise man 
shall overrule his stars; and háve a greater influence upon his own content, than all the constellations 
and planets of the firmament. 

Compare not thy condition with the few above thee, but to secure thy content, look upon those 
thousands with whom thou wouldst not, for any interest, change thy fortuně and condition. A soldier 
must not think himself unprosperous, if he be not successful as Alexander or Wellington; nor any man 
deem himself unfortunate that he hath not the wealth of Rothschild; but rather let the former rejoice that 
he is not lessened like the many generals who went down horše and man before Napoleon, and the latter 
that he is not the beggar who, bareheaded in the bleak winter wind holds out his tattered hat for charity. 
There may be many who are richer and more fortunate; but many thousands who are very miserable, 
compared to thee. 

After the worst assaults of Fortune, there will be something left to us,-a merry countenance, a cheerful 
spirit, and a good conscience, the Providence of God, our hopes of Heaven, our charity for those who 
háve injured us; perhaps a loving wife, and many friends to pity, and some to relieve us; and light and 

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air, and all the beauties of Nature; we can read, discourse, and meditate; and having still these 
blessings, we should be much in love with sorrow and peevishness to lose them all, and prefer to sit 
down on our little handful of thorns. 

Enjoy the blessings of this day, if God sends them, and the evils of it bear patiently and calmly; for this 
day only is ours: we are dead to yesterday, and we are not yet born to the morrow. When our fortunes 
are violently changed, our spirits are unchanged, if they always stood in the suburbs and expectation of 
sorrows and reverses. The blessings of immunity, safeguard, liberty, and integrity deserve the 
thanksgiving of a whole life. We are quit from a thousand calamities, every one of which, if it were 
upon us, would make us insensible of our present sorrow, and glad to receive it in exchange for that 
other greater affliction. 

Measure your desires by your fortuně and condition, not your fortunes by your desires: be governed by 
your needs, not by your fancy; by nature, not by evil customs and ambitious principles. It is no evil to 
be poor, but to be vicious and impatient. Is that beast better, that hath two or three mountains to graze 
on, than the little bee that feeds on dew or manna, and lives upon what falls every morning from the 
store-houses of Heaven, clouds and Providence ? 

There are some instances of fortuně and a fair condition that cannot stand with some others; but if you 
desire this, you must lose that, and unless you be content with one, you lose the comfort of both. If you 
covet learning, you must háve leisure and a retired life; if honours of State and political distinctions, you 
must be ever abroad in public, and get experience, and do all men's business, and keep all company, and 
háve no leisure at all. If you will be rich, you must be frugal; if you will be popular, you must be 
bountiful; if a philosopher, you must despise riches. If you would be famous as Epaminondas, accept 
also his poverty, for it added lustre to his person, and envy to his fortuně, and his virtue without it could 
not háve been so excellent. If you would háve the reputation of a martyr, you must needs accept his 
persecution; if of a benefactor of the world, the worlďs injustice; if truly great, you must expect to see 
the mob prefer lesser men to yourself. 

God esteems it one of His glories, that He brings good out of evil; and therefore it were but reason we 
should trust Him to govern His own world as He pleases; and that we should patiently wait until the 
change cometh, or the reason is discovered. 

A Masoďs contentedness must by no means be a mere contented selfishness, like his who, comfortable 
himself, is indifferent to the discomfort of others. There will always be in this world wrongs to forgive, 
suffering to alleviate, sorrow asking for sympathy, necessities and destitution to relieve, and ample 
occasion for the exercise of active charity and beneficence. And he who sits unconcerned amidst it all, 
perhaps enjoying his own comforts and luxuries the more, by contrasting them with the hungry and 

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ragged destitution and shivering misery of his fellows, is not contented, but selfish and unfeeling. 

It is the saddest of all sights upon this earth, that of a man lazy and luxurious, or hard and penurious, to 
whom want appeals in vain, and suffering cries in an unknown tongue. The man whose hasty anger 
hurries him into violence and crime is not half so unworthy to live. He is the faithless steward, that 
embezzles what God has given him in trust for the impoverished and suffering among his brethren. The 
true Mason must be and must háve a right to be content with himself ; and he can be so only when he 
lives not for himself alone, but for others also, who need his assistance and háve a claim upon his 

"Charity is the great channel," it has been well said, "through which God passes all His mercy upon 
mankind. For we receive absolution of our sins in proportion to our forgiving our brother. This is the 
rule of our hopes and the measure of our desire in this world; and on the day of death and judgment, the 
great sentence upon mankind shall be transacted according to our alms, which is the other part of 
charity. God himself is love; and very degree of charity that dwells in us is the participation of the 

These principles Masonry reduces to practice. By them it expects you to be hereafter guided and 
governed. It especially inculcates them upon him who employs the labour of others, forbidding him to 
discharge them, when to want employment is to starve; or to contract for the labour of man or woman at 
so low a price that by over-exertion they must seli him their blood and life at the samé time with the 
labour of their hands. 

These Degrees are also intended to teach more than morals. The symbols and ceremonies of Masonry 
háve more than one meaning. They rather conceal than disclose the Truth. They hint it only, at least; 
and their varied meanings are only to be discovered by reflection and study. Truth is not only 
symbolized by Light, but as the ray of light is separable into rays of different colours, so is truth 
separable into kinds. It is the province of Masonry to teach all truťhs-not moral truth alone, but 
political and philosophical, and even religious truth, so far as concerns the great and essential principles 
of each. The sphynx was a symbol. To whom has it disclosed its inmost meaning? Who knows the 
symbolic meaning of the pyramids? 

You will hereafter learn who are the chief foes of human liberty symbolized by the assassins of the 
Master Khurum; and in their fate you may see foreshadowed that which we earnestly hope will 
hereafter overtake those enemies of humanity, against whom Masonry has struggled so long. 

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[Elu ofthe Nině] 

ORIGINALLY created to reward fidelity, obedience, and devotion, this Degree was consecrated to 
bravery, devotedness, and patriotism; and your obligation has made known to you the duties which you 
háve assumed. They are summed up in the simple mandáte, "Protéct the oppressed against the 
oppressor; and devote yourself to the honour and interests of your Country." 

Masonry is not "speculative," nor theoretical, but experimental; not sentimental, but practical. It 
requires self-renunciation and self-control. It wears a stern face toward men's vices, and interferes with 
many of our pursuits and our fancied pleasures. It penetrates beyond the region of vague sentiment; 
beyond the regions where moralizers and philosophers háve woven their fine theories and elaborated 
their beautiful maxims, to the very depths of the heart, rebuking our littlenesses and meannesses, 
arraigning our prejudices and passions, and warring against the armies of our vices. 

It wars against the passions that spring out of the bosom of a world of fine sentiments, a world of 
admirable sayings and foul practices, of good maxims and bad deeds; whose darker passions are not 
only restrained by custom and ceremony, but hidden even from itself by a veil of beautiful sentiments. 
This terrible solecism has existed in all ages. Romish sentimentalism has often covered infidelity and 
vice; Protestant straightness often lauds spirituality and faith, and neglects homely truth, candor, and 
generosity; and ultra-liberal Rationalistic refinement sometimes soars to heaven in its dreams, and 
wallows in the mire of earth in its deeds. 

There may be a world of Masonic sentiment; and yet a world of little or no Masonry. In many minds 
there is a vague and generál sentiment of Masonic charity, generosity, and disinterestedness, but no 
practical, active virtue, nor habitual kindness, šelf sacrifice, or liberality. Masonry plays about them like 
the cold though brilliant lights that flush and eddy over Northern skies. There are occasional flashes of 
generous and manly feeling, transitory splendours, and momentary gleams of just and noble thought, 
and transient coruscations, that light the Heaven of their imagination; but there is no vital warmth in the 
heart; and it remains as cold and sterile as the Arctic or Antarctic regions. They do nothing; they gain 
no victories over themselves; they make no progress; they are still in the Northeast corner of the Lodge, 
as when they first stood there as Apprentices; and they do not cultivate Masonry, with a cultivation, 
determined, resolute, and regular, like their cultivation of their estate, profession, or knowledge. Their 
Masonry takés its chance in generál and inefficient sentiment, mournfully barren of results; in words 
and formulas and fine professions. 

Most men háve sentiments, but not principles. The former are temporary sensations, the latter 
permanent and controlling impressions of goodness and virtue. The former are generál and involuntary, 

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and do not rise to the character of virtue. Every one feels them. They flash up spontaneously in every 
heart. The latter are rules of action, and shape and control our conduct; and it is these that Masonry 
insists upon. 

We approve the right; but pursue the wrong. It is the old story of human deficiency. No one abets or 
praises injustice, fraud, oppression, covetousness, revenge, envy or slander; and yet how many who 
condemn these things, are themselves guilty of them. It is no rare thing for him whose indignation is 
kindled at a tale of wicked injustice, cruel oppression base slander, or misery inflicted by unbridled 
indulgence; whose anger flames in behalf of the injured and ruined victims of wrong; to be in some 
relation unjust, or oppressive, or envious, or self-indulgent, or a careless talker of others. How 
wonderfully indignant the penurious man often is, at the avarice or want of public spirit of another! 

A great Preacher well said, "Therefore thou art inexcusable. O Man, whosoever thou art, that judgest; 
for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself: for thou that judgest, doest the samé things." 
It is amazing to see how men can talk of virtue and honour, whose life denies both. It is curious to see 
with what a marvellous facility many bad men quote Scripture. It seems to comfort their evil 
consciences, to use good words; and to gloze over bad deeds with holý texts, wrested to their purpose. 
Often, the more a man talks about Charity and Toleration, the less he has of either; the more he talks 
about Virtue, the smaller stock he has of it. The mouth speaks out of the abundance of the heart; but 
often the very reverse of what the man practises. And the vicious and sensual often express, and in a 
sense feel, strong disgust at vice and sensuality. Hypocrisy is not so common as is imagined. 

Here, in the Lodge, virtue and vice are matters of reflection and feeling only. There is little opportunity 
here, for the practice of either; and Masons yield to the argument here, with facility and readiness; 
because nothing is to follow. It is easy, and safe, here, too feel upon these matters. But to-morrow, when 
they breathe the atmosphere of worldly gains and competitions, and the passions are again stirred at the 
opportunities of unlawful pleasure, all their fine emotions about virtue, all their generous abhorrence of 
selfishness and sensuality, melt away like a morning cloud. 

For the time, their emotions and sentiments are sincere and reál. Men may be really, in a certain way, 
interested in Masonry, while fatally deficient in virtue. It is not always hypocrisy. Men pray most 
fervently and sincerely, and yet are constantly guilty of acts so bad and base, so ungenerous and 
unrighteous, that the crimes that crowd the dockets of our courts are scarcely worse. 

A man may be a good sort of man in generál, and yet a very bad man in particular: good in the Lodge 
and bad in the world; good in public, and bad in his family; good at home, and bad on a journey or in a 
strange city. Many a man earnestly desires to be a good Mason. He says so, and is sincere. But if you 
require him to resist a certain passion, to sacrifice a certain indulgence, to control his appetite at a 

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particular feast, or to keep his temper in a dispute, you will find that he does not wish to be a good 
Mason, in that particular čase; or, wishing, is not able to resist his worst impulses. 

The duties of life are more than life. The law imposeth it upon every citizen, that he prefer the urgent 
service of his country before the safety of his life. If a man be commanded, saith a great writer, to bring 
ordnance or munition to relieve any of the King's towns that are distressed, then he cannot for any 
danger of tempest justify the throwing of them overboard; for there it holdeth which was spoken by the 
Roman, when the samé necessity of weather was alleged to hold him from embarking: "Necesse est ut 
eam, non ut vivam :" it needs that I go: it is not necessary I should live. 

How ungratefully he slinks away, who dies, and does nothing to reflect a glory to Heaven ! How barren 
a tree he is, who lives, and spreads, and cumbers the ground, yet leaves not one seed, not one good work 
to generate another after him ! All cannot leave alike; yet all may leave something, answering their 
proportions and their kinds. Those are dead and withered grains of corn, out of which there will not one 
ear spring. He will hardly find the way to Heaven, who desires to go thither alone. 

Industry is nevěr wholly unfruitful. If it bring not joy with the incoming profit, it will yet banish 
mischief from thy busied gates. There is a kind of good angel waiting upon Diligence that ever carries a 
laurel in his hand to crown her. How unworthy was that man of the world who nevěr did aught, but only 
lived and died! That we háve liberty to do anything, we should account it a gift from the favouring 
Heavens; that we háve minds sometimes inclining us to use that liberty well, is a great bounty of the 

Masonry is action, and not inertness. It requires its Initiates to WORK, actively and earnestly, for the 
benefit of their brethren, their country, and mankind. It is the patron of the oppressed, as it is the 
comforter and consoler of the unfortunate and wretched. It seems to it a worthier honour to be the 
instrument of advancement and reform, than to enjoy all that rank and office and lofty titles can bestow. 
It is the advocate of the common people in those things which concern the best interests of mankind. It 
hates insolent power and impudent usurpation. It pities the poor, the sorrowing, the disconsolate; it 
endeavours to raise and improve the ignorant, the sunken, and the degraded. 

Its fidelity to its mission will be accurately evidenced, by the extent of the efforts it employs, and the 
means it sets on foot, to improve the people at large and to better their condition; chiefest of which, 
within its reach, is to aid in the education of the children of the poor. An intelligent people, informed of 
its rights, will soon come to know its power, and cannot long be oppressed; but if there be not a sound 
and virtuous populace, the elaboráte ornaments at the top of the pyramid of society will be a wretched 
compensation for the want of solidity at the base. It is nevěr safe for a nation to repose on the lap of 
ignorance: and if there ever was a time when public tranquillity was insured by the absence of 

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knowledge, that season is past. Unthinking stupidity cannot sleep, without being appalled by phantoms 
and shaken by terrors. The improvement of the mass of the people is the grand security for popular 
liberty; in the neglect of which, the politeness, refinement, and knowledge accumulated in the higher 
orders and wealthier classes will some day perish like dry grass in the hot fire of popular fůry. 

It is not the mission of Masonry to engage in plots and conspiracies against the civil government. It is 
not the fanatical propagandist of any creed or theory; nor does it proclaim itself the enemy of kings. It is 
the apostle of liberty, equality, and fraternity; but it is no more the high-priest of republicanism than of 
constitutional monarchy. It contracts no entangling alliances with any séct of theorists, dreamers, or 
philosophers. It does not know those as its Initiates who assail the civil order and all lawful authority, at 
the samé time that they propose to deprive the dying of the consolations of religion. It sits apart from 
all sects and creeds, in its own calm and simple dignity, the samé under every government. It is still that 
which it was in the cradle of the human race, when no human foot had trodden the soil of Assyria and 
Egypt, and no colonies had crossed the Himalayas into Southern India, Media, or Etruria. 

It gives no countenance to anarchy and licentiousness; and no illusion of glory, or extravagant 
emulation of the ancients inflames it with an unnatural thirst for ideál and Utopian liberty. It teaches 
that in rectitude of life and sobriety of habits is the only sure guarantee for the continuance of political 
freedom, and it is chiefly the soldier of the sanctity of the laws and the rights of conscience. 

It recognizes it as a truth, that necessity, as well as abstract right and ideál justice, must háve its part in 
the making of laws, the administration of affairs, and the regulation of relations in society. It sees, 
indeed, that necessity rules in all the affairs of man. It knows that where any man, or any number or 
race of men, are so imbecile of intellect, so degraded, so incapable of šelf control, so inferior in the 
scale of humanity, as to be unfit to be intrusted with the highest prerogatives of citizenship, the great 
law of necessity, for the peace and safety of the community and country, requires them to remain under 
the control of those of larger intellect and superior wisdom. It trusts and believes that God will, in his 
own good time, work out his own great and wise purposes; and it is willing to wait, where it does not 
see its own way clear to some certain good. 

It hopes and longs for the day when all the races of men, even the lowest, will be elevated, and become 
fitted for political freedom; when, like all other evils that afflict the earth, pauperism, and bondage or 
abject dependence, shall cease and disappear. But it does not preach revolution to those who are fond of 
kings, nor rebellion that can end only in disaster and defeat, or in substituting one tyrant for another, or 
a multitude of despots for one. 

Wherever a people is fit to be free and to govern itself, and generously strives to be so, there go all its 
sympathies. It detests the tyrant, the lawless oppressor, the military usurper, and him who abuses a 

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lawful power. It frowns upon cruelty, and a wanton disregard of the rights of humanity. It abhors the 
selfish employer, and exerts its influence to lighten the burdens which want and dependence impose 
upon the workman, and to foster that humanity and kindness which man owes to even the poorest and 
most unfortunate brother. 

It can nevěr be employed, in any country under Heaven, to teach a toleration for cruelty, to weaken 
moral hatred for guilt, or to deprave and brutalize the human mind. The dread of punishment will nevěr 
make a Mason an accomplice in so corrupting his countrymen, and a teacher of depravity and barbarity. 
If anywhere, as has heretofore happened, a tyrant should send a satirist on his tyranny to be convicted 
and punished as a libeller, in a court of justice, a Mason, if a juror in such a čase, though in sight of the 
scaffold streaming with the blood of the innocent, and within hearing of the clash of the bayonets meant 
to overawe the court, would rescue the intrepid satirist from the tyranťs fangs, and send his officers out 
from the court with defeat and disgrace. 

Even if all law and liberty were trampled under the feet of Jacobinical demagogues or a military 
banditti, and great crimes were perpetrated with a high hand against all who were deservedly the 
objects of public veneration; if the people, overthrowing law, roared like a sea around the courts of 
justice, and demanded the blood of those who, during the temporary fit of insanity and drunken 
delirium, had chanced to become odious to it, for true words manfully spoken, or unpopular acts 
bravely doně, the Masonic juror, unawed alike by the single or the many-headed tyrant, would consult 
the dictates of duty alone, and stand with a noble firmness between the human tigers and their coveted 

The Mason would much rather pass his life hidden in the recesses of the deepest obscurity, feeding his 
mind even with the visions and imaginations of good deeds and noble actions, than to be placed on the 
most splendid throne of the universe, tantalized with a denial of the practice of all which can make the 
greatest situation any other than the greatest curse. And if he has been enabled to lend the slightest step 
to any great and laudable designs; if he has had any share in any measure giving quiet to private 
property and to private conscience, making lighter the yoke of poverty and dependence, or relieving 
deserving men from oppression; if he has aided in securing to his countrymen that best possession, 
peace; if he has joined in reconciling the different sections of his own country to each other, and the 
people to the government of their own creating; and in teaching the citizen to look for his protection to 
the laws of his country, and for his comfort to the good- will of his countrymen; if he has thus taken his 
part with the best of men in the best of their actions, he may well shut the book, even if he might wish 
to read a page or two more. It is enough for his measure. He has not lived in vain. 

Masonry teaches that all power is delegated for the good, and not for the injury of the People; and that, 
when it is perverted from the originál purpose, the compact is broken, and the right ought to be 
resumed; that resistance to power usurped is not merely a duty which man owes to himself and to his 

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neighbour, but a duty which he owes to his God, in asserting and maintaining the rank which He gave 
him in the creation. This principle neither the rudeness of ignorance can stifle nor the enervation of 
refinement extinguish. It makes it base for a man to suffer when he ought to act; and, tending to 
preserve to him the originál destinations of Providence, spurns at the arrogant assumptions of tyrants 
and vindicates the independent quality of the race of which we are a part. 

The wise and well-informed Mason will not fail to be the votary of Liberty and Justice. He will be 
ready to exert himself in their defence, wherever they exist. It cannot be a matter of indifference to him 
when, his own liberty and that of other men, with whose merits and capacities he is acquainted, are 
involved in the event of the struggle to be made; but his attachment will be to the cause, as the cause of 
man; and not merely to the country. Wherever there is a people that understands the value of political 
justice, and is prepared to assert it, that is his country; wherever he can most contribute to the diffusion 
of these principles and the reál happiness of mankind, that is his country. Nor does he desire for any 
country any other benefit than justice. 

The true Mason identifies the honour of his country with his own. Nothing more conduces to the 
beauty and glory of one's country than the preservation against all enemies of its civil and religious 
liberty. The world will nevěr willingly let die the names of those patriots who in her different ages háve 
received upon their own breasts the blows aimed by insolent enemies at the bosom of their country. 

But also it conduces, and in no small measure, to the beauty and glory of one's country, that justice 
should always be administered there to all alike, and neither denied, sold, nor delayed to any one; that 
the interest of the poor should be looked to, and none starve or be houseless, or clamor in vain for work; 
that the child and the feeble woman should not be overworked, or even the apprentice or slavě be stinted 
of food or overtasked or mercilessly scourged; and that Goďs great laws of mercy, humanity, and 
compassion should be everywhere enforced, not only by the statutes, but also by the power of public 
opinion. And he who labours, often against reproach and obloquy, and oftener against indifference and 
apathy, to bring about that fortunate condition of things when that great code of divine law shall be 
everywhere and punctually obeyed, is no less a patriot than he who bares his bosom to the hostile steel 
in the ranks of his country's soldiery. 

For fortitude is not only seen resplendent on the field of battle and amid the clash of arms, but he 
displays its energy under every difficulty and against every assailant. He who wars against cruelty, 
oppression, and hoary abuses, fights for his country's honour, which these things soil; and her honour is 
as important as her existence. Often, indeed, the warfare against those abuses which disgrace one's 
country is quite as hazardous and more discouraging than that against her enemies in the field; and 
merits equal, if not greater reward. 

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For those Greeks and Romans who are the objects of our admiration employed hardly any other virtue 
in the extirpation of tyrants, than that love of liberty, which made them prompt in seizing the sword, 
and gave them strength to use it. With facility they accomplish the undertaking, amid the generál shout 
of praise and joy; nor did they engage in the attempt so much as an enterprise of perilous and doubtful 
issue, as a contest the most glorious in which virtue could be signalized; which infallibly led to present 
recompense; which bound their brows with wreaths of laurel, and consigned theřr memories to 
immortal fame. 

But he who assails hoary abuses, regarded perhaps with a superstitious reverence, and around which old 
laws stand as ramparts and bastions to defend them; who denounces acts of cruelty and outrage on 
humanity which make every perpetrator thereof his personál enemy, and perhaps make him looked 
upon with suspicion by the people among whom he lives, as the assailant of an established order of 
things of which he assails only the abuses, and of laws of which he attacks only the violations,-he can 
scarcely look for present recompense, nor that his living brows will be wreathed with laurel. And if, 
contending against a dark array of long-received opinions, superstitions, obloquy, and fears, which most 
men dread more than they do an army terrible with banners, the Mason overcomes, and emerges from 
the contest victorious; or if he does not conquer, but is borne down and swept away by the mighty 
current of prejudice, passion, and interest; in either čase, the loftiness of spirit which he displays merits 
for him more than a mediocrity of fame. 

He has already lived too long who has survived the ruin of his country; and he who can enjoy life after 
such an event deserves not to háve lived at all. Nor does he any more deserve to live who looks 
contentedly upon abuses that disgrace, and cruelties that dishonour, and scenes of misery and 
destitution and brutalization that disfigure his country; or sordid meanness and ignoble revenges that 
make her a by-word and a scoff among all generous nations; and does not endeavour to remedy or 
prevent either. 

Not often is a country at war; nor can every one be allowed the privilege of offering his heart to the 
enemy's bullets. But in these patriotic labours of peace, in preventing, remedying, and reforming evils, 
oppressions, wrongs, cruelties, and outrages, every Mason can unitě; and every one can effect 
something, and share the honour and glory of the result. 

For the cardinal names in the history of the human mind are few and easily to be counted up; but 
thousands and tens of thousands spend their days in the preparations which are to speed the predestined 
change, in gathering and amassing the materials which are to kindle and give light and warmth, when 
the fire from heaven shall háve descended on them. Numberless are the sutlers and pioneers, the 
engineers and artisans, who attend the march of intellect. Many move forward in detachments, and level 
the way over which the chariot is to pass, and cut down the obstacles that would impede its progress; 
and these too háve their reward. If they labour diligently and faithfully in their calling, not only will 

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they enjoy that calm contentment which diligence in the lowliest task nevěr fails to win; not only will 
the sweat of their brows be sweet, and the sweetener of the rest that follows; but, when the victory is at 
last achieved, they will come in for a share in the glory; even as the meanest soldier who fought at 
Marathon or at King's Mountain became a sharer in the glory of those saving days; and within his own 
household circle, the approbation of which approaches the nearest to that of an approving conscience, 
was looked upon as the representative of all his brother-heroes; and could telí such tales as made the 
tear glisten on the cheek of his wife, and ]it up his boy'.s eyes with an unwonted sparkling eagerness. 
Or, if he fell in the fight, and his pláce by the fireside and at the table at home was thereafter vacant, 
that pláce was sacred; and he was often talked of there in the long winter evenings; and his family was 
deemed fortunate in the neighbourhood, because it had had a hero in it, who had fallen in defence of his 

Remember that life's length is not measured by its hours and days but by that which we háve doně 
therein for our country and kind. A useless life is short. if it last a century; but that of Alexander was 
long as the life of the oak, though he died at thirty-five. We may do much in a few years, and we may 
nothing in a lifetime. If we but eat and drink and sleep, and everything go on around us as it pleases; or 
if we live but amass wealth or gain office or wear titles, we might as well not háve lived at all; nor háve 
we any right to expect immortality. 

Forget not, therefore, to what you háve devoted yourself in this Degree: defend weakness against 
strength, the friendless against the great, the oppressed against the oppressor! Be ever vigilant and 
watchful of the interests and honour of your country! and may the Grand Architect of the Universe give 
you that strength and wisdom which shall enable you well and faithfully to perform these high duties! 


[Elu of the Fifteen] 

This degree is devoted to the samé objects as those of the Elu of Nině; and also to the cause of 
Toleration and Liberality against Fanaticism and Persecution, political and religious; and to that of 
Education, Instruction, and Enlightenment against Error, Barbarism, and Ignorance. To these 

objects you háve řrrevocably and forever devoted your hand, your heart, and your intellect; and 
whenever in your presence a Chapter of this Degree is opened, you will be most solemnly reminded of 
your vows here taken at the altar. 

Toleration, holding that every other man has the samé right to his opinion and faith that we háve to 
ours; and liberality, holding that as no human being can with certainty say, in the clash and conflict of 

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hostile faiths and creeds, what is truth, or that he is surely in possession of it, so every one should feel 
that it is quite possible that another equally honest and sincere with himself, and yet holding the 
contrary opinion, may himself be in possession of the truth, and that whatever one firmly and 
conscientiously believes, is truth, to him - these are the mortal enemies of that fanaticism which 
persecutes for opinioďs saké, and initiates crusades against whatever it, in its imaginary holiness, 
deems to be contrary to the law of God or verity of dogma. And education, instruction, and 
enlightenment are the most certain means by which fanaticism and intolerance can be rendered 

No true Mason scoffs at honest convictions and an ardent zeal in the cause of what one believes to be 
truth and justice. But he does absolutely děny the right of any man to assume the prerogative of Deity, 
and condemn anotheťs faith and opinions as deserving to be punished because heretical. Nor does he 
approve the course of those who endanger the peace and quiet of great nations, and the best interest of 
their own race by indulging in a chimerical and visionary philanthropy - a luxury which chiefly consists 
in drawing their robes around them to avoid contact with their fellows, and proclaiming themselves 
holier than they. For he knows that such follies are often more calamitous than the ambition of kings; 
and that intolerance and bigotry háve been infinitely greater curses to mankind than ignorance and 
error. Better any error than persecution! Better any opinion than the thumb-screw, the rack, and the 
stake! And he knows also how unspeakably absurd it is, for a creature to whom himself and everything 
around him are mysteries, to torture and slay others, because they cannot think as he does in regard to 
the profoundest of those mysteries, to understand which is utterly beyond the comprehension of either 
the persecutor or the persecuted. 

Masonry is not a religion. He who makes of it a religious belief, falsifies and denaturalizes it. The 
Brahmin, the Jew, the Mahometan, the Catholic, the Protestant, each professing his peculiar religion, 
sanctioned by the laws, by time, and by climate, must needs retain it, and cannot háve two religions; for 
the sociál and sacred laws adapted to the usages, manners, and prejudices of particular countries, are 
the work of men. But Masonry teaches, and has preserved in their purity, the cardinal tenets of the old 
primitive faith, which underlie and are the foundation of all religions. AU that ever existed háve had a 
basis of truth; and all háve overlaid that truth with errors. The primitive truths taught by the Redeemer 
were sooner corrupted, and intermingled and alloyed with fictions than when taught to the first of our 
race. Masonry is the universal morality which is suitable to the inhabitants of every clime, to the man 
of every creed. It has taught no doctrines, except those truths that tend directly to the well-being of 
man; and those who háve attempted to direct it toward useless vengeance, political ends, and Jesuitism, 
háve merely perverted it to purposes foreign to its pure spirit and reál nature. 

Mankind outgrows the sacrifices and the mythologies of the childhood of the world. Yet it is easy for 
human indolence to linger near these helps, and refuse to pass further on. So the unadventurous Nomad 
in the Tartarian wild keeps his flock in the samé close-cropped circle where they first learned to 
browse, while the progressive man roves ever forth "to fresh fields and pastures new." The latter is the 

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true Mason; and the best and indeed the only good Mason is he who with the power of business does 
the work of life; the upright mechanic, merchant, or farmer, the man with the power of thought, of 
justice, or of love, he whose whole life is one great act of performance of Masonic duty. The natural 
čase of the strength of a strong man or the wisdom of a wise one, is to do the work of a strong man or a 
wise one. 

The natural work of Masonry is practical life; the use of all the faculties in their proper spheres, and for 
their natural function. Love of Truth, justice, and generosity as attributes of God, must appear in a life 
marked by these qualities; that is the only effectual ordinance of Masonry. A profession of one's 
convictions, joining the Order, assuming the obligations, assisting at the ceremonies, are of the samé 
value in science as in Masonry; the natural form of Masonry is goodness, morality, living a true, just, 
affectionate, self-faithful life, from the motive of a good man. It is loyal obedience to Goďs law. 

The good Mason does the good thing which comes in his way, and because it comes in his way; from a 
love of duty, and not merely because a law, enacted by man or God, commands his will to do it. He is 
true to his mind, his conscience, heart, and soul, and feels small temptation to do to others what he 
would not wish to receive from them. He will děny himself for the saké of his brother near at hand. His 
desire attracts in the line of his duty, both being in conjunction. Not in vain does the poor or the 
oppressed look up to him. You find such men in all Christian sects, Protestant and Catholic, in all the 
great religious parties of the civilized world, among Buddhists, Mahometans, and Jews. They are kind 
fathers, generous citizens, unimpeachable in their business, beautiful in their daily lives. You see their 
Masonry in their work and in their play. It appears in all the forms of their activity, individual, 
domestic, sociál, ecclesiastical, or political. True Masonry within must be morality without. It must be 
come eminent morality, which is philanthropy. The true Mason loves not only his kindred and his 
country, but all mankind; not only the good, but also the evil, among his brethren. He has more 
goodness than the channels of his daily life will hold. It runs over the banks, to water and to feed a 
thousand thirsty plants. Not content with the duty that lies along his track, he goes out to seek it; not 
only willing, he has a salient longing to do good, to spread his truth, his justice, his generosity, his 
Masonry over all the world. His daily life is a profession of his Masonry, published in perpetual good- 
will to men. He can not be a persecutor. Not more naturally does the beaver build or the mocking-bird 
sing his own wild, gushing melody, than the true Mason lives in this beautiful outward life. So from the 
perennial spring swells forth the stream, to quicken the meadow with new access of green, and perfect 
beauty bursting into bloom. Thus Masonry does the work it was meant to do. The Mason does not sigh 
and weep, and make grimaces. He lives right on. If his life is, as whose is not, marked with errors, and 
with sins, he ploughs over the barren spot with his remorse, sows with new seed, and the old desert 
blossoms like a rose. He is not confined to set forms of thought, of action, or of feeling. He accepts 
what his mind regards as true, what his conscience decides is right, what his heart deems generous and 
noble; and all else he puts far from him. Though the ancient and the honorable of the Earth bid him 
bow down to them, his stubborn knees bend only at the bidding of his manly soul. His Masonry is his 
freedom before God, not his bondage unto men. His mind acts after the universal law of the intellect, 
his conscience according to the universal moral law, his affections and his soul after the universal law 

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of each, and so he is strong with the strength of God, in this four-fold way communicating with Him. 

The old theologies, the philosophies of religion of ancient times, will not suffice us now. The duties of 
life are to be doně; we are to do them, consciously obedient to the law of God, not atheistically, loving 
only our selfish gain. There are sins of trade to be corrected. Everywhere morality and philanthropy are 
needed. There are errors to be made way with, and their pláce supplied with new truths, radiant with 
the glories of Heaven. 

There are great wrongs and evils, in Church and State, in domestic, sociál, and public life, to be righted 
and outgrown. Masonry cannot in our age forsake the broad way of life. She must journey on in the 
open street, appear in the crowded square, and teach men by her deeds, her life more eloquent than any 

This Degree is chiefly devoted to TOLERATION; and it inculcates in the strongest manner that great 
leading idea of the Ancient Art, that a belief in the one True God, and a moral and virtuous life, 
constitute the only religious requisites needed to enable a man to be a Mason. 

Masonry has ever the most vivid remembrance of the terrible and artificial torments that were ušed to 
put down new forms of religion or extinguish the old. It sees with the eye of memory the ruthless 
extermination of all the people of all sexes and ages, because it was their misfortune not to know the 
God of the Hebrews, or to worship Him under the wrong name, by the savage troops of Moses and 
Joshua. It sees the thumb-screws and the racks, the whip, the gallows, and the stake, the victims of 
Diocletian and Alva, the miserable Covenanters, the Non-Conformists, Servetus burned, and the 
unoffending Quaker hung. It sees Cranmer hold his arm, now no longer erring, in the fláme until the 
hand drops off in the consuming heat. It sees the persecutions of Peter and Paul, the martyrdom of 
Stephen, the trials of Ignatius, Polycarp, Justin, and Iren^us; and then in turn the sufferings of the 
wretched Pagans under the Christian Emperors, as of the Papists in Ireland and under Elizabeth and the 
bloated Henry. The Roman Virgin naked before the hungry lions; young Margaret Graham tied to a 
stake at low-water mark, and there left to drown, singing hymns to God until the savage waters broke 
over her head; and all that in all ages háve suffered by hunger and nakedness, peril and prison, the rack, 
the stake, and the sword, it sees them all, and shudders at the long roli of human atrocities. And it sees 
also the oppression still practised in the name of religion - men shot in a Christian jail in Christian Italy 
for reading the Christian Bible; in almost every Christian State, laws forbidding freedom of speech on 
matters relating to Christianity; and the gallows reaching its arm over the pulpit. 

The fires of Moloch in Syria, the harsh mutilations in the name of Astarte, Cybele, Jehovah; the 
barbarities of imperiál Pagan Torturers; the still grosser torments which Roman-Gothic Christians in 
Italy and Spain heaped on their brother-men; the fiendish cruelties to which Switzerland, France, the 

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Netherlands, England, Scotland, Ireland, America, háve been witnesses, are none too powerful to warn 
man of the unspeakable evils which follow from mistakes and errors in the matter of religion, and 
especially from investing the God of Love with the cruel and vindictive passions of erring humanity, 
and making blood to háve a sweet savor in his nostrils, and groans of agony to be delicious to his ears. 

Man nevěr had the right to usurp the unexercised prerogative of God, and condemn and punish another 
for his belief. Born in a Protestant land, we are of that faith. If we had opened our eyes to the light 
under the shadows of St. Peteťs at Róme, we should háve been devout Catholics; born in the Jewish 
quarter of Aleppo, we should háve contemned Christ as an imposter; in Constantinople, we should háve 
cried "Alláh il Alláh, God is great and Mahomet is his prophet!" Birth, pláce, and education give us 
our faith. Few believe in any religion because they háve examined the evidences of its authenticity, and 
made up a formal judgment, upon weighing the testimony. Not one man in ten thousand knows 
anything about the proofs of his faith. We believe what we are taught; and those are most fanatical who 
know least of the evidences on which their creed is based. Facts and testimony are not, except in very 
rare instances, the ground-work of faith. It is an imperative law of Goďs Economy, unyielding and 
inflexible as Himself, that man shall accept without question the belief of those among whom he is 
born and reared; the faith so made a part of his nature resists all evidence to the contrary; and he will 
disbelieve even the evidence of his own senses, rather than yield up the religious belief which has 
grown up in him, flesh of his flesh and bone of his bone. 

What is truth to me is not truth to another. The samé arguments and evidences that convince one mind 
make no impression on another. This difference is in men at their birth. No man is entitled positively to 
assert that he is right, where other men, equally intelligent and equally well informed, hold directly the 
opposite opinion. Each thinks it impossible for the other 'to be sincere, and each, as to that, is equally in 
error. "What is truth?" was a profound question, the most suggestive one ever put to man. 

Many beliefs of former and present times seem incomprehensible. They startle us with a new glimpse 
into the human soul, that mysterious thing more mysterious the more we notě its workings. Here is a 
man superior to myself in intellect and learning; and yet he sincerely believes what seems to me too 
absurd to merit confutation; and I cannot conceive, and sincerely do not believe,that he is both saně and 

And yet he is both. His reason is as perfect as mine, and he is as honest as I. The fancies of a lunatic are 
realities, to him. Our dreams are realities while they last; and, in the Past, no more unreal than what we 
háve acted in our waking hours. No man can say that he hath as sure possession of the truth as of a 
chattel. When men entertain opinions diametrically opposed to each other, and each is honest, who 
shall decide which hath the Truth; and how can either say with certainty that he hath it? We know not 
what is the truth. That we ourselves believe and feel absolutely certain that our own belief is true, is in 
reality not the slightest proof of the fact, seem it nevěr so certain and incapable of doubt to us. No man 

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is responsible for the rightness of his faith; but only for the uprightness of it. 

Therefore no man hath or ever had a right to persecute another for his belief ; for there cannot be two 
antagonistic rights; and if one can persecute another, because he himself is satisfied that the belief of 
that other is erroneous, the other has, for the samé reason, equally as certain 

a right to persecute him. 

The truth comes to us tinged and colored with our prejudices and our preconceptions, which are as old 
as ourselves, and strong with a divine force. It comes to us as the image of a rod comes to us through 
the water, bent and distorted. An argument sinks into and convinces the mind of one man, while from 
that of another it rebounds like a balí of ivory dropped on marble. It is no merit in a man to háve a 
particular faith, excellent and sound and philosophic as it may be, when he imbibed it with his moťheťs 
milk. It is no more a merit than his prejudices and his passions. 

The sincere Moslem has as much right to persecute us, as we to persecute him; and therefore Masonry 
wisely requires no more than a belief in One Great All-Powerful Deity, the Father and Preserver of the 
Universe. Therefore it is she teaches her votaries that toleration is one of the chief duties of every good 
Mason, a component part of that charity without which we are mere hollow images of true Masons, 
mere sounding brass and tinkling cymbals. 

No evil hath so afflicted the world as intolerance of religious opinion. The human beings it has slain in 
various ways, if once and together brought to life, would make a nation of people; left to live and 
increase, would háve doubled the population of the civilized portion of the globe; among which 
civilized portion it chiefly is that religious wars are waged. 

The treasure and the human labor thus lost would háve made the earth a garden, in which, but for his 
evil passions, man might now be as happy as in Eden. 

No man truly obeys the Masonic law who merely tolerates those whose religious opinions are opposed 
to his own. Every man's opinions are his own private property, and the rights of all men to maintain 
each his own are perfectly equal. Merely to tolerate, to bear with an opposing opinion, is to assume it to 
be heretical; and assert the right to persecute, if we would; and claim our toleration of it as a merit. The 
Mason's creed goes further than that. No man, it holds, has any right in any way to, interfere with the 
religious belief of another. It holds that each mat] is absolutely sovereign as to his own belief, and that 
belief is a matter absolutely foreign to all who do not entertain the samé belief; and that, if there were 
any right of persecution at all, it would in all cases be a mutual right; because one party has the samé 
right as the other to sit as judge in his own čase; and God is the only magistráte that can rightfully 

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decide between them. To lhát great judge, Masonry refers the matter; and opening wide its portals, it 
invites to enter there and live in peace and harmony, the Protestant, the Catholic, the Jew, the Moslem; 
every man who will lead a truly virtuous and moral life, love his brethren, sinister to the sick and 
distressed, and believe in the ONE, All Powerful, All-Wise, everywhere - Present GOD, Architect, 
Creator, and Preserver of all things, by whose universal law of Harmony ever rolls on this universe, the 
great, vast, infinite circle of successive Death and Life:- to whose INEFFABLE NAME let all true 
Masons pay profoundest homage! for whose thousand blessings poured upon us, let us feel the sincerest 
gratitude, now, henceforth, and forever! 

We may well be tolerant of each otheťs creed; for in every faith there are excellent moral precepts. Far 
in the South of Asia, Zoroaster taught this doctrine: "On commencing a journey, the Faithful should 
turn his thoughts toward Ormuzd, and confess him, in the purity of his heart, to be King of the World; 
he should love him, do him homage, and serve him. He must be upright and charitable, despise the 
pleasures of the body, and avoid pride and haughtiness, and vice in all its forms, and especially 
'falsehood, one of the basest sins of which man can be guilty. He must forget injuries and not avenge 
himself. He must honor the memory of his parents and relatives. At night, before retiring to sleep, he 
should rigorously examine his conscience, and repent of the faults which weakness or ill-fortune had 
caused him to commit." He was required to pray for strength to persevere in the Good, and to obtain 
forgiveness for his errors. It was his duty to confess his faults to a Mágus, or to a layman renowned for 
his virtues, or to the Sun. Fasting and maceration were prohibited; and, on the contrary, it was his duty 
suitably to nourish the body and to maintain its vigor, that his soul might be strong to resist the Genius 
of Darkness; that he might more attentively read the Divine Word, and háve more courage to perform 
noble deeds. 

And in the North of Europe the Druids taught devotion to friends, indulgence for reciprocal wrongs, 
love of deserved praise, prudence, humanity, hospitality, respect for old age, disregard of the future, 
temperance, contempt of death, and a chivalrous deference to woman. 

Listen to these maxims from the Hava Maal, or Sublime Book of Odin: "If thou hast a friend, visit him 
often; the path will grow over with grass, and the trees soon cover it, if thou dost not constantly walk 
upon it. He is a faithful friend, who, having but two loaves, gives his friend one. Be nevěr first to break 
with thy friend; sorrow wrings the heart of him who has no one savé himself with whom to také 
counsel. There is no virtuous man who has not some vice, no bad man who has not some virtue. Happy 
he who obtains the praise and good- will of men; for all that depends on the will of another is hazardous 
and uncertain. Riches flit away in the twinkling of an eye; they are the most inconstant of friends; 
flocks and herds perish, parents die, friends are not immortal, thou thyself diest; I know but one thing 
that doth not die, the judgment that is passed upon the dead. Be humane toward those whom thou 
meetest on the road. If the guest that cometh to thy house is a - cold, give him fire; the man who has 
journeyed over the mountains needs food and dry garments. Mock not at the aged; for words full of 
sense come often from the wrinkles of age. Be moderately wise, and not over-prudent. Let no one seek 

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to know his destiny, if he would sleep tranquilly. There is no malady more cruel than to be discontented 
with our lot. The glutton eats his own death; and the wise man laughs at the fool's greediness. Nothing 
is more injurious to the young than excessive drinking; the more one drinks the more he loses his 
reason; the bird of forgetfulness sings before those who intoxicate themselves, and wiles away their 
souls. Man devoid of sense believes he will live always if he avoids war; but, if the lances spáre him, 
old age will give him no quarter. Better live well than live long. When a man lights a fire in his house, 
death comes before it goes out." And thus said the Indián books: "Honor thy father and mother. Nevěr 
forget the benefits thou hast received. Learn while thou art young. Be submissive to the laws of thy 
country. Seek the company of virtuous men. Speak not of God but with respect. Live on good terms 
with thy fellow-citizens. Remain in thy proper pláce. Speak ill of no one. Mock at the bodily infirmities 
of none. Pursue not unrelentingly a conquered enemy. Strive to acquire a good reputation. Také counsel 
with wise men. 

The more one learns, the more he acquires the faculty of learning, Knowledge is the most permanent 
wealth. As well be dumb as ignorant. The true use of knowledge is to distinguish good from evil. Be not 
a subject of shame to thy parents. What one learns in youth endures like the engraving upon a rock. He 
is wise who knows himself. Let thy books be thy best friends. When thou attainest an hundred years, 
cease to learn. Wisdom is solidly planted, even on the shifting oceán. Deceive no one, not even thine 
enemy. Wisdom is a treasure that everywhere commands its value. Speak mildly, even to the poor. It is 
sweeter to forgive than to také vengeance. Gaming and quarrels lead to misery. There is no true merit 
without the practice of virtue. To honor our mother is the most fitting homage we can pay the Divinity. 
There is no tranquil sleep without a clear conscience. He badly understands his interest who breaks his 

Twenty-four centuries ago these were the Chinese Ethics: "The Philosopher [Confucius] said, 'SAN! my 
doctrine is simple, and easy to be understood.' THSENG-TSEU replied, 'that is certain.' The 
Philosopher having gone out, the disciples asked what their master had meant to say. THSENG-TSEU 
responded, 'The doctrine of our Master consists solely in being upright of heart, and loving our 
neighbor as we love ourself." 

About a century later, the Hebrew law said, "If any man hatě his neighbor then shall ye do unto him, as 
he had thought to do unto his brother. Better is a neighbor that is near, than a brother afar off. Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." 

In the samé fifth century before Christ, SOCRATES the Grecian said, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as 
thyself." Three generations earlier, ZOROASTER had said to the Persians: "Offer up thy grateful 
prayers to the Lord, the most just and pure Ormuzd, the supreme and adorable God, who thus declared 
to his Prophet Zerdusht: 'Hold it not meet to do unto others what thou wouldst not desire doně unto 
thyself; do that unto the people, which, when doně to thyself, is not disagreeable unto thee.'" 

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The samé doctrine had been long taught in the schools of Babylon, Alexandria, and Jerusalem. A Pagan 
declared to the Pharisee HILLEL that he was ready to embrace the Jewish religion, if he could make 
known to him in a few words a summary of the whole law of Moses. "That which thou likest not doně 
to thyself," said Hillel, "do it not unto thy neighbor. 

Therein is all the law: the rest is nothing but the commentary upon it." "Nothing is more natural," said 
CONFUCIUS, "nothing more simple, than the principles of that morality which I endeavor, by salutary 
maxims, to inculcate in you. It is humanity; which is to say, that universal charity among all of our 
species, without distinction. It is uprightness; that is, that rectitude of spirit and of heart, which make; 
one seek for truth in everything, and desire it, without deceiving one's šelf or others. It is, finally, 
sincerity or good faith; which is to say, that frankness, that openness of heart, tempered by self-reliance, 
which excludes all feints and all disguising, as much in speech as in action." 

To diffuse useful information, to further intellectual refinement, sure forerunner of moral improvement, 
to hasten the coming of the great day, when the dawn of generál knowledge shalt, chase away the lazy, 
lingering mists of ignorance and error, even from the base of the great sociál pyramid, is indeed a high 
calling, in which the most splendid talents and consummate virtue may well press onward, eager to bear 
a part. From the Masonic ranks ought to go forth those whose genius and not theřr ancestry ennoble 
them, to open to all ranks the temple of science, and by theřr own example to make the humblest men 
emulous to climb steps no longer inaccessible, and enter the unfolded gates burning in the sun. 

The highest intellectual cultivation is perfectly compatible with the daily cares and toils of working- 
men. A keen relish for the most sublime truths of science belongs alike to every class of Mankind. And, 
as philosophy was taught in the sacred groves of Athens, and under the Portico, and in the old Temples 
of Egypt and India, so in our Lodges ought Knowledge to be dispensed, the Sciences taught, and the 
Lectures become like the teachings of Socrates and Plato, of Agassiz and Cousin. 

Reál knowledge nevěr permitted either turbulence or unbelief; but its progress is the forerunner of 
liberality and enlightened toleration. Whoso dreads these may well tremble; for he may be well assured 
that their day is at length come, and must put to speedy flight the evil spirits of tyranny and 
persecution, which haunted the long night now gone down the sky. 

And it is to be hoped that the time will soon arrive, when, as men will no longer suffer themselves to be 
led blindfolded in ignorance, so will they no more yield to the vile principle of judging and treating 
their fellow creatures, not according to the intrinsic merit of their actions, but according to the 
accidental and involuntary coincidence of their opinions. 

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Whenever we come to treat with entire respect those who conscientiously differ from ourselves, the 
only practical effect of a difference will be, to make us enlighten the ignorance on one side or the other, 
from which it springs, by instructing them, if it be theirs; ourselves, if it be our own; to the end that the 
only kind of unanimity may be produced which is desirable among rational beings, the agreement 
proceeding from Ml conviction after the freest discussion. 

The Elu of Fifteen ought therefore to také the lead of his fellow-citizen, not in frivolous amusements, 
not in the degrading pursuits of the ambitious vulgar; but in the truly noble task of enlightening the 
mass of his countrymen, and of leaving his own name encircled, not with barbaric splendor, or attached 
to courtly gewgaws, but illustrated by the honors most worthy of our rational nature; coupled with the 
diffusion of knowledge, and gratefully pronounced by a few, at least, whom his wise beneficence has 
rescued from ignorance and vice. We say to him, in the words of the great Roman: "Men in no respect 
so nearly approach to the Deity, as when they confer benefits on men. To serve and do good to as many 
as possible, - there is nothing greater in your fortuně than that you should be able, and nothing finer in 
your nature, than that you should be desirous to do this." This is the true mark for the aim of every man 
and Mason who either prizes the enjoyment of pure happiness, or sets a right value upon a high and 
unsullied renown. And if the benefactors of mankind, when they rest from their noble labors, shall be 
permitted to enjoy hereafter, as an appropriate reward of their virtue, the privilege of looking down 
upon the blessings with which their exertions and charities, and perhaps their toils and sufferings háve 
clothed the scene of their former existence, it will not, in a statě of exalted purity and wisdom, be the 
founders of mighty dynasties, the conquerors of new empires, the C^sars, Alexanders, and 
Tamerlanes; nor the mere Kings and Counsellors, Presidents and Senators, who háve lived for their 
party chiefly, and for their country only incidentally, often sacrificing to their own aggrandizement or 
that of their faction the good of their fellow creatures; it will not be they who will be gratified by 
contemplating the monuments of their inglorious fame; but those will enjoy that delight and march in 
that triumph, who can trace the remote effects of their enlightened benevolence in the improved 
condition of their species, and exult in the reflection, that the change which they at last, perhaps after 
many years, survey, with eyes that age and sorrow can make dim no more, of Knowledge become 
Power, Virtue sharing that Empire, Superstition dethroned, and Tyranny exiled, is, if even only in some 
small and very slight degree, yet still in some degree, the fruit, precious if costly, and though latě repaid 
yet long enduring, of their own self-denial and strenuous exertion, of their own mite of charity and aid 
to education wisely bestowed, and of the hardships and hazards which they encountered here below. 

Masonry requires of its Initiates and votaries nothing that is impracticable. It does not demand that they 
should undertake to climb to those lofty and sublime peaks of a theoretical and imaginary unpractical 
virtue, high and cold and remote as the eternal snows that wrap the shoulders of Chimborazo, and at 
least as inaccessible as they. It asks that alone to be doně which is easy to be doně. It overtasks no one's 
strength, and asks no one to go beyond his means and capacities. It does not expect one whose business 
or profession yields him little more than the wants of himself and his family require, and whose time is 
necessarily occupied by his daily vocations, to abandon or neglect the business by which he and his 
children live, and devote himself and his means to the diffusion of knowledge among men. It does not 

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expect him to publish books for the people, or to lecture, to the ruin of his private affairs, or to found 
academies and colleges, build up libraries, and entitle himself to statues. 

But it does require and expect every man of us to do something, within and according to his means; and 
there is no Mason who cannot do some thing, if not alone, then by combination and association. 

If a Lodge cannot aid in founding a school or an academy it can still do something. It can educate one 
boy or girl, at least, the child of some poor or departed brother. And it should nevěr be forgotten, that in 
the poorest unregarded child that seems abandoned to ignorance and vice may slumber the virtues of a 
Socrates, the intellect of a Bacon or a Bossuet, the genius of a Shakespeare, the capacity to benefit 
mankind of a Washington; and that in rescuing him from the mire in which he is plunged, and giving 
him the means of education and development, the Lodge that does it may be the direct and immediate 
means of conferring upon the world as great a boon as that given it by John Faust the boy of Mentz; 
may perpetuate the liberties of a country and change the destinies of nations, and write a new chapter in 
the history of the world. 

For we nevěr know the importance of the act we do. The daughter of Pharaoh little thought what she 
was doing for the human race, and the vast unimaginable consequences that depended on her charitable 
act, when she drew the little child of a Hebrew woman from among the rushes that grew along the bank 
of the Nile, and determined to rear it as if it were her own. 

How often has an act of charity, costing the doer little, given to the world a great painter, a great 
musician, a great inventor! How often has such an act developed the ragged boy into the benefactor of 
his race! On what small and apparently unimportant circumstances háve turned and hinged, the fates of 
the worlďs great conquerors. There is no law that limits the returns that shall be reaped from a single 
good deed. The widow's mite may not only be as acceptable to God, but may produce as great results as 
the rich man's costly offering. The poorest boy, helped by benevolence, may come to lead armies, to 
control senates, to decide an peace and war, to dictate to cabinets; and his magnificent thoughts and 
noble words may be law many years hereafter to millions of men yet unborn. 

But the opportunity to effect a great good does not often occur to any one. It is worse than foliy for one 
to lie idle and inert, and expect the accident to befall him, by which his influences shall live forever. He 
can expect that to happen, only in consequence of one or many or all of a long series of acts. 

He can expect to benefit the world only as men attain other results; by continuance, by persistence, by a 
steady and uniform hábit of laboring for the enlightenment of the world, to the extent of his means and 

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For it is, in all instances, by steady labor, by giving enough of application to our work, and having 
enough of time for the doing of it, by regular pains-taking, and the plying of constant assiduities, and 
not by any process of legerdemain, that we secure the strength and the staple of reál excellence. It was 
thus that Demosthenes, clause after clause, and sentence after sentence, elaborated to the uttermost his 
immortal orations. It was thus that Newton pioneered his way, by the steps of an ascending geometry, to 
the mechanism of the Heavens, and Le Verrier added a planet to our Solar System. 

It is a most erroneous opinion that those who háve left the most stupendous monuments of intellect 
behind them, were not differently exercised from the rest of the species, but only differently gifted; that 
they signalized themselves only by theřr talent, and hardly ever by theřr industry; for it is in truth to the 
most strenuous application of those commonplace faculties which are diffused among all, that they are 
indebted for the glories which now encircle their remembrance and theřr name. 

We must not imagine it to be a vulgarizing of genius, that it should be lighted up in any other way than 
by a direct inspiration from Heaven nor overlook the steadfastness of purpose, the devotion to some 
single but great object, the unweariedness of labor that is given, not in convulsive and preternatural 
throes, but by little and little as the strength of the mind may bear it; the accumulation of many small 
efforts, instead of a few grand and gigantic, but perhaps irregular movements, on the part of energies 
that are marvellous; by which former alone the great results are brought out that write their enduring 
records on the face of the earth and in the history of nations and of man. 

We must not overlook these elements, to which genius owes the best and proudest of her achievements; 
nor imagine that qualities so generálky possessed as patience and pains-taking, and resolute industry, 
háve no share in upholding a distinction so illustrious as that of the benefactor of his kind. 

We must not forget that great results are most ordinarily produced by an aggregate of many 
contributions and exertions; as it is the invisible particles of vapor, each separate and distinct from the 
other, that, rising from the oceans and their bays and gulfs, from lakes and rivers, and wide morasses 
and overflowed plains, float away as clouds, and distill upon the earth in dews, and fall in showers and 
rain and snows upon the broad plains and rudé mountains, and make the great navigable streams that 
are the arteries along which flows the life-blood of a country. 

And so Masonry can do much, if each Mason be content to do his share, and if their united efforts are 
directed by wise counsels to a common purpose. "It is for God and for Omnipotency to do mighty 
things in a moment; but by degrees to grow to greatness is the course that He hath left for man." 

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If Masonry will but be true to her mission, and Masons to their promises and obligations - if, re- 
entering vigorously upon a career of beneficence, she and they will but pursue it earnestly and 
unfalteringly, remembering that our contributions to the cause of charity and education then deserve the 
greatest credit when it costs us something, the curtailing of a comfort or the relinquishment of a luxury, 
to make them - if we will but give aid to what were once Masonry's great schemes for human 
improvement, not fitfully and spasmodically, but regularly and incessantly, as the vapors rise and the 
springs run, and as the sun rises and the stars come up into the heavens, then we may be sure that great 
results will be attained and a great work doně. And then it will most surely be seen that Masonry is not 
effete or impotent, nor degenerated nor drooping to a fatal decay. 


[Elu of the Twelve] 

The duties of a Prince Ameth are, to be earnest, true, reliable, and sincere; to protéct the people against 
illegal impositions and exactions; to contend for their political rights, and to see, as far as he may or 
can, that those bear the burdens who reap the benefits of the Government. 

- You are to be true unto all men. 

- You are to be frank and sincere in all things. 

- You are to be earnest in doing whatever it is your duty to do. 

And no man must repent that he has relied upon your resolve, your profession, or your word. 

The great distinguishing characteristic of a Mason is sympathy with his kind. He recognizes in the 
human race one great family, all connected with himself by those invisible links, and that mighty net- 
work of circumstance, forged and woven by God. 

Feeling that sympathy, it is his first Masonic duty to serve his fellow-man. 

At his first entrance into the Order, he ceases to be isolated, and becomes one of a great brotherhood, 
assuming now duties toward every Mason that lives, as every Mason at the samé moment assumes them 
toward him. 

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Nor are those duties on his part confined to Masons alone. He assumes many in regard to his country, 
and especially toward the great, suffering masses of the common people; for they too are his brethren, 
and God hears them, inarticulate as the moanings of their misery are. By all proper means, of 
persuasion and influence, and otherwise, if the occasion and emergency require, he is bound to defend 
them against oppression, and tyrannical and illegal exactions. He labors equally to defend and to 
improve the people. He does not flatter them to mislead them, nor fawn upon them to rule them, nor 
conceal his opinions to humor them, nor telí them that they can nevěr err, and that their voice is the 
voice of God. He knows that the safety of every free government, and its continuance and perpetuity 
depend upon the virtue and intelligence of the common people; and that, unless their liberty is of such a 
kind as arms can neither procure nor také away; unless it is the fruit of manly courage, of justice, 
temperance, and generous virtue unless, being such, it has taken deep root in the minds and hearts of 
the people at large, there will not long be wanting those who will snatch from them by treachery what 
they háve acquired by arms or institutions. 

He knows that if, after being released from the toils of war, the people neglect the arts of peace; if their 
peace and liberty be a statě of warfare; if war be their only virtue, and the summit of their praise, they 
will soon find peace the most adverse to their interests. It will be only a more distressing war; and that 
which they imagined liberty will be the worst of slavery. For, unless by the means of knowledge and 
morality, not frothy and loquacious, but genuine, unadulterated, and sincere, they clear the horizon of 
the mind from those mists of error and passion which arise from ignorance and vice, they will always 
háve those who will bend their necks to the yoke as if they were brutes; who, notwithstanding all their 
triumphs, will put them up to the highest bidder, as if they were mere booty made in war; and find an 
exuberant source of wealth and power, in the people's ignorance, prejudice, and passions. 

The people that does not subjugate the propensity of the wealthy to avarice, ambition, and sensuality, 
expel luxury from them and their families, keep down pauperism, diffuse knowledge among the poor, 
and labor to raise the abject from the mire of vice and low indulgence, and to keep the industrious from 
starving in sight of luxurious festivals, will find that it has cherished, in that avarice, ambition, 
sensuality, selfishness, and luxury of the one class, and that degradation, misery, drunkenness, 
ignorance, and brutalization of the other, more stubborn and intractable despots at home than it ever 
encountered in the field; and even its very bowels will be continually teeming with the intolerable 
progeny of tyrants. 

These are the first enemies to be subdued; this constitutes the campaign of Peace; these are triumphs, 
difficult indeed, but bloodless; and far more honorable than those trophies which are purchased only by 
slaughter and rapine; and if not victors in this service, it is in vain to háve been victorious over the 
despotic enemy in the field. 

For if any people thinks that it is a grander; a more beneficial, or a wiser policy, to invent subtle 
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expedients by stamps and imposts, for increasing the revenue and draining the life-blood of an 
impoverished people; to multiply its naval and military force; to rival in craft the ambassadors of 
foreign states; to plot the swallowing up of foreign territory; to make crafty treaties and alliances; to 
rule prostrate states and abject provinces by fear and force; than to administer unpolluted justice to the 
people, to relieve the condition and raise the estate of the toiling masses, redress the injured and succor 
the distressed and conciliate the discontented, and speedily restore to every one his own; then that 
people is involved in a cloud of error, and will too latě perceive, when the illusion of these mighty 
benefits has vanished, that in neglecting these, which it thought inferior considerations, it has only been 
precipitating its own ruin and despair. 

Unfortunately, every age presents its own speciál problém, most difficult and often impossible to solve; 
and that which this age offers, and forces upon the consideration of all chinking men, is this - how, in a 
populous and wealthy country, blessed with free institutions and a constitutional government, are the 
great masses of the manual-labor class to be enabled to háve steady work at fair wages, to be kept from 
starvation, and their children from vice and debauchery, and to be furnished with that degree, not of 
mere reading and writing, but of knowledge, that shall fit them intelligently to do the duties and 
exercise the privileges of freemen; even to be intrusted with the dangerous right of suffrage? 

For though we do not know why God, being infinitely merciful as well as wise, has so ordered it, it 
seems to be unquestionably his law, that even in civilized and Christian countries, the large mass of the 
population shall be fortunate, if, during their whole life, from infancy to old age, in health and sickness, 
they háve enough of the commonest and coarsest food to keep themselves and their children from the 
continual gnawing of hunger - enough of the commonest and coarsest clothing to protéct themselves 
and their little ones from indecent exposure and the bitter cold; and if they háve over their heads the 
rudest shelter. 

And He seems to háve enacted this law which no human community has yet found the means to 
abrogate that when a country becomes populous, capital shall concentrate in the hands of a limited 
number of persons, and labor become more and more at its mercy, until mere manuál labor, that of the 
weaver and ironworker, and other artisans, eventually ceases to be worth more than a bare subsistence, 
and often, in great cities and vast extents of country not even that, and goes or crawls about in rags, 
begging, and starving for want of work. 

While every ox and horše can find work, and is worth being fed, it is not always so with man. To be 
employed, to háve a chance to work at anything like fair wages, becomes the great engrossing object of 
a man's life. The capitalist can live without employing the laborer, and discharges him whenever that 
labor ceases to be profitable. At the moment when the weather is most inclement, provisions dearest, 
and rents highest, he turns him off to starve. If the day-laborer is taken sick, his wages stop. When old, 
he has no pension to retire upon. His children cannot be sent to school; for before their bones are 

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hardened they must get to work lest they starve. The man, strong and able-bodied, works for a shilling 
or two a day, and the woman shivering over her little pan of coals, when the mercury drops far below 
zero, after her hungry children háve wailed themselves to sleep, sews by the dim light of her lonely 
candle, for a bare pittance, selling her life to him who bargained only for the work of her needle. 

Fathers and mothers slay their children, to háve the burial-fees, that with the price of one chilďs life 
they may continue life in those that survive. 

Little girls with bare feet sweep the street-crossings, when the winter wind pinches them, and beg 
piteously for pennies of those who wear warm furs. Children grow up in squalid misery and brutal 
ignorance; want compels virgin and wife to prostitute themselves; women starve and freeze, and lean up 
against the walls of workhouses, like bundles of foul rags, all night long, and night after night, when the 
cold rain falls, and there chances to be no room for them within; and hundreds of families are crowded 
into a single building, rife with horrors and teeming with foul air and pestilence; where men, women 
and children huddle together in their filth; all ages and all colors sleeping indiscriminately together; 
while, in a great, free, Republican State, in the full vigor of its youth and strength, one person in every 
seventeen is a pauper receiving charity. 

How to deal with this apparently inevitable evil and mortal disease is by far the most important of all 
sociál problems. What is to be doně with pauperism and over-supply of labor? How is the life of any 
country to last, when brutality and drunken semi-barbarism vote, and hold offices in their gift, and by 
fit representatives of themselves control a government? How, if not wisdom and authority, but 
turbulence and low vice are to exalt to senátor ships miscreants reeking with the odors and pollution of 
the hell, the prize-ring, the brothel, and the stock-exchange, where gambling is legalized and rascality is 

Masonry will do all in its power, by direct exertion and cooperation, to improve and inform as well as to 
protéct the people; to better their physical condition, relieve their miseries, supply their wants, and 
minister to their necessities. Let every Mason in this good work do all that may be in his power. 

For it is true now, as it always was and always will be, that to be free is the samé thing as to be pious, to 
be wise, to be temperate and just, to be frugal and abstinent, and to be magnanimous and brave; and to 
be the opposite of all these is the samé as to be a slavě. And it usually happens, by the appointment, 
and, as it were, re tributive justice of the Deity, that that people which cannot govern themselves, and 
moderate their passions, but crouch under the slavery of their lusts and vices, are delivered up to the 
sway of those whom they abhor, and made to submit to an involuntary servitude. 

And it is also sanctioned by the dictates of justice and by the constitution of Nature, that he who, from 
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the imbecility or derangement of his intellect, is incapable of governing himself, should, like a minor, 
be committed to the government of another. 

Above all things let us nevěr forget that mankind constitutes one great brotherhood; all born to 
encounter suffering and sorrow, and therefore bound to sympathize with each other. 

For no tower of Pride was ever yet high enough to lift its possessor above the trials and fears and 
frailities of humanity. No human hand ever built the wall, nor ever shall, that will keep out affliction, 
pain, and infirmity. Sickness and sorrow, trouble and death, are dispensations that level everything. 
They know none, high nor low. The chief wants of life, the great and grave necessities of the human 
soul, give exemption to none. They make all poor, all weak. They put supplication in the mouth of every 
human being, as truly as in that of the meanest beggar. 

But the principle of misery is not an evil principle. We err, and the consequences teach us wisdom. All 
elements, all the laws of things around us, minister to this end; and through the paths of painful error 
and mistake, it is the design of Providence to lead us to truth and happiness. If erring only taught us to 
err; if mistakes confirmed us in imprudence; if the miseries caused by vicious indulgence had a natural 
tendency to make us more abject slaves of vice, then suffering would be wholly evil. But, on the 
contrary, all tends and is designed to produce amendment and improvement. Suffering is the disciplině 
of virtue; of that which is infinitely better than happiness, and yet embraces in itself all essential 

It nourishes, invigorates, and perfects it. Virtue is the prize of the severely-contested race and hard- 
fought battle; and it is worth all the fatigue and wounds of the conflict. Man should go forth with a 
brave and strong heart, to battle with calamity. He is to master it, and not let it become his master. He is 
not to forsake the post of trial and of peril; but to stand firmly in his lot, until the great word of 
Providence shall bid him fly, or bid him sink. With resolution and courage the Mason is to do the work 
which it is appointed for him to do, looking through the dark cloud of human calamity, to the end that 
rises high and bright before him. The lot of sorrow is great and sublime. None suffer forever, nor for 
nought, nor without purpose. It is the ordinance of Goďs wisdom, and of His Infinite Love, to procure 
for us infinite happiness and glory. 

Virtue is the truest liberty; nor is he free who stoops to passions; nor he in bondage who serveš a noble 
master. Examples are the best and most lasting lectures; virtue the best example. He that hath doně 
good deeds and set good precedents, in sincerity, is happy. Time shall not outlive his worth. He lives 
truly after death, whose good deeds are his pillars of remembrance; and no day but adds some grains to 
his heap of glory. 

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Good works are seeds, that after sowing return us a continual harvest; and the memory of noble actions 
is more enduring than monuments of marble. 

Life is a school. The world is neither prison nor penitentiary, nor a paláce of ease, nor an amphitheatre 
for games and spectacles; but a pláce of instruction, and disciplině. Life is given for moral and spirituál 
training; and the entire course of the great school of life is an education for virtue, happiness, and a 
future existence. The periods of Life are its terms; all human conditions, its forms; all human 
employments, its lessons. Families are the primary departments of this moral education; the various 
circles of society, its advanced stages; Kingdoms and Republics, its universities. 

Riches and Poverty, Gayeties and Sorrows, Marriages and Funerals, the ties of life bound or broken, fit 
and fortunate, or untoward and painful, are all lessons. Events are not blindly and carelessly flung 

Providence does not school one man, and screen another from the fiery trial of its lessons. It has neither 
rich favorites nor poor victims. One event happeneth to all. One end and one design concern and urge 
all men. 

The prosperous man has been at school. Perhaps he has thought that it was a great thing, and he a great 
personage; but he has been merely a pupil. He thought, perhaps, that he was Master, and had nothing to 
do, but to direct and command; but there was ever a Master above him, the Master of Life. He looks not 
at our splendid statě, or our many pretensions, nor at the aids and appliances of our learning; but at our 
learning itself. He puts the poor and the rich upon the samé form; and knows no difference between 
them, but their progress. 

If from prosperity we háve learned moderation, temperance, candor, modesty, gratitude to God, and 
generosity to man, then we are entitled to be honored and rewarded. If we háve learned selfishness, 
selfindulgence, wrong-doing, and vice, to forget and overlook our less fortunate brother, and to scoff at 
the providence of God, then we are unworthy and dishonored, though we háve been nursed in affluence, 
or taken our degrees from the lineage of an hundred noble descents; as truly so, in the eye of Heaven, 
and of all right-thinking men, as though we lay, victims of beggary and disease, in the hospital, by the 
hedge, or on the dung-hill. The most ordinary human equity looks not at the school, but at the scholar; 
and the equity of Heaven will not look beneath that mark. 

The poor man also is at school. Let him také care that he learn, rather than complain. Let him hold to 
his integrity, his candor, and his kindness of heart. Let him beware of envy, and of bondage, and keep 
his self-respect. The body's toil is nothing. Let him beware of the minďs drudgery and degradation. 
While he betters his condition if he can, let him be more anxious to better his soul. Let him be willing, 

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while poor, and even if always poor, to learn poverty's great lessons, fortitude, cheerfulness, 
contentment, and implicit confidence in Goďs Providence. 

With these, and patience, calmness, self-command, disinterestedness, and affectionate kindness, the 
humble dwelling may be hallowed, and made more dear and noble than the loftiest paláce. Let him, 
above all things, see that he lose not his independence. Let him not cast himself, a creature poorer than 
the poor, an indolent, helpless, despised beggar, oft the kindness of others. Every man should choose to 
háve God for his Master, rather than man; and escape not from this school, either by dishonesty or 
alms-taking, lest he fall into that statě, worse than disgrace, where he can háve no respect for himself. 

The ties of Society teach us to love one another. That is a miserable society, where the absence of 
affectionate kindness is sought to be supplied by punctilious decorum, graceful urbanity, and polished 
insincerity; where ambition, jealousy, and distrust rule, in pláce of simplicity, confidence, and kindness. 

So, too, the sociál statě teaches modesty and gentleness; and from neglect, and notice unworthily 
bestowed on others, and injustice, and the worlďs failure to appreciate us, we learn patience and 
quietness, to be superior to society's opinion, not cynical and bitter, but gentle, candid, and affectionate 

Death is the great Teacher, stern, cold, inexorable, irresistible; whom the collected might of the world 
cannot stay or ward off. The breath, that parting from the lips of King or beggar, scarcely stirs the 
hushed air, cannot be bought, or brought back for a moment, with the wealth of Empires. What a lesson 
is this, teaching our frailty and feebleness, and an Infinite Power beyond us! It is a fearful lesson, that 
nevěr becomes familiar. It walks through the earth in dread mystery, and lays it hands upon all. It is a 
universal lesson, that is read everywhere and by all men. 

Its message comes every year and every day. The past years are crowded with its sad and solemn 
mementoes; and death's finger traces its handwriting upon the walls of every human habitation. 

It teaches us Duty; to act our part well; to fulfill the work assigned us. When one is dying, and after he 
is dead, there is but one question: Has he lived well? There is no evil in death but that which life makes. 
There are hard lessons in the school of Goďs Providence; and yet the school of life is carefully adjusted, 
in all its arrangements and tasks, to man's powers and passions. There is no extravagance in its 
teachings; nor is anything doně for 'the saké of present effect. The whole course of human life is a 
conflict with difficulties; and, if rightly conducted, a progress in improvement. It is nevěr too latě for 
man to learn. Not part only, but the whole, of life is a school. There nevěr comes a time, even amidst the 
decays of age, when it is fit to lay aside the eagerness of acquisition, or the cheerfulness of endeavor. 
Man walks, all through the course of life, in patience and strife, and sometimes in darkness; for, from 

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patience is to come perfection; from strife, triumph is to issue; from the cloud of darkness the lightning 
is to flash that shall open the way to eternity. 

Let the Mason be faithful in the school of life, and to all its lessons! Let him not learn nothing, nor care 
not whether he learns or not. Let not the years pass over him, witnesses of only his sloth and 
indifference; or see him zealous to acquire everything but virtue. Nor let him labor only for himself; nor 
forget that the humblest man that lives is his brother, and hath a claim on his sympathies and kind 
offices; and that beneath the rough garments which labor wears may beat hearts as noble as throb under 
the starsof princes. 

God, who counts by souls, not stations, Loves and pities you and me; For to Him all vain distinctions 
Are as pebbles on the sea. 

Nor are the other duties inculcated in this Degree of less importance. 

Truth, a Mason is early told, is a Divine attribute and the foundation of every virtue; and frankness, 
reliability, sincerity, straightforwardness, plain-dealing, are but different modes in which Truth develops 
itself. The dead, the absent, the innocent, and those that trust him, no Mason will deceive willingly. To 
all these he owes a nobler justice, in that they are the most certain trials of human Equity. Only the most 
abandoned of men, said Cicero, will deceive him, who would háve remained uninjured if he had not 
trusted. All the noble deeds that háve beat their marches through succeeding ages háve proceeded from 
men of truth and genuine courage. The man who is always true is both virtuous and wise; and thus 
possesses the greatest guards of safety: for the law has not power to strike the virtuous; nor can fortuně 
subvert the wise. 

The bases of Masonry being morality and virtue, it is by studying one and practising the other, that the 
conduct of a Mason becomes irreproachable. 

The good of Humanity being its principál object, disinterestedness is one of the first virtues that it 
requires of its members; for that is the source of justice and beneficence. 

To pity the misfortunes of others; to be humble, but without meanness; to be proud, but without 
arrogance; to abjure every sentiment of hatred and revenge; to show himself magnanimous and liberal, 
without ostentation and without profusion; to be the enemy of vice; to pay homage to wisdom and 
virtue; to respect innocence; to be constant and patient in adversity, and modest in prosperity; to avoid 
every irregularity that stains the soul and distempers the body - it is by following these precepts that a 
Mason will become a good citizen, a faithful husband, a tender father, an obedient son, and a true 

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brother; will honor friendship, and fulfill with ardor the duties which virtue and the sociál relations 
impose upon him. 

It is because Masonry imposes upon us these duties that it is properly and significantly styled work; and 
he who imagines that he becomes a Mason by merely taking the first two or three Degrees, and that he 
may, having leisurely stepped upon that small elevation, thenceforward worthily wear the honors of 
Masonry, without labor or exertion, or self-denial or sacrifice, and that there is nothing to be doně in 
Masonry, is strangely deceived. 

Is it true that nothing remains to be doně in Masonry? 

Does one Brother no longer proceed by law against another Brother of his Lodge, in regard to matters 
that could be easily settled within the Masonic family circle? 

Has the duel, that hideous heritage of barbarism, interdicted among Brethren by our fundamental laws, 
and denounced by the municipal code, yet disappeared from the soil we inhabit? Do Masons of high 
rank religiously refrain from it; or do they not, bowing to a corrupt public opinion, submit to its 
arbitrament, despite the scandal which it occasions to the Order, and in violation of the feeble restraint 
of their oath? 

Do Masons no longer form uncharitable opinions of their Brethren, enter harsh judgments against them, 
and judge themselves by one rule and their Brethren by another? 

Has Masonry any well-regulated systém of charity? Has it doně that which it should háve doně for the 
cause of education? Where are its schools, its academies, its colleges, its hospitals, and infirmaries? 

Are political controversies now conducted with no violence and bitterness? 

Do Masons refrain from defaming and denouncing their Brethren who differ with them in religious or 
political opinions? 

What grand sociál problems or useful projects engage our attention at our Communications? Where in 
our Lodges are lectures habitually delivered for the reál instruction of the Brethren? Do not our sessions 
pass in the discussion of minor matters of business, the settlement of points of order and questions of 
mere administration, and the admission and advancement of Candidates, whom after their admission 

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we také no pains to instruct? 

In what Lodge are our ceremonies explained and elucidated; corrupted as they are by time, until their 
true features can scarcely be distinguished; and where are those great primitive truths of revelation 
taught, which Masonry has preserved to the world? 

We háve high dignities and sounding titles. Do their possessors qualify themselves to enlighten the 
world in respect to the aims and objects of Masonry? Descendants of those Initiates who governed 
empires, does your influence enter into practical life and operáte efficiently in behalf of wellregulated 
and constitutional liberty? 

Your debates should be but friendly conversations. You need concord, union, and peace. Why then do 
you retain among you men who excite rivalries and jealousies; why permit great and violent 
controversy and ambitious pretensions'? Now do your own words and acts agree? If your Masonry is a 
nullity, how can you exercise any influence on others? Continually you praise each other, and utter 
elaboráte and high wrought eulogies upon the Order. Everywhere you assume that you are what you 
should be, and nowhere do you look upon yourselves as you are. Is it true that all our actions are so 
many acts of homage to virtue? Explore the recesses of your hearts; let us examine ourselves with an 
impartial eye, and make answer to our own questioning! Can we bear to ourselves the consoling 
testimony that we always rigidly perform our duties; that we even half perform them? 

Let us away with this odious self-flattery! Let us be men, if we cannot be sages! The laws of Masonry, 
above others excellent, cannot wholly change men's natures. They enlighten them, they point out the 
true way; but they can lead them in it, only by repressing the fire of their passions, and subjugating their 
selfishness. Alas, these conquer, and Masonry is forgotten! 

After praising each other all our lives, there are always excellent Brethren, who, over our coffins, 
shower unlimited eulogies. Every one of us who dies, however useless his life, has been a model of all 
the virtues, a very child of the celestial light. In Egypt, among our old Masters, where Masonry was 
more cultivated than vanity, no one could gain admittance to the sacred asylům of the tomb until he had 
passed under the most solemn judgment. A grave tribunál sat in judgment upon all, even the kings. 
They said to the dead, " Whoever thou art, give account to thy country of thy actions ! What hast thou 
doně with thy time and life? The law interrogates thee, thy country hears thee, Truth sits in judgment on 
thee!" Princes came there to be judged, escorted only by their virtues and their vices. A public accuser 
recounted the history of the dead man's life, and threw the blaze of the torch of truth on all his actions. 
If it were adjudged that he had led an evil life, his memory was condemned in the presence of the 
nation, and his body was denied the honors of sepulture. What a lesson the old Masonry taught to the 
sonsof thepeople! 

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Is it true that Masonry is effete; that the acacia, withered, affords no shade; that Masonry no longer 
marches in the advance-guard of Truth? No. 

Is freedom yet universal? Háve ignorance and prejudice disappeared from the earth? Are there no 
longer enmities among men? Do cupidity and falsehood no longer exist? Do toleration and harmony 
prevail among religious and political sects? There are works yet left for Masonry to accomplish, greater 
than the twelve labors of Hercules: to advance ever resolutely and steadily; to enlighten the minds of the 
people, to reconstruct society, to reform the laws, and to improve the public morals. 

The eternity in front of it is as infinite as the one behind. And Masonry cannot cease to labor in the 
cause of sociál progress, without ceasing to be true to itself, Masonry. 


[Master Architect] 

The great duties that are inculcated by the lessons taught by the working instruments of a Grand Master 
Architect, demanding so much of us, and taking for granted the capacity to perform them faithfully and 
fully, bring us at once to reflect upon the dignity of human nature, and the vast powers and capacities of 
the human soul; and to that theme we invite your attention in this Degree. Let us begin to rise from 
earth toward the Stars. 

Evermore the human soul struggles toward the light, toward God, and the Infinite. It is especially so in 
its afflictions. Words go but a little way into the depths of sorrow. The thoughts that writhe there in 
silence, that go into the stillness of Infinitude and Eternity, háve no emblems. Thoughts enough come 
there, such as no tongue ever uttered. They do not so much want human sympathy, as higher help. 
There is a loneliness in deep sorrow which the Deity alone can relieve. Alone, the mind wrestles with 
the great problém of calamity, and seeks the solution from the Infinite Providence of Heaven, and thus 
is led directly to God. 

There are many things in us of which we are not distinctly conscious. To waken that slumbering 
consciousness into life, and so to lead the soul up to the Light, is one office of every great ministration 
to human nature, whether its vehicle be the pen, the pencil, or the tongue. We are unconscious of the 
intensity and awfulness of the life within us. Health and sickness, joy and sorrow, success and 

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disappointment, life and death, love and loss, are familiar words upon our lips; and we do not know to 
what depths they point within us. 

We seem nevěr to know what any thing means or is worth until we háve lost it. Many an organ, nerve, 
and fibre in our bodily frame performs its silent part for years, and we are quite unconscious of its 
value. It is not until it is injured that we discover that value, and find how essential it was to our 
happiness and comfort. We nevěr know the full significance of the words ^►property," "ease," and 
"health;" the wealth of meaning in the fond epithets, "parent,^ ^►child," "beloved," and "friend," until 
the thing or the person is taken away; until, in pláce of the bright, visible being, comes the awful and 
desolate shadow, where nothing is: where we stretch out our hands in vain, and strain our eyes upon 
dark and dismal vacuity. Yet, in that vacuity, we do not lose the object that we loved. It becomes only 
the more reál to us. Our blessings not only brighten when they depart, but are fixed in enduring reality; 
and love and friendship receive their everlasting seal under the cold impress of death. 

A dim consciousness of infinite mystery and grandeur lies beneath all the commonplace of life. There 
is an awfulness and a majesty around us, in all our little worldliness. The rudé peasant from the 
Apennines, asleep at the foot of a pillar in a majestic Roman church, seems not to hear or see, but to, 
dream only of the herd he feeds or the ground he tills in the mountains. But the chorál symphonies fall 
softly upon his ear, and the gilded arches are dimly seen through his half-slumbering eyelids. 

So the soul, however given up to the occupations of daily life, cannot quite lose the sense of where it is, 
and of what is above it and around it. The scene of its actual engagements may be small; the path of its 
steps, beaten and familiar; the objects it handles, easily spanned, and quite worn out with daily uses. So 
it may be, and amidst such things that we all live. 

So we live our little life; but Heaven is above us and all around and close to us; and Eternity is before us 
and behind us; and suns and stars are silent witnesses and watchers over us. We are enfolded by Infinity. 
Infinite Powers and Infinite spaces lie all around us. The dread arch of Mystery spreads over us, and no 
voice ever pierced it. Eternity is enthroned amid Heaven' s myriád starry heights; and no utterance or 
word ever came from those far-off and silent spaces. Above, is that awful majesty; around us, 
everywhere, it stretches off into infinity; and beneath it is this little struggle of life, this poor day's 
conflict, this busy ant-hill of Time. 

But from that ant-hill, not only the talk of the streets, the sounds of music and revelling, the stir and 
tread of a multitude, the shout of joy and the shriek of agony go up into the silent and all-surrounding 
Infinitude; but also, amidst the stir and noise of visible life, from the inmost bosom of the visible man, 
there goes up an imploring call, a beseeching cry, an asking, unuttered, and unutterable, for revelation, 
wailingly and in almost speechless agony praying the dread arch of mystery to break, and the stars that 

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roli above the waves of mortal trouble, to speak; the enthroned majesty of those awful heights to find a 
voice; the mysterious and reserved heavens to come near; and all to telí us what they alone know; to 
give us information of the loved and lost; to make known to us what we are, and whither we are going. 

Man is encompassed with a dome of incomprehensible wonders. In him and about him is that which 
should fill his life with majesty and sacredness. Something of sublimity and sanctity has thus flashed 
down from heaven into the heart of every one that li ves. There is no being so 

base and abandoned but hath some traits of that sacredness left upon him; something, so much perhaps 
in discordance with his generál repute, that he hides it from all around him; some sanctuary in his soul, 
where no one may enter; some sacred inclosure, where the memory of a child is, or the image of a 
venerated parent, or the remembrance of a pure love, or the echo of some word of kindness once spoken 
to him; an echo that will nevěr die away. 

Life is no negative, or superficial or worldly existence. Our steps are evermore haunted with thoughts, 
far beyond their own range, which some háve regarded as the reminiscences of a preexistent statě. So it 
is with us all, in the beaten and worn track of this worldly pilgrimage. There is more here, than the 
world we live in. It is not all of life to live. An unseen and infinite presence is here; a sense of 
something greater than we possess; a seeking, through all the void wastes of life, for a good beyond it; a 
crying out of the heart for interpretation; a memory of the dead, touching continually some vibrating 
thread in this great tissue of mystery. 

We all not only háve better intimations, but are capable of better things than we know. The pressure of 
some great emergency would develop in us powers, beyond the worldly bias of our spirits; and Heaven 
so deals with us, from time to time, as to call forth those better things. There is hardly a family in the 
world go selfish, but that, if one in it were doomed to die one, to be selected by the others, it would be 
utterly impossible for its members, parents and children, to choose out that victim; but that each would 
say, "I will die; but I cannot choose." And in how many, if that dire extremity had come, would not one 
and another step forth, freed from the vile meshes of ordinary selfishness, and say, like the Roman 
father and son, "Let the blow fall on me!" There are greater and better things in us all, than the world 
takés account of, or than we také notě of; if we would but find them out. And it is one part of our 
Masonic culture to find these traits of power and sublime devotion, to revive these faded impressions of 
generosity and self-sacrifice, the almost squandered bequests of Goďs love and kindness to our souls; 
and to induce us to yield ourselves to their guidance and control. 

Upon all conditions of men presses down one impartial law. To all situations, to all fortunes, high or 
low, the mind gives their character. They are, in effect, not what they are in themselves, but what they 
are to the feeling of their possessors. The King may be mean, degraded, miserable; the slavě of 
ambition, fear, voluptuousness, and every low passion. The Peasant may be the reál Monarch, the moral 
master of his fate, a free and lofty being, more than a Prince in happiness, more than a King in honor. 

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Man is no bubble upon the sea of his fortunes, helpless and irresponsible upon the tide of events. Out of 
the samé circumstances, different men bring totally different results. The samé difficulty, distress, 
poverty, or misfortune, that breaks down one man, builds up another and makes him strong. It is the 
very attribute and glory of a man, that he can bend the circumstances of his condition to the intellectual 
and moral purposes of his nature, and it is the power and mastery of his will that chiefly distinguish 
him from the brate. 

The faculty of moral will, developed in the child, is a new element of his nature. It is a new power 
brought upon the scene, and a ruling power, delegated from Heaven. Nevěr was a human being sunk so 
low that he had not, by Goďs gift, the power to rise, Because God commands him to rise, it is certain 
that he can rise. 

Every man has the power, and should use it, to make all situations, trials, and temptations instruments 
to promote his virtue and happiness; and is so far from being the creature of circumstances, that he 
creates and controls them, making them to be all that they are, of evil or of good, to him as a moral 

Life is what we make it, and the world is what we make it. The eyes of the cheerful and of the 
melancholy man are fixed upon the samé creation; but very different are the aspects which it bears to 
them. To the one, it is all beauty and gladness; the waves of oceán roli in light, and the mountains are 
covered with day. Life, to him, flashes, rejoicing, upon every flower and every tree that trembles in the 
breeze. There is more to him, everywhere, than the eye sees; a presence of profound joy on hill and 
valley, and bright, dancing water. The other idly or mournfully gazes at the samé scene, and everything 
wears a duli, dim, and sickly aspect. The murmuring of the brooks is a discord to him, the great roar of 
the sea has an angry and threatening emphasis, the solemn music of the pines sings the requiem of his 
departed happiness; the cheerful light shines garishly upon his eyes and offends him. The great train of 
the seasons passes before him like a funeral procession; and he sighs, and turns impatiently away. The 
eye makes that which it looks upon; the ear makes its own melodies and discords; the world without 
reflects the world within. 

Let the Mason nevěr forget that life and the world are what we make them by our sociál character; by 
our adaptation, or want of adaptation to the sociál conditions, relationships, and pursuits of the world. 
To the selfish, the cold, and the insensible, to the haughty and presuming, to the proud, who demand 
more than they are likéry to receive, to the jealous, ever afraid they shall not receive enough, to those 
who are unreasonably sensitive about the good or ill opinions of others, to all violators of the sociál 
laws, the rudé, the violent, the dishonest, and the sensual, to all these, the sociál condition, from its very 
nature, will present annoyances, disappointments, and pains, appropriate to their several characters. 
The benevolent affections will not revolve around selfishness; the cold-hearted must expect to meet 

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coldness; the proud, haughtiness; the passionate, anger; and the violent, rudeness. Those who forget the 
rights of others, must not be surprised if their own are forgotten; and those who stoop to the lowest 
embraces of sense must not wonder, if others are not concerned to find their prostrate honor, and lift it 
up to the remembrance and respect of the world. 

To the gentle, many will be gentle; to the kind, many will be kind. A good man will find that there is 
goodness in the world; an honest man will find that there is honesty in the world; and a man of 
principle will find principle and integrity in the minds of others. 

There are no blessings which the mind may not convert into the bitterest of evils; and no trials which it 
may not transform into the noblest and divinest blessings. There are no temptations from which assailed 
virtue may not gain strength, instead of falling before them, vanquished and subdued. It is true that 
temptations háve a great power, and virtue often falls; but the might of these temptations lies not in 
themselves, but in the feebleness of our own virtue, and the weakness of our own hearts. We rely too 
much on the strength of our ramparts and bastions, and allow the enemy to make his approaches, by 
trench and parallel, at his leisure. The offer of dishonest gain and guilty pleasure makes the honest man 
more honest, and the pure man more pure. They raise his virtue to the height of towering indignation. 
The fair occasion, the safe opportunity, the tempting chance become the defeat and disgrace of the 
tempter. The honest and upright man does not wait until temptation has made its approaches and 
mounted its batteries on the last parallel. 

But to the impure, the dishonest, the false-hearted, the corrupt, and the sensual, occasions come every 
day, and in every scene, and through every avenue of thought and imagination. He is prepared to 
capitulate before the first approach is commenced; and sends out the white flag when the enemy's 
advance comes in sight of his walls. He makes occasions; or, if opportunities come not, evil thoughts 
come, and he throws wide open the gates of his heart and welcomes those bad visitors, and entertains 
them with a lavish hospitality. 

The business of the world absorbs, corrupts, and degrades one mind, while in another it feeds and 
nurses the noblest independence, integrity, and generosity. Pleasure is a poison to some, and a healthful 
refreshment to others. To one, the world is a great harmony, like a noble strain of music with infinite 
modulations; to another, it is a huge factory, the clash and clang of whose machinery jars upon his ears 
and frets him to madness. Life is substantially the samé thing to all who partake of its lot. Yet some rise 
to virtue and glory; while others, undergoing the samé disciplině, and enjoying the samé privileges, 
sink to shame and perdition. 

Thorough, faithful, and honest endeavor to improve, is always successful, and the highest happiness. To 
sigh sentimentally over human misfortune, is fit only for the minďs childhood; and the minďs misery is 

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chiefly its own fault; appointed, under the good Providence of God, as the punisher and corrector of its 
fault. In the long run, the mind will be happy, just in proportion to its fidelity and wisdom. When it is 
miserable, it has planted the thorns in its own path; it grasps them, and cries out in loud complaint; and 
that complaint is but the louder confession that the thorns which grew there, it planted. 

A certain kind and degree of spirituality enter into the largest part of even the most ordinary life. You 
can carry on no business, without some faith in man. You cannot even dig in the ground, without a 
reliance on the unseen result. You cannot think or reason or even step, without confiding in the inward, 
spirituál principles of your nature. AU the affections and bonds, and hopes and interests of life centre in 
the spirituál; and you know that if that centrál bond were broken, the world would rush to chaos. 

Believe that there is a God; that He is our father; that He has a paternal interest in our welfare and 
improvement; that He has given us powers, by means of which we may escape from sin and ruin; that 
He has destined us to a future life of endless progress toward perfection and a knowledge of Himself 
believe this, as every Mason should, and you can live calmly, endure patiently, labor resolutely, děny 
yourselves cheerfully, hope steadfastly, and be conquerors in the great struggle of life. Také away any 
one of these principles, and what remains for us? Say that there is no God; or no way opened for hope 
and reformation and triumph, no heaven to come, no rest for the weary, no home in the bosom of God 
for the afflicted and disconsolate soul; or that God is but an ugly blind Chance that stabs in the dark; or 
a somewhat that is, when attempted to be defined, a nowhat, emotionless, passionless, the Supreme 
Apathy to which all things, good and evil, are alike indifferent; or a jealous God who revengefully visits 
the sins of the fathers on the children, and when the fathers háve eaten sour grapes, sets the childreďs 
teeth on edge; an arbitrary supreme Will, that has made it right to be virtuous, and wrong to lie and 
steal, because IT pleased to make it so rather than otherwise, retaining the power to 

reverse the law; or a fickle, vacillating, inconstant Deity, or a cruel, bloodthirsty, savage Hebrew or 
Puritanic one; and we are but the sport of chance and the victims of despair; hapless wanderers upon 
the face of a desolate, forsaken, or accursed and hated earth; surrounded by darkness, struggling with 
obstacles, toiling for barren results and empty purposes, distracted with doubts, and misled by falše 
gleams of light; wanderers with no way, no prospect, no home; doomed and deserted mariners on a dark 
and stormy sea, without compass or course, to whom no stars appear; tossing helmless upon the 
weltering, angry waves, with no blessed haven in the distance whose guiding-star invites us to its 
welcome rest. 

The religious faith thus taught by Masonry is indispensable to the attainment of the great ends of life; 
and must therefore háve been designed to be a part of it. We are made for this faith; and there must be 
something, somewhere, for us to believe in. We cannot grow healthfully, nor live happily, without it. It 
is therefore true. If we could cut off from any soul all the principles taught by Masonry, the faith in a 
God, in immortality, in virtue, in essential rectitude, that soul would sink into sin, misery, darkness, and 
ruin. If we could cut off all sense of these truths, the man would sink at once to the grade of the animal. 

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No man can suffer and be patient, can struggle and conquer, can improve and be happy, otherwise than 
as the swine are, without conscience, wi tnout hope, without a reliance on a just, wise, and beneficent 
God. We must, of necessity, embrace the great truths taught by Masonry, and live by them, to live 
happily. "I put my trust in God," is the protest of Masonry against the belief in a cruel, angry, and 
revengeful God, to be feared and not reverenced by His creatures. 

Society, in its great relations, is as much the creation of Heaven as is the systém of the Universe. If that 
bond of gravitation that holds all worlds and systems together, were suddenly severed, the universe 
would fly into wild and boundless chaos. And if we were to sever all the moral bonds that hold society 
together; if we could cut off from it every conviction of Truth and Integrity, of an authority above it, 
and of a conscience within it, it would immediately rush to disorder and frightful anarchy and ruin. 

The religion we teach is therefore as really a principle of things, and as certain and true, as gravitation. 

Faith in moral principles, in virtue, and in God, is as necessary for the guidance of a man, as instinct is 
for the guidance of an animal. And therefore this faith, as a principle of man's nature, has a mission as 
truly authentic in Goďs Providence, as the principle of instinct. The pleasures of the soul, too, must 
depend on certain principles. They must recognize a soul, its properties and responsibilities, a 
conscience, and the sense of an authority above us; and these are the principles of faith. No man can 
suffer and be patient, can struggle and conquer, can improve and be happy, without conscience, without 
hope, without a reliance on a just, wise, and beneficent God. We must of necessity embrace the great 
truths taught by Masonry, and live by them, to live happily. Everything in the universe has fixed and 
certain laws and principles for its action;- the stár in its orbit, the animal in its activity, the physical man 
in his functions. And he has likewise fixed and certain laws and principles as a spirituál being. His soul 
does not die for want of aliment or guidance. For the rational soul there is ample provision. From the 
lofty pine, rocked in the darkening tempest, the cry of the young raven is heard; and it would be most 
strange if there were no answer for the cry and call of the soul, tortured by want and sorrow and agony. 
The total rejection of all moral and religious belief would strike out a principle from human nature, as 
essential to it as gravitation to the stars, instinct to animal life, the circulation of the blood to the human 

God has ordained that life shall be a sociál statě. We are members of a civil community. The life of that 
community depends upon its moral condition. Public spirit, intelligence, uprightness, temperance, 
kindness, domestic purity, will make it a happy community, and give it prosperity and continuance. 
Wide-spread selfishness, dishonesty, intemperance, libertinism, corruption, and crime, will make it 
miserable, and bring about dissolution and speedy ruin. A whole people lives one life; one mighty heart 
heaves in its bosom; it is one great pulse of existence that throbs there. One stream of life flows there, 
with ten thousand intermingled branches and channels, through all the homes of human love. One 

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sound as of many waters, a rapturous jubilee or a mournful sighing, comes up from the congregated 
dwellings of a whole nation. 

The Public is no vague abstraction; nor should that which is doně against that Public, against public 
interest, law, or virtue, press but lightly on the conscience. It is but a vast expansion of individual life; 
an oceán of tears, an atmosphere of sighs, or a great whole of joy and gladness. It suffers with the 
suffering of millions; it rejoices with the joy of millions. What a vast crime does he commit, - private 
man or public man, agent or contractor, legislator or magistráte, secretary or president,-who dares, with 
indignity and wrong, to strike the bosom of the Public Welfare, to encourage venality and corruption, 
and shameful sále of the elective franchise, or of office; to sow dissension, and to weaken the bonds of 
amity that bind a Nation together! What a huge iniquity, he who, with vices like the daggers of a 
parricide, dares to pierce that mighty heart, in which the oceán of existence is flowing! 

What an unequalled interest lies in the virtue of every one whom we love! In his virtue, nowhere but in 
his virtue, is garnered up the incomparable treasure. What care we for brother or friend, compared with 
what we care for his honor, his fidelity, his reputation, his kindness? How venerable is the rectitude of a 
parent! How sacred his reputation! No blight that can fall upon a child, is like a parenťs dishonor. 
Heathen or Christian, every parent would háve his child do well; and pours out upon him all the fullness 
of parental love, in the one desire that he may do well; that he may be worthy of his cares, and his freely 
bestowed pains; that he may walk in the way of honor and happiness. In that way he cannot walk one 
step without virtue. Such is life, in its relationships. A thousand ties embrace it, like the fine nerveš of a 
delicate organization; like the strings of an instrument capable of sweet melodies, but easily put out of 
tuně or broken, by rudeness, anger, and selfish indulgence. 

If life could, by any process, be made insensible to pain and pleasure; if the human heart were hard as 
adamant, then avarice, ambition, and sensuality might channel out their paths in it, and make it their 
beaten way; and none would wonder or protest. If we could be patient under the load of a mere worldly 
life; if we could bear that burden as the beasts bear it; then, like beasts, we might bend all our thoughts 
to the earth; and no call from the great Heavens above us would startle us from our plodding and 
earthly cour se. 

But we art not insensible brutes, who can refuse the call of reason and conscience. The soul is capable 
of remorse. When the great dispensations of life press down upon us, we weep, and suffer and sorrow. 
And sorrow and agony desire other companionships than worldliness and irreligion. We are not willing 
to bear those burdens of the heart, fear, anxiety, disappointment, and trouble, without any object or use. 
We are not willing to suffer, to be sick and afflicted, to háve our days and months lost to comfort and 
joy, and overshadowed with calamity and grief, without advantage or compensation; to barter away the 
dearest treasures, the very sufferings, of the heart; to seli the life-blood from failing frame and fading 
cheek, our tears of bitterness and groans of anguish, for nothing. Human nature, frail, feeling, sensitive, 

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and sorrowing, cannot bear to suffer for nought. 

Everywhere, human life is a great and solemn dispensation. Man, suffering, enjoying, loving, hating, 
hoping, and fearing, chained to the earth and yet exploring the far recesses of the universe, has the 
power to commune with God and His angels. Around this great action of existence the curtains of Time 
are drawn; but there are openings through them which give us glimpses of eternity. God looks down 
upon this scene of human probation. The wise and the good in all ages háve interposed for it with their 
teachings and their blood. Everything that exists around us, every movement in nature every counsel of 
Providence, every interposition of God, centres upon one point, the fidelity of man. And even if the 
ghosts of the departed and remembered could come at midnight through the barred doors of our 
dwellings, and the shrouded dead should glide through the aisles of our churches and sit in our Masonic 
Temples, their teachings would be no more eloquent and impressive than the Great realities of life; than 
those memories of misspent years, those ghosts of departed opportunities, that, pointing to our 
conscience and eternity cry continually in our ears, "Work while the day lasts ! for the night of death 
cometh, in which no man can work.^ 

There are no tokens of public mourning for the calamity of the soul. Men weep when the body dies; and 
when it is borne to its last rest, they follow it with sad and mournful procession. But for the dying soul 
there is no open lamentation; for the lost soul there are no obsequies. 

And yet the mind and soul of man háve a value which nothing else has. They are worth a care which 
nothing else is worth; and to the single, solitary individual, they ought to possess an interest which 
nothing else possesses. The stored treasures of the heart, the unfathomable mineš that are in the soul to 
be wrought, the broad and boundless realms of 

Thought, the freighted argosy of man's hopes and best affections, are brighter than gold and dearer than 

And yet the mind is in reality little known or considered. It is all which man permanently is, his inward 
being, his divine energy, his immortal thought, his boundless capacity, his infinite aspiration; and 
nevertheless, few value it for what it is worth. Few see a brother-mind in others, through the rags with 
which poverty has clothed it, beneath the crushing burdens of life, amidst the close pressure of worldly 
troubles, wants and sorrows. Few acknowledge and cheer it in that humble blot, and feel that the 
nobility of earth, and the commencing glory of Heaven are there. 

Men do not feel the worth of their own souls. They are proud of their mental powers; but the intrinsic, 
inner, infinite worth of their own minds they do not perceive. The poor man, admitted to a paláce, feels, 
lofty and immortal being as he is, like a mere ordinary thing amid the splendors that surround him. He 

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sees the carriage of wealth roli by him, and forgets the intrinsic and eternal dignity of his own mind in 
a poor and degrading envy, and feels as an humbler creature, because others are above him, not in mind, 
but in mensuration. Men respect themselves, according as they are more wealthy, higher in rank or 
office, loftier in the worlďs opinion, able to command more votes, more the favorites of the people or 
of Power. 

The difference among men is not so much in their nature and intrinsic power, as in the faculty of 
communication. Some háve the capacity of uttering and embodying in words their thoughts. All men, 
more or less, feel those thoughts. The glory of genius and the rapture of virtue, when rightly revealed, 
are diffused and shared among unnumbered minds. When eloquence and poetry speak; when those 
glorious arts, statuary, painting, and music, také audible or visible shape; when patriotism, charity, and 
virtue speak with a thrilling potency, the hearts of thousands glow with akindredjoy and ecstasy. If it 
were not so, there would be no eloquence; for eloquence is that to which other hearts respond; it is the 
faculty and power of making other hearts respond. No one is so low or degraded, as not sometimes to 
be touched with the beauty of goodness. No heart is made of materials so common, or even base, as not 
sometimes to respond, through every chord of it, to the call of honor, patriotism, generosity, and virtue. 
The poor Afričan Slavě will die for the master, or mistress, or in defence of the children, whom he 
loves. The poor, lost, scorned, abandoned, outcast woman will, without expectation of reward nurse 
those who are dying on every hand, utter strangers to her, with a contagious and horrid pestilence. The 
pickpocket will scale burning walls to rescue child or woman, unknown to him, from the ravenous 

Most glorious is this capacity! A power to commune with God and His Angels; a reflection of the 
Uncreated Light; a mirror that can collect and concentrate upon itself all the moral splendors of the 
Universe. It is the soul alone that gives any value to the things of this world. and it is only by raising 
the soul to its just elevation above all other things, that we can look rightly upon the purposes of this 
earth. No sceptre nor throne, nor structure of ages, nor broad empire, can compare with the wonders 
and grandeurs of a single thought. That alone, of all things that háve been made, comprehends the 
Maker of all. That alone is the key which unlocks all the treasures of the Universe; the power that reigns 
over Space, Time, and Eternity. That, under God, is the Sovereign Dispenser to man of all the blessings 
and glories that lie within the compass of possession, or the range of possibility. Virtue, Heaven, and 
Immortality exist not, nor ever will exist for us except as they exist and will exist, in the perception, 
feeling, and thought of the glorious mind. 

My Brother, in the hope that you háve listened to and understood the Instruction and Lecture of this 
Degree, and that you feel the dignity of your own nature and the vast capacities of your own soul for 
good or evil, I proceed briefly to communicate to you the remaining instruction of this Degree. 

The Hebrew word, in the old Hebrew and Samaritán character, suspended in the East, over the five 
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columns, is ADONA^, one of the names of God, usually translated Lord; and which the Hebrews, in 
reading, always substitute for the True Name, which is for them ineffable. 

The five columns, in the five different orders of architecture, are emblematical to us of the five 
principál divisions of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite: 

1. - The Tuscan, of the three blue Degrees, or the primitive Masonry. 

2. - The Doric, of the ineffable Degrees, from the, fourth to the fourteenth, inclusive. 

3. - The Ionic, of the fifteenth and sixteenth, or second temple Degrees. 

4. - The Corinthian, of the seventeenth and eighteenth Degrees, or those of the new law. 

5. - The Composite, of the philosophical and chivalric Degrees intermingled, from the nineteenth to the 
thirty- second, inclusive. 

The North Star, always fixed and immutable for us, represents the point in the centre of the circle, or 
the Deity in the centre of the Universe. It is the especial symbol of duty and of faith. To it, and the 
seven that continually revolve around it, mystical meanings are attached, which you will learn hereafter, 
if you should be permitted to advance, when you are made acquainted with the philosophical doctrines 
of the Hebrews. 

The Morning Star, rising in the East, Jupiter, called by the Hebrews Tsad^c or Tsydyk, Just, is an 
emblém to us of the ever approaching dawn of perfection and Masonic light. 

The three great lights of the Lodge are symbols to us of the Power, Wisdom, and Beneficence of the 
Deity. They are also symbols of the first three Sephiroth, or Emanations of the Deity, according to the 
Kabalah, Kether, the omnipotent divine will; Chochmah, the divine intellectual power to generate 
thought, and Binah, the divine intellectual capacity to produce it - the two latter, usually translated 
Wisdom and Understanding, being the active and the passive, the positive and the negative, which we 
do not yet endeavor to explain to you. They are the 

columns Jachin and Boaz, that stand at the entrance to the Masonic Temple. 

In another aspect of this Degree, the Chief of the Architects [Rab Banaim], symbolizes the 
constitutional executive head and chief of a free government; and the Degree teaches us that no free 
government can long endure, when the people cease to select for their magistrates the best and the 
wisest of their statesmen; when, passing these by, they permit factions or sordid interests to select for 
them the small, the low, the ignoble, and the obscure, and into such hands commit the country's 

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destinies. There is, after all, a "divine right" to govern; and it is vested in the ablest, wisest, best, of 
every nation. 

"Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom: I am understanding: I am power: by me kings do reign, and 
princes decree justice; by me princes rule, and nobles, even all the magistrates of the earth." 

For the present, my Brother, let this suffice. We welcome you among us, to this peaceful retreat of 
virtue, to a participation in our privileges, to a share in our joys and our sorrows. 


WHETHER the legend and history of this Degree are historically true, or but an allegory, containing in 
itself a deeper truth and a profounder meaning, we shall not now debatě. If it be but a legendary myth, 
you must find out for yourself what it means. It is certain that the word which the Hebrews are not now 
permitted to pronounce was in common use by Abraham, Lot, Isaac, Jacob, Laban, Rebecca, and even 
among tribes foreign to the Hebrews, before the time of Moses; and that it recurs a hundred times in the 
lyrical effusions of David and other Hebrew poets. 

We know that for many centuries the Hebrews háve been forbidden to pronounce the Sacred Name; that 
wherever it occurs, they háve for ages read the word Adona^ instead; and that under it, when the 
masoretic points, which represent the vowels, came to be ušed, they placed those which belonged to the 
latter word. The possession of the true pronunciation was deemed to confer on him who had it 
extraordinary and supernatural powers; and the Word itself, worn upon the person, was regarded as an 
amulet, a protection against personál danger, sickness, 

and evil spirits. We know that all this was a vain superstition, natural to a rudé people, necessarily 
disappearing as the intellect of man became enlightened; and wholly unworthy of a Mason. 

It is noticeable that this notion of the sanctity of the Divine Name or Creative Word was common to all 
the ancient nations. The Sacred Word HOM was supposed by the ancient Persians (who were among 
the earliest emigrants from Northern India) to be pregnant with a mysterious power; and they taught 
that by its utterance the world was created. In India it was forbidden to pronounce the word AUM or 
OM, the Sacred Name of the One Deity, manifested as Brahma, Vishna, and Seeva. 

These superstitious notions in regard to the efficacy of the Word, and the prohibition against 
pronouncing it, could, being errors, háve formed no part of the pure primitive religion, or of the esoteric 

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doctrine taught by Moses, and the full knowledge of which was confined to the Initiates; unless the 
whole was but an ingenious invention for the concealment of some other Name or truth, the 
interpretation and meaning whereof was made known only to the select few. If so, the common notions 
in regard to the Word grew up in the minds of the people, like other errors and fables among all the 
ancient nations, out of originál truths and symbols and allegories misunderstood. So it has always been 
that allegories, intended as vehicles of truth, to be understood by the sages, háve become or bred errors, 
by being literally accepted. 

It is true, that before the masoretic points were invented (which was after the beginning of the Christian 
era), the pronunciation of a word in the Hebrew language could not be known from the characters in 
which it was written. It was, therefore, possible for that of the name of the Deity to háve been forgotten 
and lost. It is certain that its true pronunciation is not that represented by the word Jehovah; and 
therefore that that is not the true name of Deity, nor the Ineffable Word. 

The ancient symbols and allegories always had more than one interpretation. They always had a double 
meaning, and sometimes more than two, one serving as the envelope of the other. Thus the 
pronunciation of the word was a symbol; and that pronunciation and the word itself were lost, when the 
knowledge of the true nature and attributes of God faded out of the minds of the Jewish people. That is 
one interpretation - true, but not the inner and profoundest one. 

Men were figuratively said to forget the name of God, when they lost that knowledge, and worshipped 
the heathen deities, and burned incense to them on the high places, and passed their children through 
the fire to Moloch. 

Thus the attempts of the ancient Israelites and of the Initiates to ascertain the True Name of the Deity, 
and its pronunciation, and the loss of the True Word, are an allegory, in which are represented the 
generál ignorance of the true nature and attributes of God, the proneness of the people of Judah and 
Israel to worship other deities, and the low and erroneous and dishonoring notions of the Grand 
Architect of the Universe, which all shared except a few favored persons; for even Solomon built altars 
and sacrificed to Astarat, the goddess of the Tsidumm, and Malcem, the Aam^nite god, and built 
high places for Kam^s, the Moabite deity, and Malec the god of the Beni-Aam^n. The true nature of 
God was unknown to them, like His name; and they worshipped the calves of Jeroboam, as in the desert 
they did that made for them by Aar^n. 

The mass of the Hebrews did not believe in the existence of one only God until a latě period in their 
history. Their early and popular ideas of the Deity were singularly low and unworťhy. Even while Moses 
was receiving the law upon Mount Sinai, they forced Aar^n to make them an image of the Egyptian 
god Apis, and fell down and adored it. They were ever ready to return to the worship of the gods of the 

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Mitzraim; and soon after the death of Joshua they became devout worshippers of the falše gods of all 
the surrounding nations. "Ye háve borne," Amos, the prophet, said to them, speaking of their fořty 
years' journeying in the desert, under Moses, "the tabernacle of your Malec and Kai^n your idols, the 
stár of your god, which ye made to yourselves." Among them, as among other nations, the conceptions 
of God formed by individuals varied according to their intellectual and spirituál capacities; poor and 
imperfect, and investing God with the commonest and coarest attributes of humanity, among the 
ignorant and coarse; pure and lofty among the virtuous and richly gifted. These conceptions gradually 
improved and became purified and ennobled, as the nation advanced in civilization - being lowest in the 
historical books, amended in the prophetic writings, and reaching their highest elevation among the 

Among all the ancient nations there was one faith and one idea of Deity for the enlightened, intelligent, 
and educated, and another for the common people. To this rule the Hebrews were no exception. 
Yehovah, to the mass of the people, was like the gods of the nations around them, except that he was the 
peculiar God, first of the family of Abraham, of that of Isaac, and of that of Jacob, and afterward the 
National God; and, as they believed, more powerful than the other gods of the samé nature worshipped 
by their neighbors - "Who among the Baalim is like unto thee, O Yehovah?" - expressed their whole 

The Deity of the early Hebrews talked to Adam and Eve in the garden of delight, as he walked in it in 
the cool of the day; he conversed with Kayin; he sat and ate with Abraham in his tent; that patriarch 
required a visible token, before he would believe in his positive promise; he permitted Abraham to 
expostulate with him, and to induce him to change his first determination in regard to Sodom; he 
wrestled with Jacob; he showed Moses his person, though not his face; he dictated the minutest police 
regulations and the dimensions of the tabernacle and its furniture, to the Israelites; he insisted on and 
delighted in sacrifices and burnt-offerings; he was angry, jealous, and revengeful, as well as wavering 
and irresolute; he allowed Moses to reason him out of his fixed resolution utterly to destroy his people; 
he commanded the performance of the most shocking and hideous acts of cruelty and barbarity. He 
hardened the heart of Pharaoh; he repented of the evil that he had said he would do unto the people of 
Nineveh; and he did it not, to the disgust and anger of Jonah. 

Such were the popular notions of the Deity; and either the priests had none better, or took little trouble 
to correct these notions; or the popular intellect was not enough enlarged to enable them to entertain 
any higher conceptions of the Almighty. 

But such were not the ideas of the intellectual and enlightened few among the Hebrews. It is certain that 
they possessed a knowledge of the true nature and attributes of God; as the samé class of men did 
among the other nations - Zoroaster, Menu, Confucius, Socrates, and Plato. But their doctrines on this 
subject were esoteric; they did not communicate them to the people at large, but only to a favored few; 

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and as they were communicated in Egypt and India, in Persia and Phoenicia, in Greece and Samothrace, 
in the greater mysteries, to the Initiates. 

The communication of this knowledge and other secrets, some of which are perhaps lost, constituted, 
under other names, what we now call Masonry, or Free or Frank-Masonry. That knowledge was, in one 
sense, the Lost Word, which was made known to the Grand Elect, Perfect, and Sublime Masons. It 
would be foliy to pretend that the forms of Masonry were the samé in those ages as they are now. The 
present name of the Order, and its titles, and the names of the Degrees now in use, were not then 

Even Blue Masonry cannot trace back its authentic history, with its present Degrees, further than the 
year 1700, if so far. But, by whatever name it was known in this or the other country, Masonry existed 
as it now exists, the samé in spirit and at heart, not only when Solomon builded the temple, but 
centuries before - before even the first colonies emigrated into Southern India, Persia, and Egypt, from 
the cradle of the human race. 

The Supreme, Self-existent, Eternal, All-wise, All-powerful, Infinitely Good, Pitying, Beneficent, and 
Merciful Creator and Preserver of the Universe was the samé, by whatever name he was called, to the 
intellectual and enlightened men of all nations. The name was nothing, if not a symbol and 
representative hieroglyph of his nature and attributes. The name AL represented his remoteness above 
men, his inaccessibility; BAL and BÁLA, his might; ALOHIM, his various potencies; IHUH, existence 
and the generation of things. None of his names, among the Orientals, were the symbols of a divinely 
infinite love and tenderness, and all-embracing mercy. As MOLOCH or MÁLEK he was but an 
omnipotent monarch, a tremendous and irresponsible Will; as ADONA^, only an arbitrary LORD and 
Master; as AL Shada^, potent and a DESTROYER. 

To communicate true and correct ideas in respect of the Deity was one chief object of the mysteries. In 
them, Kh^r^m the King, and Kh^r^m the Master, obtained their knowledge of him and his 
attributes; and in them that knowledge was taught to Moses and Pythagoras. 

Wherefore nothing forbids you to consider the whole legend of this Degree, like that of the Masteťs, an 
allegory, representing the perpetuation of the knowledge of the True God in the sanctuaries of 
initiation. By the subterranean vaults you may understand the places of initiation, which in the ancient 
ceremonies were generally under ground. 

The Temple of Solomon presented a symbolic image of the Universe; and resembled, in its 
arrangements and furniture, all the temples of the ancient nations that practised the mysteries. The 
systém of numbers was intimately connected with their religions and worship, and has come down to us 

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in Masonry; though the esoteric meaning with which the numbers ušed by us are pregnant is unknown 
to the vast majority of those who use them. Those numbers were especially employed that had a 
reference to the Deity, represented his attributes, or figured in the frame-work of the world, in time and 
space, and formed more or less the bases of that frame-work. These were universally regarded as 
sacred, being the expression of order and intelligence, the utterances of Divinity Himself. 

The Holý of Holies of the Temple formed a cube; in which, drawn on a plane surface, there are 4 + 3 + 
2 = 9 lineš visible, and three sides or faces. It corresponded with the number four, by which the ancients 
presented Nature, it being the number of substances or corporeal forms, and of the elements, the 
cardinal points and seasons, and the secondary colors. The number three everywhere represented the 
Supreme Being. 

Hence the name of the Deity, engraven upon the triangular plate, and that sunken into the cube of agate, 
taught the ancient Mason, and teaches us, that the true knowledge of God, of His nature and His 
attributes is written by Him upon the leaves of the great Book of Universal Nature, and may be read 
there by all who are endowed with the requisite amount of intellect and intelligence. This knowledge of 
God, so written there, and of which Masonry has in all ages been the interpreter, is the Master Masoďs 

Within the Temple, all the arrangements were mystically and symbolically connected with the samé 
systém. The vault or ceiling, starred like the firmament, was supported by twelve columns, representing 
the twelve months of the year. The border that ran around the columns represented the zodiac, and one 
of the twelve celestial signs was appropriated to each column. The brazen sea was supported by twelve 
oxen, three looking to each cardinal point of the compass. 

And so in our day every Masonic Lodge represents the Universe. Each extends, we are told, from the 
rising to the setting sun, from the South to the North, from the surface of the Earth to the Heavens, and 
from the samé to the centre of the globe. In it are represented the sun, moon, and stars; three great 
torches in the East, West, and South, forming a triangle, give it light: and, like the Delta or Triangle 
suspended in the East, and inclosing the Ineffable Name, indicate, by the mathematical equality of the 
angles and sides, the beautiful and harmonious proportions which govern in the aggregate and details of 
the Universe; while those sides and angles represent, by their number, three, the Trinity of Power, 
Wisdom, and Harmony, which presided at the building of this marvellous work These three great lights 
also represent the great mystery of the three principles, of creation, dissolution or destruction, and 
reproduction or regeneration, consecrated by all creeds in their numerous Trinities. 

The luminous pedestal, lighted by the perpetual fláme within, is a symbol of that light of Reason, given 
by God to man, by which he is enabled to read in the Book of Nature the record of the thought, the 

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revelation of the attributes of the Deity. 

The three Masters, Adoniram, Joabert, and Stolkin, are types of the True Mason, who seeks for 
knowledge from pure motives, and that he may be the better enabled to serve and benefit his fellow- 
men; while the discontented and presumptuous Masters who were buried in the ruins of the arches 
represent those who strive to acquire it for unholy purposes, to gain power over their fellows, to gratify 
their pride, their vanity, or their ambition. 

The Lion that guarded the Ark and held in his mouth the key wherewith to open it, figuratively 
represents Solomon, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, who preserved and communicated the key to the 
true knowledge of God, of His laws, and of the profound mysteries of the moral and physical Universe. 

ENOCH [ Khan^c], we are told, walked with God three hundred years, after reaching the age of sixty- 
five "walked with God, and he was no more, for God had taken nim." His name signified in the 
Hebrew, INITIATE or INITIATOR. The legend of the columns, of granite and brass or bronze, erected 
by him, is probably symbolical. That of bronze, which survived the flood, is supposed to symbolize the 
mysteries, of which Masonry is the legitimate successor - from the earliest times the custodian and 
depository of the great philosophical and religious truths, unknown to the world at large, and handed 
down from age to age by an unbroken current of tradition, embodied in symbols, emblems, and 

The legend of this Degree is thus, partially, interpreted. It is of little importance whether it is in anywise 
historical. For its value consists in the lessons which it inculcates, and the duties which it prescribes to 
those who receive it. The parables and allegories of the Scriptures are not less valuable than history. 
Nay, they are more so, because ancient history is little instructive, and truths are concealed in and 
symbolized by the legend and the myth. 

There are profounder meanings concealed in the symbols of this Degree, connected with the 
philosophical systém of the Hebrew Kabalists, which you will learn hereafter, if you should be so 
fortunate as to advance. They are unfolded in the higher Degrees. The lion [Arai, Araiah, which also 
means the altar] still holds in his mouth the key of the enigma of the sphynx. 

But there is one application of this Degree, that you are now entitled to know; and which, remembering 
that Kh^r^m, the Master, is the symbol of human freedom, you would probably discover for yourself. 

It is not enough for a people to gain its liberty. It must secure it. It must not intrust it to the keeping, or 
hold it at the pleasure, of any one man. The keystone of the Royal Arch of the great Temple of Liberty 

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is a fundamental law, charter, or constitution; the expression of the fixed habits of thought of the 
people, embodied in a written instrument, or the result of the slow accretions and the consolidation of 
centuries; the samé in war as in peace; that cannot be hastily changed, nor be violated with impunity, 
but is sacred, like the Ark of the Covenant of God, which none could touch and live. 

A permanent constitution, rooted in the affections, expressing the will and judgment, and built upon the 
instincts and settled habits of thought of the people, with an independent judiciary, an elective 
legislature of two branches, an executive responsible to the people, and the right of trial by jury, will 
guarantee the liberties of a people, if it be virtuous and temperate, without luxury, and without the lust 
of conquest and dominion, and the follies of visionary theories of impossible perfection. 

Masonry teaches its Initiates that the pursuits and occupations of this life, its activity, care, and 
ingenuity, the predestined developments of the nature given us by God, tend to promote His great 
design, in making the world; and are not at war with the great purpose of life. It teaches that everything 
is beautiful in its time, in its pláce, in its appointed office; that everything which man is put to do, if 
rightly and faithfully doně, naturally helps to work out his salvation; that if he obeys the genuine 
principles of his calling, he will be a good man and that it is only by neglect and nonperformance of the 
task set for him by Heaven, by wandering into idle dissipation, or by violating their beneficent and lofty 
spirit, that he becomes a bad man. The appointed action of life is the great training of Providence; and 
if man yields himself to it, he will need neither churches nor ordinances, except for the expression of his 
religious homage and gratitude. 

For there is a religion of toil. It is not all drudgery, a mere stretching of the limbs and straining of the 
sinews to tasks. It has a meaning and an intent. 

A living heart pours life-blood into the toiling arm; and warm affections inspire and mingle with man's 
labors. They are the home affections. Labor toils a-field, or plies its task in cities, or urges the keels of 
commerce over wide oceans; but home is its centre; and thither it ever goes with its earnings, with the 
means of support and comfort for others; offerings sacred to the thought of every true man, as a 
sacrifice at a golden shrine. 

Many faults there are amidst the toils of life; many harsh and hasty words are uttered; but still the toils 
go on, weary and hard and exasperating as they often are. For in that home is age or sickness, or 
helpless infancy, or gentle childhood, or feeble woman, that must not want. If man had no other than 
mere selfish impulses, the scene of labor which we behold around us would not exist. 

The advocate who fairly and honestly presents his čase, with feeling of true self-respect, honor, and 
conscience, to help the tribunál on towards the right conclusion, with a conviction that Goďs justice 

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reigns there, is acting a religious part, leading that day religious life; or else right and justice are no 
part of religion Whether, during all that day, he has once appealed, in form or in terms, to his 
conscience, or not; whether he has once spoken of religion and God, or not; if there has been the inward 
purpose, the conscious intent and desire, that sacred justice should triumph, he has that day led a good 
and religious life, and made most a essential contribution to that religion of life and of society, the 
cause of equity between man and man, and of truth and right action in the world. 

Books, to be of religious tendency in the Masonic sense, need not be books of sermons, of pious 
exercises, or of prayers. Whatever inculcates pure, noble, and patriotic sentiments, or touches the heart 
with the beauty of virtue, and the excellence of an upright life, accords with the religion of Masonry, 
and is the Gospel of literatuře and art. That Gospel is preached from many a book and painting, from 
many a poem and fiction, and review and newspaper; and it is a painful error and miserable narrowness, 
not to recognize these wide-spread agencies of Heaveďs providing; not to see and welcome these many- 
handed coadjutors, to the great and good cause. The oracles of God do not speak from the pulpit alone. 

There is also a religion of society. In business, there is much more than sále, exchange, price, payment; 
for there is the sacred faith of man in man. When we repose perfect confidence in the integrity of 
another; when we feel that he will not swerve from the right, frank, straightforward, conscientious 
course, for any temptation; his integrity and conscientiousness are the image of God to us; and when we 
believe in it, it is as great and generous an act, as when we believe in the rectitude of the Deity. 

In gay assemblies for amusement, the good affections of life gush and mingle. If they did not, these 
gathering-places would be as dreary and repulsive as the caves and dens of outlaws and robbers. When 
friends meet, and hands are warmly pressed, and the eye kindles and the countenance is suffused with 
gladness, there is a religion between their hearts; and each loves and worships the True and Good that is 
in the other. It is not policy, or self-interest, or selfishness that spreads such a charm around that 
meeting, but the halo of bright and beautiful affection. 

The samé splendor of kindly liking, and affectionate regard, shines like the soft overarching sky, over 
all the world; over all places where men meet, and walk or toil together; not over lovers' bowers and 
marriage-altars alone, not over the homes of purity and tenderness alone; but over all tilled fields, and 
busy workshops, and dusty highways, and pavěd streets. 

There is not a worn stone upon the sidewalks, but has been the altar of such offerings of mutual 
kindness; nor a wooden pillar or iron railing against which hearts beating with affection háve not 
leaned. How many soever other elements there are in the stream of life flowing through these channels, 
that is surely here and everywhere; honest, heartfelt, disinterested, inexpressible affection. 

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Every Masonic Lodge is a temple of religion; and its teachings are instruction in religion. For here are 
inculcated disinterestedness, affection, toleration, devotedness, patriotism, truth, a generous sympathy 
with those who suffer and mourn, pity for the fallen, mercy for the erring, reliéf for those in want, Faith, 
Hope, and Charity. Here we meet as brethren, to learn to know and love each other. Here we greet each 
other gladly, are lenient to each otheťs faults, regardful of each otheťs feelings, ready to relieve each 
otheťs wants. This is the true religion revealed to the ancient patriarchs; which Masonry has taught for 
many centuries, and which it will continue to teach as long as time endures. If unworthy passions, or 
selfish, bitter, or revengeful feelings, contempt, dislike, hatred, enter here, they are intruders and n t 
welcome, strangers uninvited, and not guests. 

Certainly there are many evils and bad passions and much hatě and contempt and unkindness 
everywhere in the world. We cannot refuse to see the evil -that is in life. But all is not evil. We still see 
God in the world. 

There is good amidst the evil. The hand of mercy leads wealth to the hovels of poverty and sorrow. 
Truth and simplicity live amid many wiles and sophistries. There are good hearts underneath gay robes, 
and under tattered garments also. 

Love clasps the hand of love, amid all the envyings and distractions of showy competition; fidelity, pity, 
and sympathy hold the long night-watch by the bedside of the suffering neighbor, amidst the 
surrounding poverty and squalid misery. Devoted men go from city to city to nurse those smitten down 
by the terrible pestilence that renews at intervals its mysterious marches. Women well-born and 
delicately nurtured nursed the wounded soldiers in hospitals, before it became fashionable to do so; and 
even poor lost women, whom God alone loves and pities, tend the plaguestricken with a patient and 
generous heroism. Masonry and its kindred Orders teach men to love each other, feed the hungry, clothe 
the naked, comfort the sick, and bury the friendless dead. Everywhere God finds and blesses the kindly 
office, the pitying thought, and the loving heart. 

There is an element of good in all men's lawful pursuits and a divine spirit breathing in all their lawful 
affections. The ground on which they tread is holý ground. There is a natural religion of life, answering, 
with however many a broken tone, to the religion of nature. There is a beauty and glory in Humanity., in 
man, answering, with however many a mingling shade, to the loveliness of soft landscapes and swelling 
hills, and the wondrous Men may be virtuous, self-improving, and religious in their employments. 

Precisely for that, those employments were made. All their sociál relations, friendship, love , the ties of 
family, were made to be holý. They may be religious, not by a kind of protest and resistance against 
their several vocations; but by conformity to their true spirit. Those vocations do not exclude religion; 
but demand it, for their own perfection. They may be religious laborers, whether in field or factory; 

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religious physicians, lawyers, sculptors, poets, painters, and musicians. 

They may be religious in all the toils and in all the amusements of life. Their life may be a religion; the 
broad earth its altar; its incense the very breath of life; its fires ever kindled by the brightness of 

Bound up with our poor, frail life, is the mighty thought that spurns the narrow spán of all visible 
existence. Ever the soul reaches outward, and asks for freedom. It looks forth from the narrow and 
grated windows of sense, upon the wide immeasurable creation; it knows that around it and beyond it 
lie outstretched the infinite and everlasting paths. 

Everything within us and without us ought to stir our minds to admiration and wonder. We are a 
mystery encompassed with mysteries. The connection of mind with matter is a mystery; the wonderful 
telegraphic communication between the brain and every part of the body, the power 

and action of the will. Every familiar step is more than a story in a land of enchantment. The power of 
movement is as mysterious as the power of thought. Memory, and dreams that are the indistinct echoes 
of dead memories are alike inexplicable. Universal harmony springs from infinite complication. The 
momentům of every step we také in our dwelling contributes in part to the order of the Universe. We 
are connected by ties of thought, and even of matter and its forces, with the whole boundless Universe 
and all the past and coming generations of men. 

The humblest object beneath our eye as completely defies our scrutiny as the economy of the most 
distant stár. Every leaf and every blade of grass holds within itself secrets which no human penetration 
will ever fathom. No man can telí what is its principle of life. No man can know what his power of 
secretion is. Both are inscrutable mysteries. Wherever we pláce our hand we lay it upon the locked 
bosom of mystery. Step where we will, we tread upon wonders. The sea-sands, the clods of the field, 
the water-worn pebbles on the hills, the rudé masses of rock, are traced over and over, in every 
direction, with a handwriting older and more significant and sublime than all the ancient ruins, and all 
the overthrown and buried cities that past generations háve left upon the earth; for it is the handwriting 
of the Almighty. 

A Masoďs great business with life is to read the book of its teaching; to find that life is not the doing of 
drudgeries, but the hearing of oracles. The old mythology is but a leaf in that book; for it peopled the 
world with spirituál natures; and science, many-leaved, still spreads before us the samé tale of wonder. 

We shall be just as happy hereafter, as we are pure and upright, and no more, just as happy as our 
character prepares us to be, and no more. Our moral, like our mental character, is nut formed in a 

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moment; it is the hábit of our minds; the result of many thoughts and feelings and efforts, bound 
together by many natural and strong ties. The great law of Retribution is, that all coming experience is 
to be affected by every present feeling; every future moment of being must answer for every present 
moment; one moment, sacrificed to vice, or lost to improvement, is forever sacrificed and lost; an houťs 
delay to enter the right path, is to put us back so far, in the everlasting pursuit of happiness; and every 
sin, even of the best men, is to be thus answered for, if not according to the Ml measure of its illdesert, 
yet according to a rule of unbending rectitude and impartiality. 

The law of retribution presses upon every m an, whether he thinks of it or not. It pursues him through 
all the courses of life, with a step that nevěr falters nor tires, and with an eye that nevěr sleeps. If it were 
not so, Goďs government would not be impartial; 'there would be no discrimination; no moral 
dominion; no light shed upon the mysteries of Providence. 

Whatsoever a man soweth, that, and not something else, shall he reap. That which we are doing, good 
or evil, grave or gay, that which we do today and shall do to-morrow; each thought, each feeling, each 
action, each event; every passing hour, every breathing moment; all are contributing to form the 
character according to which we are to be judged. Every particle of influence that goes to form that 
aggregate, - our character, - will, in that future scrutiny, be sifted out from the mass; and, particle by 
particle, with ages perhaps intervening, fall a distinct contribution to the sum of our joys or woes. Thus 
every idle word and idle hour will give answer in the judgment. 

Let us také care, therefore, what we sow. An evil temptation comes upon us; the opportunity of 
unrighteous gain, or of unhallowed indulgence, either in the sphere of business or pleasure, of society 
or solitude. We yield; and plant a seed of bitterness and sorrow. To-morrow it will threaten discovery. 
Agitated and alarmed, we cover the sin, and bury it deep in falsehood and hypocrisy. In the bosom 
where it lies concealed, in the fertile soil of kindred vices, that sin dies not, but thrives and grows; and 
other and still other germs of evil gather around the accursed root; until from that single seed of 
corruption, there springs up in the soul all that is horrible in habitual lying, knavery, or vice. 
Loathingly, often, we také each downward step; but a frightful power urges us onward; and the hell of 
debt, disease, ignominy, or remorse gathers its shadows around Our steps even on earth; and are yet but 
the beginnings of sorrows. The evil deed may be doně in a single moment; but conscience nevěr dies, 
memory nevěr sleeps; guilt nevěr can become innocence; and remorse can nevěr whisper peace. 

Beware, thou who art tempted to evil! Beware what thou layest up for the future! Beware what thou 
layest up in the archives of eternity! Wrong not thy neighbor! lest the thought of him thou injurest, and 
who suffers by thy act, be to thee a pang which years will not deprive of its bitterness ! Break not into 
the house of innocence, to rifle it of its treasure; lest when many years háve passed over thee, the moan 
of its distress may not háve died away from thine ear! Build not the desolate throne of ambition in thy 
heart; nor be busy with devices, and circumventings, and selfish schemings; lest desolation and 

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loneliness be on thy path, as it stretches into the long futurity! Live not a useless, an impious, or an 
injurious life! for bound up with that life is the immutable princip le of an endless retribution, and 
elements of Goďs creating, which will nevěr spend theřr force, but continue ever to unfold with the ages 
of eternity. Be not deceived! God has formed thy nature, thus to answer to the future. His law can nevěr 
be abrogated, nor His justice eluded; and forever and ever it will be true, that "Whatsoever a man 
soweth, that also he shall reap.^ 


[Perfect Elu] 

It is for each individual Mason to discover the secret of Masonry, by reflection upon its symbols and a 
wise consideration and analysis of what is said and doně in the work. Masonry does not inculcate her 

She states them, once and briefly or hints them, perhaps, darkly or interposes a cloud between them and 
eyes that would be dazzled by them. 

"Seek, and ye shall find," knowledge and the truth. The practical object of Masonry is the physical and 
moral amelioration and the intellectual and spirituál improvement of individuals and society. Neither 
can be effected, except by the dissemination of truth. It is falsehood in doctrines and fallacy in 
principles, to which most of the miseries of men and the mis- fortunes of nations are owing. Public 
opinion is rarely right on any point; and there are and always will be important truths to be substituted 
in that opinion in the pláce of many errors and absurd and injurious prejudices. 

There are few truths that public opinion has not at some time hated and persecuted as heresies; and few 
errors that háve not at some time seemed to it truths rádi- ant from the immediate presence of God. 
There are moral malá- dies, also, of man and society, the treatment of which requřres not only boldness, 
but also, and more, prudence and discretion; since they are more the fruit of falše and pernicious 
doctrines, moral, political, and religious, than of vicious inclinations. 

Much of the Masonic secret manifests itself, without speech revealing it to him who even partially 
comprehends all the Degrees in proportion as he receives them; and particularly to those who advance 
to the highest Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. That Rite raises a corner of the veil, 
even in the Degree of Apprentice; for it there declares that Masonry is a worship. 

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Masonry labors to improve the sociál order by enlightening men's minds, warming their hearts with the 
love of the good, in- spiring them with the great principle of human fraternity, and requiring of its 
disciples that their language and actions shall conform to that principle, that they shall enlighten each 
other, control their passions, abhor vice, and pity the vicious man as one afflicted with a deplorable 

It is the universal, eternal, immutable religion, such as God planted it in the heart of universal 
humanity. No creed has ever been long-lived that was not built on this foundation. It is the base, and 
they are the superstructure. "Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to visit the 
fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world." "Is not this the 
fast that I háve chosen to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the 
oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?" The ministers of this religion are all Masons who 
comprehend it and are devoted to it; its sacrifices to God are good works, the sacrifices of the base and 
disorderly passions, the offering up of self-interest on the altar of humanity, and perpetual efforts to 
attain to all the moral perfection of which man is capable. 

To make honor and duty the steady beacon lights that shall guide your life-vessel over the stormy seas 
of time; to do that which it is right to do, not because it will insure you success, or bring with it a 
reward, or gain the applause of men, or be "the best policy," more prudent or more advisable; but 
because it is right, and therefore ought to be doně; to war incessantly against error, intolerance, 
ignorance, and vice, and yet to pity those who err, to be tolerant even of intolerance, to teach the 
ignorant, and to labor to reclaim the vicious, are some of the duties of a Mason. A good Mason is one 
that can look upon death, and see its face with the samé countenance with which he hears its story; that 
can endure all the labors of his life with his soul supporting his body, that can equally despise riches 
when he hath them and when he hath them not; that is, not sadder if they are in his neighboťs 
exchequer, nor more lifted up if they shine around about his own walls; one that is not moved with good 
fortuně coming to him, nor going from him; that can look upon another man's lands with equanimity 
and pleasure, as if they were his own; and yet look upon his own, and use them too, just as if they were 
another man's; that neither spends his goods prodigally and foolishly, nor yet keeps them avariciously 
and like a miser; that weighs not benefits by weight and number, but by the mind and circumstances of 
him who confers them; that nevěr thinks his charity expensive, if a worthy person be the receiver; that 
does nothing for opinioďs saké, but everything for conscience, being as careful of his thoughts as of his 
acting in markets and theatres, and in as much awe of himself as of a whole assembly; that is, bountiful 
and cheerful to his friends, and charitable and apt to forgive his enemies; that loves his country, 
consults its honor, and obeys its laws, and desires and endeavors nothing more than that he may do his 
duty and honor God. And such a Mason may reckon his life to be the life of a man, and compute his 
months, not by the course of the sun, but by the zodiac and circle of his virtues. 

The whole world is but one republic, of which each nation is a family, and every individual a child. 
Masonry, not in anywise derogating from the differing duties which the diversity of states requires, 

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tends to create a new people, which, composed of men of many nations and tongues, shall all be bound 
together by the bonds of science, morality, and virtue. 

Essentially philanthropic, philosophical, and progressive, it has for the basis of its dogma a firm belief 
in the existence of God and his providence, and of the immortality of the soul; for its object, the 
dissemination of moral, political, philosophical, and religious trath, and the practice of all the virtues. 
In every age, its device has been, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," with constitutional government, law, 
order, disciplině, and subordination to legitimate authority government and not anarchy. 

But it is neither a political party nor a religious séct. It braces all parties and all sects, to form from 
among them all a vast fraternal association. It recognizes the dignity of human nature, and man's right 
to such freedom as he is fitted for; and it knows nothing that should pláce one man below another, 
except ignorance, debasement, and crime, and the necessity of subordina- tion to lawful will and 

It is philanthropic; for it recognizes the great truth that all men are of the samé origin, háve common 
interests, and should co-operate together to the samé end. 

Therefore it teaches its members to love one another, to give to each other mutual assistance and 
support in all the circumstances of life, to share each oťheťs pains and sorrows, as well as their joys and 
pleasures; to guard the reputations, respect the opinions, and be perfectly tolerant of the errors, of each 
other, in matters of faith and belief s. 

It is philisophical because it teaches the great Truths concerning the nature and existence of one 
Supreme Deity, and the existence and immortality of the soul. It revives the Academy of Plato and the 
wise teachings of Socrates. It reiterates the maxims of Pythagoras, Confucius, and Zoroaster, and 
reverentially enforces the sublime lessons of Him who died upon the Cross. 

The ancients thought that universal humanity acted under the influence of two opposing Principles, the 
Good and the Evil: of which the Good urged men toward Truth, Independence, and De- votedness and 
the Evil toward Falsehood, Servility, and Selfishness. Masonry represents the Good Principle and 
constantly wars against the evil one. It is the Hercules, the Osiris, the Apollo, the Mithras, and the 
Ormuzd, at everlasting and deadly feud with the demons of ignorance, brutality, baseness, falsehood, 
slavishness of soul, intolerance, superstition, tyranny, meanness, the insolence of wealth, and bigotry. 

When despotism and superstition, twin-powers of evil and darkness, reigned everywhere and seemed 
invincible and immortal, it invented, to avoid persecution, the mysteries, that is to say, the allegory, the 

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symbol, and the emblém, and transmitted its doctrines by the secret mode of initiation. Now, retaining 
its ancient symbols, and in part its ancient ceremonies, it displays in every civilized country its banner, 
on which in letters of living light its great principles are written; and it smiles at the puny efforts of 
kings and popes to crush it out by excommunication and interdiction. 

Man's views in regard to God, will contain only so much positive truth as the human mind is capable of 
receiving; whether that truth is attained by the exercise of reason, or communicated by revelation. It 
must necessarily be both limited and alloyed, to bring it within the competence of finite human 
intelligence. Being finite, we can form no correct or adequate idea of the Infinite; being materiál, we 
can form no clear conception of the Spirituál. We do believe in and know the infinity of Space and 
Time, and the spirituality of the Soul; but the idea of that infinity and spirituality eludes us. Even 
Omnipotence cannot infuse infinite conceptions into finite minds; nor can God, without first entirely 
changing the conditions of our being, pour a complete and full knowledge of His own nature and 
attributes into the narrow capacity of a human soul. Human intelligence could not grasp it, nor human 
language express it. The visible is, necessarily, the measure of the invisible. 

The consciousness of the individual reveals itself alone. His knowledge cannot pass beyond the limits 
of his own being. His conceptions of other things and other beings are only his conceptions. They are 
not those things or beings themselves. The living principle of a living Universe must be INFINITE; 
while all our ideas and conceptions are finite, and applicable only to finite beings. 

The Deity is thus not an object of knowledge, but of faith; not to be approached by the understanding, 
but by the moral sense; not to be conceived, but to be felt. All attempts to embrace the Infinite in the 
conception of the Finite are, and must be only accommodations to the frailty of man. Shrouded from 
human comprehension in an obscurity from which a chastened imagination is awed back, and Thought 
retreats in conscious weakness, the Divine Nature is a theme on which man is little entitled to 
dogmatize. Here the philosophic Intellect becomes most painfully aware of its own insufficiency. 

And yet it is here that man most dogmatizes, classifies and describes Goďs attributes, makes out his 
map of Goďs nature, and his inventory of Goďs qualities, feelings, impulses, and passions; and then 
hangs and burns his brother, who, as dogmatically as he, makes out a different map and inventory. The 
common understanding has no humility. Its God is an incarnate Divinity. Imperfection imposes its own 
limitations on the Illimitable, and clothes the Inconceivable Spirit of the Universe in forms that come 
within the grasp of the senses and the intellect, and are derived from that infinite and imperfect nature 
which is but Goďs creation. 

We are all of us, though not all equally, mistaken. The cherished dogmas of each of us are not, as we 
fondly suppose, the pure truth of God; but simply our own speciál form of error, our guesses at truth, 

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the refracted and fragmentary rays of light that háve fallen upon our own minds. Our little systems 
háve their day, and cease to be; they are but broken lights of God; and He is more than they. Perfect 
truth is not attainable anywhere. We style this Degree that of Perfection; and yet what it teaches is 
imperfect and defective. Yet we are not to relax in the pursuit of truth, nor contentedly acquiesce in 
error. It is our duty always to press forward in the search; for though absolute truth is unattainable, yet 
the amount of error in our views is capable of progressive and perpetual diminution; and thus Masonry 
is a continual struggle toward the light. 

All errors are not equally innocuous. That which is most injurious is to entertain unworthy conceptions 
of the nature and attributes of God; and it is this that Masonry symbolizes by ignorance of the True 
Word. The true word of a Mason is, not the entire, perfect, absolute truth in regard to God; but the 
highest and noblest conception of Him that our minds are capable of forming; and this word is 
Ineffable, because one man cannot communicate to another his own conception of Deity; since every 
man's conception of God must be proportioned to his mental cultivation and intellectual powers, and 
moral excellence. God is, as man conceives Him, the reflected image of man himself. 

For every man's conception of God must vary with his mental cultivation and mental powers. If any 
one contents himself with any lower image than his intellect is capable of grasping, then he contents 
himself with that which is falše to him, as well as falše in fact. If lower than he can reach, he must needs 
feel it to be falše. And if we, of the nineteenth century after Christ, adopt the con- ceptions of the 
nineteenth century before Him; if our conceptions of God are those of the ignorant, narrow-minded, 
and vindictive Israelite; then we think worse of God, and háve a lower, meaner, and more limited view 
of His nature, than the faculties which He has bestowed are capable of grasping. The highest view we 
can form is nearest to the truth. If we acquiesce in any lower one, we acquiesce in an untruth. We feel 
that it is an affront and an indignity to Him, to conceive of Him as cruel, short-sighted, capricious, and 
unjust; as ajealous, an angry, a vindictive Being. When we examine our conceptions of His character, if 
we can conceive of a loftier, nobler, higher, more beneficent, glorious, and magnificent character, then 
this latter is to us the true conception of Deity; for nothing can be imagined more excellent than He. 

Religion, to obtain currency and influence with the great mass of mankind, must needs be alloyed with 
such an amount of error as to pláce it far below the standard attainable by the higher human capacities. 
A religion as pure as the loftiest and most cultivated human reason could discern, would not be 
comprehended by, or effective over, the less educated portion of mankind. What is Truth to the 
philosopher, would not be Truth, nor háve the effect of Truth, to the peasant. The religion of the many 
must necessarily be more incorrect than that of the refined and reflective few, not so much in its 
essence as in its forms, not so much in the spirituál idea which lies latent at the bottom of it, as in the 
symbols and dogmas in which that idea is embodied. The truest religion would, in many points, not be 
comprehended by the igno- rant, nor consolatory to them, nor guiding and supporting for them. The 
doctrines of the Bible are often not clothed in the language of strict truth, but in that which was fittest 
to convey to a rudé and ignorant people the practical essentials of the doctrine. A perfectly pure faith, 

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free from all extraneous admixtures, a systém of noble theism and lofty morality, would find too little 
preparation for it in the common mind and heart, to admit of prompt reception by the masses of 
mankind; and Truth might not háve reached us, if it had not borrowed the wings of Error. 

The Mason regards God as a Moral Governor, as well as an Originál Creator; as a God at hand, and not 
merely one afar off in the distance of infinite space, and in the remoteness of Past or Future Eternity. 
He conceives of Him as taking a watchful and presiding interest in the affairs of the world, and as 
influencing the hearts and actions of men. 

To him, God is the great Source of the World of Life and Matter; and man, with his wonderful 
corporeal and mental frame, His direct work. He believes that God has made men with different 
intellectual capacities, and enabled some, by superior intellectual power, to see and originate truths 
which are hidden from the mass of men. He believes that when it is His will that mankind should make 
some great step forward, or achieve some pregnant discovery, He calls into being some intellect of more 
than ordi- nary magnitude and power, to give birth to new ideas, and grander conceptions of the Truths 
vital to Humanity. 

We hold that God has so ordered matters in this beautiful and harmonious, but mysteriously governed 
Universe, that one great mind after another will arise, from time to time, as such are needed, to reveal to 
men the truths that are wanted, and the amount of truth than can be borne. He so arranges, that nature 
and the course of events shall send men into the world, endowed with that higher mental and moral 
organization, in which grand truths, and sublime gleams of spirituál light will spontaneously and 
inevitably arise. These speak to men by inspiration. 

Whatever Hiram really was, he is the type, perhaps an imaginary type, to us, of humanity in its highest 
phase; an exemplár of what man may and should become, in the course of ages, in his progress toward 
the realization of his destiny; an individual gifted with a glorious intellect, a noble soul, a fine 
organization, and a perfectly balanced moral being; an earnest of what humanity may be, and what we 
believe it will hereafter be in Goďs good time; the possibility of the race made reál. The Mason 
believes that God has arranged this glorious but perplexing world with a purpose, and on a pian. He 
holds that every man sent upon this earth, and especially every man of superior capacity, has a duty to 
perform, a mission to fulfill, a baptism to be baptized with; that every great and good man possesses 
some portion of Goďs truth, which he must proclaim to the world, and which must bear fruit in his own 
bosom. In a true and simple sense, he believes all the pure, wise, and intellectual to be inspired, and to 
be so for the instruction, advancement, and elevation of mankind. That kind of inspiration, like Goďs 
omnipresence, is not limited to the few writers claimed by Jews, Christians, or Moslems, but is co- 
extensive with the race. It is the consequence of a faithful use of our faculties. Each man is its subject, 
God is its source, and Truth its only test. It differs in degrees, as the intellectual endowments, the moral 
wealth of the soul, and the degree of cultivation of those endowments and faculties differ. It is limited 

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to no séct, age, or nation. It is wide as the world and common as God. It was not given to a few men, 
in the infancy of mankind, to monopolize inspiration, and bar God out of the soul. We are not born in 
the dotage and decay of the world. The stars are beautiful as in their prime; the most ancient Heavens 
are fresh and strong. God is still everywhere in nature. Wherever a heart beats with love, wherever Faith 
and Reason utter their oracles, there is God, as formerly in the hearts of seers and prophets. No soil on 
earth is so holý as the good man's heart; nothing is so Ml of God. This inspiration is not given to the 
learned alone, not alone to the great and wise, but to every faithful child of God. Certain as the open 
eye drinks in the light, do the pure in heart see God; and he who lives truly, feels Him as a presence 
within the soul. The conscience is the very voice of Deity. 

Masonry, around whose altars the Christian, the Hebrew, the Moslem, the Brahmin, the followers of 
Confucius and Zoroaster, can assemble as brethren and unitě in prayer to the one God who is above all 
the Baalim, must needs leave it to each of its Initiates to look for the foundation of his faith and hope to 
the written scriptures of his own religion. For itself it finds those truths definite enough, which are 
written by the finger of God upon the heart of man and on the pages of the book of nature. Views of 
religion and duty, wrought out by the meditations of the studious, confirmed by the allegiance of the 
good and wise, stamped as sterling by the response they find in every uncorrupted mind, commend 
themselves to Masons of every creed, and may well be accepted by all. 

The Mason does not pretend to dogmatic certainty, nor vainly imagine such certainty attainable. He 
considers that if there were no written revelation, he could safely rest the hopes that animate him and 
the principles that guide him, on the deductions of reason and the convictions of instinct and 
consciousness. He can find a sure foundation for his religious belief, in these deductions of the intellect 
and convictions of the heart. For reason proves to him the existence and attributes of God; and those 
spirituál instincts which he feels are the voice of God in his soul, infuse into his mind a sense of his 
relation to God, a conviction of the beneficence of his Creator and Preserver, and a hope of future ex- 
istence; and his reason and conscience alike unerringly point to virtue as the highest good, and the 
destined aim and purpose of man's life. 

He studies the wonders of the Heavens, the framework and revolutions of the Earth, the mysterious 
beauties and adaptations of animal existence, the moral and materiál constitution of the human creature, 
so fearfully and wonderfully made; and is satisfied that God IS; and that a Wise and Good Being is the 
author of the starry Heavens above him, and of the moral world within him; and his mind finds an 
adequate foundation for its hopes, its worship, its principles of action, in the far- stře tching Universe, in 
the glorious firmament, in the deep, full soul, bursting with unutterable thoughts. 

These are truths which every reflecting mind will unhesitatingly receive, as not to be surpassed, nor 
capable of improvement; and fitted, if obeyed, to make earth indeed a Paradise, and man only a little 
lower than the angels. The worthlessness of ceremoniál observances, and the necessity of active virtue; 

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the enforcement of purity of heart as the security for purity of life, and of the government of the 
thoughts, as the originators and forerunners of action; universal philanthropy, requiring us to love all 
men, and to do unto others that and that only which we should think it right, just, and generous for them 
to do unto us; forgiveness of injuries; the necessity of self-sacrifice in the discharge of duty; humility; 
genuine sincerity, and being that which we seem to be; all these sublime precepts need no miracle, no 
voice from the clouds, to recommend them to our allegiance, or to assure us of their divine origin. They 
command obedience by virtue of their inherent rectitude and beauty; and háve been, and are, and will 
be the law in every age and every country of the world. God revealed them to man in the beginning. 

To the Mason, God is our Father in Heaven, to be Whose speciál children is the sufficient reward of the 
peacemakers, to see whose face the highest hope of the pure in heart; who is ever at hand to strengthen 
His true worshippers; to Whom our most fervent love is due, our most humble and patient submission; 
Whose most acceptable worship is a pure and pitying heart and a benefi- cent life; in Whose constant 
presence we live and act, to Whose merciful disposal we are resigned by that death which, we hope and 
believe, is but the entrance to a better life; and whose wise decrees forbid a man to lap his soul in an 
elysium of mere indolent content. 

As to our feelings toward Him and our conduct toward man, Masonry teaches little about which men 
can differ, and little from which they can dissent. He is our Father; and we are all brethren. This much 
lies open to the most ignorant and busy, as fully as to those who háve most leisure and are most learned. 
This needs no Priest to teach it, and no authority to indorse it; and if every man did that only which is 
consistent with it, it would exile barbarity, cruelty, intolerance, uncharitableness, perfidy, treachery, 
revenge, selfishness, and all their kindred vices and bad passions beyond the confines of the world. 

The true Mason, sincerely holding that a Supreme God created and governs this world, believes also 
that He governs it by laws, which, though wise, just, and beneficent, are yet steady, unwavering, 
inexorable. He believes that his agonies and sorrows are ordained for his chastening, his strengthening, 
his elaboration and development; because they are the necessary results of the operation of laws, the 
best that could be devised for the happiness and purification of the species, and to give occasion and 
opportunity for the practice of all the virtues, from the homeliest and most common, to the noblest and 
most sublime; or perhaps not even that, but the best adapted to work out the vast, awful, glorious, 
eternal designs of the Great Spirit of the Universe. He believes that the ordained operations of nature, 
which háve brought misery to him, háve, from the very unswerving tranquility of their career, showered 
blessings and sunshine upon many another path; that the unrelenting chariot of Time, which has 
crushed or maimed him in its allotted course, is pressing onward to the accomplishment of those serene 
and mighty purposes, to háve contributed to which, even as a victim, is an honor and a recompense. He 
takés this view of Time and Nature and God, and yet bears his lot with- out murmur or distrust; because 
it is a portion of a systém, the best possible, because ordained by God. He does not believe that God 
loses sight of him, while superintending the march of the great harmonies of the Universe; nor that it 
was not foreseen, when the Universe was created, its laws enacted, and the long succession of its 

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operations pre-ordained, that in the great march of those events, he would suffer pain and undergo 
calamity. He believes that his individual good entered into Goďs consideration, as well as the great 
cardinal results to which the course of all things is tending. 

Thus believing, he has attained an eminence in virtue, the highest, amid passive excellence, which 
humanity can reach. He finds his reward and his support in the reflection that he is an unreluctant and 
self-sacrificing co-operator with the Creator of the Universe; and in the noble consciousness of being 
worthy and capable of so sublime a conception, yet so sad a destiny. He is then truly entitled to be 
called a Grand Elect, Perfect, and Sublime Mason. He is content to fall early in the battle, if his body 
may but form a stepping- stone for the future conquests of humanity. 

It cannot be that God, Who, we are certain, is perfectly good, can choose us to suffer pain, unless either 
we are ourselves to receive from it an antidote to what is evil in ourselves, or else as such pain is a 
necessary part in the scheme of the Universe, which as a whole is good. 

In either čase, the Mason receives it with submission. He would not suffer unless it was ordered so. 
What- ever his creed, if he believes that God is, and that He cares for His creatures, he cannot doubt 
that; nor that it would not háve been so ordered, unless it was either better for himself, or for some other 
persons, or for some things. To complain and lament is to murmur against Goďs will, and worse than 

The Mason, whose mind is cast in a nobler mould than those of the ignorant and unreflecting, and is 
instinct with a diviner life, who loves truth more than rest, and the peace of Heaven rather than the 
peace of Eden, to whom a loftier being brings severer cares, who knows that man does not live by 
pleasure or content alone, but by the presence of the power of God, must cast behind him the hope of 
any other repose or tranquillity, than that which is the last reward of long agonies of thought; he must 
relinquish all prospect of any Heaven savé that of which trouble is the avenue and portál; he must gird 
up his loins, and trim his lamp, for a work that must be doně, and must not be negligently doně. If he 
does not like to live in the furnished lodgings of tradition, he must build his own house, his own systém 
of faith and thought, for himself. 

The hope of success, and not the hope of reward, should be our stimulating and sustaining power. Our 
object, and not ourselves, should be our inspiring thought. Selfishness is a sin, when tem- porary, and 
for time. Spun out to eternity, it does not become celestial prudence. We should toil and die, not for 
Heaven or Bliss, but for Duty. 

In the more frequent cases, where we háve to join our efforts to those of thousands of others, to 
contribute to the carrying forward of a great cause; merely to till the ground or sow the seed for a very 

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distant harvest, or to prepare the way for the future advent of some great amendment; the amount which 
each one contrib- útes to the achievement of ultimate success, the portion of the price which justice 
should assign to each as his especial production, can nevěr be accurately ascertained. 

Perhaps few of those who háve ever labored, in the patience of secrecy and silence, to bring about some 
political or sociál change, which they felt convinced would ultimately prove of vast service to humanity, 
lived to see the change effected, or the anticipated good flow from it. 

Fewer still of them were able to pronounce what appreciable weight their several efforts contributed to 
the achievement of the change desired. Many will doubt, whether in truth, these exertions háve any 
influence whatever; and discouraged, cease all active effort. 

Not to be thus discouraged, the Mason must labor to elevate and purify his motives, as well as 
sedulously cherish the conviction, assuredly a true one, that in this world there is no such thing as effort 
thrown away; that in all labor there is profit; that all sincere exertion, in a righteous and unselfish cause, 
is necessarily followed, in špite of all appearance to the contrary, by an appropriate and proportionate 
success; that no bread cast upon the waters can be wholly lost; that no seed planted in the ground can 
fail to quicken in due time and measure; and that, however we may, in moments of despondency, be apt 
to doubt, not only whether our cause will triumph, but whether, if it does, we shall háve contributed to 
its triumph, there is One, Who has not only seen every exertion we háve made, but Who can assign the 
exact degree in which each soldier has assisted to gain the great victory over sociál evil. No good work 
is doně wholly in vain. 

The Grand Elect, Perfect, and Sublime Mason will in nowise deserve that honorable title, if he has not 
that strength, that will, that self-sustaining energy; that Faith, that feeds upon no earthly hope, nor ever 
thinks of victory, but, content in its own consummation, combats, because it ought to combat, rejoicing 
fights, and still rejoicing falls. 

The Augean Stables of the World, the accumulated uncleanness and misery of centuries, require a 
mighty river to cleanse them thoroughly away; every drop we contribute aids to swell that river and 
augment its force, in a degree appreciable by God, though not by man; and he whose zeal is deep and 
earnest, will not be over-anxious that his individual drops should be distinguishable amid the mighty 
mass of cleansing and fertilizing waters; far less that, for the saké of distinction, it should flow in 
ineffective singleness away. 

The true Mason will not be careful that his name should be inscribed upon the mite which he casts into 
the treasury of God. It suffices him to know that if he has labored, with purity of purpose, in any good 
cause, he must háve contributed to its success; that the degree in which he has contributed is a matter of 

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infinitely small concern; and still more, that the consciousness of having so contributed, however 
obscurely and unnoticed, is his sufficient, even if it be his sole, reward. Let every Grand Elect, Perfect, 
and Sublime Mason cherish this faith. It is a duty. It is the brilliant and never-dying light that shines 
within and through the symbolic pedestal of alabaster, on which reposes the perfect cube of agate, 
symbol of duty, inscribed with the divine name of God. He who industriously sows and reaps is a good 
laborer, and worthy of his hire. But he who sows that which shall be reaped by others, by those who 
will know not of and care not for the sower, is a laborer of a nobler order, and, worthy of a more 
excellent reward. 

The Mason does not exhort others to an ascetic undervaluing of this life, as an insignificant and 
unworthy portion of existence; for that demands feelings which are unnatural, and which, there- fóre, if 
attained, must be morbid, and if merely professed, insincere; and teaches us to look rather to a future 
life for the compensation of sociál evils, than to this life for their cure; and so does injury to the cause 
of virtue and to that of sociál progress. Life is reál, and is earnest, and it is full of duties to be 
performed. It is the beginning of our immortality. Those only who feel a deep interest and affection for 
this world will work resolutely for its amelioration; those whose affections are transferred to Heaven, 
easily acquiesce in the miseries of earth, deeming them hopeless, befitting, and ordained; and console 
themselves with the idea of the ammends which are one day to be theirs. 

It is a sad truth, that those most decidedly given to spirituál contemplation, and to making religion rule 
in their hearts, are often most apathetic to- ward all improvement of this worlďs systems, and in many 
cases virtual conservatives of evil and hostile to political and sociál reform, as diverting men's energies 
from eternity. 

The Mason does not war with his own instincts, macerate the body into weakness and disorder, and 
disparage what he sees to be beautiful, knows to be wonderful, and feels to be unspeakably dear and 

He does not put aside the nature which God has given him, to struggle after one which He has not 
bestowed. He knows that man is sent into the world, not a spirituál, but a composite being, made up of 
body and mind, the body having, as is fit and needful in a materiál world, its full, rightful, and allotted 
share. His life is guided by a full recognition of this fact. He does not děny it in bold words, and admit 
it in weaknesses and inevitable failings. He believes that his spirituality will come in the next stage of 
his being, when he puts on the spirituál body; that his body will be dropped at death; and that, until 
then, God meant it to be commanded and controlled, but not neglected, despised, or ignored by the 
soul, under pain of heavy consequences. 

Yet the Mason is not indifferent as to the fate of the soul, after its present life, as to its continued and 
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eternal being, and the character of the scenes in which that being will be fully developed. These are to 
him topics of the proroundest interest, and the most ennobling and refining contemplation. They 
occupy much of his leisure and as he becomes familiar with the sorrows and calamities of this life, as 
his hopes are disappointed and his visions of happiness here fade away; when life has wearied him in its 
race of hours; when he is harassed and toil-worn, and the burden of his years weighs heavy on him, the 
balance of attraction gradually inclines in favor of another life; and he clings to his lofty speculations 
with a tenacity of interest which needs no injunction, and will listen to no prohibition. They are the 
consoling privilege of the aspiring, the wayworn, the weary, and the bereaved. 

To him the contemplation of the Future lets in light upon the Present, and develops the higher portions 
of his nature. He endeavors rightly to adjust the respective claims of Heaven and earth upon his time 
and thought, so as to give the proper proportions thereof to performing the duties and entering into the 
interests of this world, and to preparation for a better; to the cultivation and purification of his own 
character, and to the public service of his fellow-men. 

The Mason does not dogmatize, but entertaining and uttering his own convictions, he leaves every one 
else free to do the samé; and only hopes that the time will come, even if after the lapse of ages, when all 
men shall form one great family of brethren, and one law alone, the law of love, shall govern Goďs 
whole Universe. 

Believe as you may, my brother; if the Universe is not, to you without a God, and if man is not like the 
beast that perishes, but hath an immortal soul, we welcome you among us, to wear, as we wear, with 
humility, and conscious of your demerits and shortcomings, the title of Grand Elect, Perfect, and 
Sublime Mason. 

It is not without a secret meaning, that twelve was the number of the Apostles of Christ, and seventy- 
two that of his Disciples that John addressed his rebukes and menaces to the Seven churches, the 
number of the Archangels and the Planets. At Babylon were the Seven Stages of Bersippa, a pyramid 
of Seven stories, and at Ecbatana Seven concentric inclosures, each of a different color. Thebes also had 
Seven gates, and the samé num- ber is repeated again and again in the account of the flood. The 
Sephiroth, or Emanations, ten in number, three in one class, and seven in the other, repeat the mystic 
numbers of Pythagoras. Seven Amschaspands or planetary spirits were invoked with Ormuzd; Seven 
inferior Rishis of Hindustan were saved with the head of their family in an ark and Seven ancient 
personages alone returned with the British just man, Hu, from the dále of the grievous waters. There 
were Seven Heliadae, whose father Helias, or the Sun, once crossed the sea in a golden cup; Seven 
Titans, children of the older Titan, Kronos or Saturn; Seven Corybantes; and Seven Cabiri, sons of 
Sydyk; Seven primeval Celestial spirits of the Japanese, and Seven Karlesters who escaped from the 
deluge and began to be the parents of a new race, on the summit of Mount Albordi. Seven Cyclopes, 
also, built the walls of Tiryus. Celus, as quoted by Origen, tells us that the Persians represented by 

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symbols the two fold motion of the stars, fixed and planetary, and the passage of the Soul through their 
successive spheres. They erected in their holý caves, in which the mystic rites of the Mithriac Initiations 
were practised, what he denominates a high ladder, on the Seven steps of which were Seven gates or 
portals, according to the number of the Seven principál heavenly bodies. Through these the aspirants 
passed, until they reached the summit of the whole; and this passage was styled a transmigration 
through the spheres. 

Jacob saw in his dream a ladder planted or set on the earth, and its top reaching to Heaven, and the 
Malaki Alohim ascending and descending on it, and above it stood IHUH, declaring Himself to be 
Bhuh-Alhi Abraham. The word translated ladder, is Salám, from Sálal, raised, elevated, reared up, 
exalted, piled up into a heap, Aggeravit. Salalah, means a heap, rampart, or other accumulation of earth 
or stone, artificially made; and Salaa or Sálo, is a rock or cliff or boulder, and the name of the city of 
Petra. There is no ancient Hebrew word to designate a pyramid. 

The symbolic mountain Meru was ascended by Seven steps or stages and all the pyramids and artificial 
tumuli and hillocks thrown up in fiat countries were imitations of this fabulous and mystic mountain, 
for purposes of worship. These were the "High Places" so often mentioned in the Hebrew books, on 
which the idolaters sacrificed to foreign gods. 

The pyramids were sometimes square, and sometimes round. The sacred Babylonian tower [Magdol], 
dedicated to the great Father Bal, was an artificial hill, of pyramidal shape, and Seven stages, built of 
brick, and each stage of a different color, representing the Seven planetary spheres by the appropriate 
color of each planet. Meru itself was said to be a single mountain, terminating in three peaks, and thus a 
symbol of the Trimurti. The great Pagoda at Tanjore was of six stories, surmounted by a temple as the 
seventh, and on this three spires or towers. 

An ancient pagoda at Deogur was surmounted by a tower, sustaining the mystic egg and a trident. 
Herodotus tells us that the Temple of Bal at Babylon was a tower composed of Seven towers, resting on 
an eighth that served as basis, and successively diminishing in size from the bottom to the top; and 
Strabo tells us it was a pyramid. 

Faber thinks that the Mithriac ladder was really a pyramid with Seven stages, each provided with a 
narrow dooř or apertuře, through each of which doors the aspirant passed, to reach the summit, and 
then descended through similar doors on the opposite side of the pyramid; the ascent and descent of the 
Soul being thus represented. 

Each Mithriac cave and all the most ancient temples were tended to symbolize the Universe, which 
itself was habitually called the Temple and habitation of Deity. Every temple was the world in 
miniatuře; and so the whole world was one grand temple. The most ancient temples were roofless; and 

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therefore the Persians, Celts, and Scythians strongly disliked artificial cov- ered edifices. Cicero says 
that Xerxes burned the Grecian tem- ples, on the express ground that the whole world was the Magnifi- 
cent Temple and Habitation of the Supreme Deity. Macrobius says that the entire Universe was 
judiciously deemed by many the Temple of God. Plato pronounced the reál Temple of the Deity to be 
the world; and Heraclitus declared that the Universe, varie- gated with animals and plants and stars was 
the only genuine Temple of the Divinity. 

How completely the Temple of Solomon was symbolic, is manifest, not only from the continual 
reproduction in it of the sacred numbers and of astrological symbols in the historical descriptions of it; 
but also, and yet more, from the details of the imaginary reconstracted edifice, seen by Ezekiel in his 
vision. The Apocalypse completes the demonstration, and shows the kabalistic meanings of the whole. 
The Symbola Architectonica are found on the most ancient edifices and these mathematical figures and 
instruments, adopted by the Templars, and identical with those on the gnostic seals and abraxae, 
connect their dogma with the Chaldaic, Syriac, and Egyptian Oriental philosophy. The secret 
Pythagorean doc- trines of numbers were preserved by the monks of Thibet, by the Hierophants of 
Egypt and Eleusis, at Jerusalem, and in the circular Chapters of the Druids; and they are especially 
consecrated in that mysterious book, the Apocalypse of Saint John. 

All temples were surrounded by pillars, recording the number of the constellations, the signs of the 
zodiac, or the cycles of the planets and each one was a microcosm or symbol of the Universe, having 
for roof or ceiling the starred vault of Heaven. 

All temples were originally open at the top, having for roof the sky. Twelve pillars described the belt of 
the zodiac. Whatever the number of the pillars, they were mystical everywhere. At Abury, the Druidic 
temple reproduced all the cycles by its columns. Around the temples of Chilminar in Persia, of Baalbec, 
and of Tukhti Schlomoh in Tartary, on the frontier of China, stood fořty pillars. On each side of the 
temple at Paestum were fourteen, recording the Egyptian cycle of the dark and light sides of the moon, 
as described by Plutarch; the whole thirty-eight that surrounded them recording the two meteoric cycles 
so often found in the Druidic temples. 

The theatre built by Scaurus, in Greece, was surrounded by 360 columns; the Temple at Mecca, and 
that at Iona in Scotland, by 360 stones. 


[Knight of the East, of the Sword, or of the Eagle.] 

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This Degree, like all others in Masonry, is symbolical. Based upon historical truth and authentic 
tradition, it is still an allegory. The leading lesson of this Degree is Fidelity to obligation, and 
Constancy and Perseverance under difficulties and discouragement. 

Masonry is engaged in her crusade, against ignorance, intolerance, fanaticism, superstition, 
uncharitableness, and error. She does not sail with the tradewinds, upon a smooth sea, with a steady 
free breeze, fair for a welcoming harbor; but meets and must overcome many opposing currents, 
baffling winds, and dead calms. 

The chief obstacles to her success are the apathy and faithlessness of her own selfish children, and the 
supine indifference of the world. In the roar and crush and hurry of life and business, and the tumult 
and uproar of politics, the quiet voice of Masonry is unheard and unheeded. The first lesson which one 
learns, who engages in any great work of reform or beneficence, is, that men are essentially careless, 
lukewarm, and indifferent as to everything that does not concern their own personál and immediate 
welfare. It is to single men, and not to the united efforts of many, that all the great works of man, 
struggling toward perfection, are owing. The enthusiast, who imagines that he can inspire with his own 
enthusiasm the multitude that eddies around him, or even the few who háve associated themselves with 
him as co-workers, is grievously mistaken; and most often the conviction of his own mistake is followed 
by discouragement and disgust. To do all, to pay all, and to suffer all, and then, when despite all 
obstacles and hindrances, success is accomplished, and a great work doně, to see those who opposed or 
looked coldly on it, claim and reap all the praise and reward, is the common and almost universal lot of 
the benefactor of his kind. 

He who endeavors to serve, to benefit, and improve the world, is like a swimmer, who struggles against 
a rapid current, in a river lashed into angry waves by the winds. Often they roar over his head, often 
they beat him back and baffle him. Most men yield to the stress of the current, and float with it to the 
shore, or are swept over the rapids; and only here and there the stout, strong heart and vigorous arms 
struggle on toward ultimate success. 

It is the motionless and stationary that most frets and impedes the current of progress; the solid rock or 
stupid dead tree, rested firmly on the bottom, and around which the river whirls and eddies: the Masons 
that doubt and hesitate and are discouraged; that disbelieve in the capability of man to improve; that are 
not disposed to toil and labor for the interest and well-being of gen- eral humanity; that expect others to 
do all, even of that which they do not oppose or ridicule; while they sit, applauding and doing nothing, 
or perhaps prognosticating failure. 

There were many such at the rebuilding of the Temple. There were prophets of evil and misfortune the 
lukewarm and the indifferent and the apathetic; those who stood by and sneered and those who thought 

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they did God service enough if they now and then faintly applauded. There were ravens croaking ill 
omen, and murmurers who preached the foliy and futility of the attempt. The world is made up of such 
and they were as abundant then as they are now. 

But gloomy and discouraging as was the prospect, with lukewarmness within and bitter opposition 
without, our ancient brethren persevered. Let us leave them engaged in the good work, and whenever to 
us, as to them, success is uncertain, remote, and contingent, let us still remember that the only question 
for us to ask, as true men and Masons, is what does duty require and not what will be the result and our 
reward if we do our duty. Work on, the Sword in one hand, and the Trowel in the other! 

Masonry teaches that God is a Paternal Being, and has an interest in his creatures, such as is expressed 
in the title Father; an interest unknown to all the systems of Paganism, untaught in all the theories of 
philosophy; an interest not only in the glorious beings of other spheres, the Sons of Light, the dwellers 
in Heav- enly worlds, but in us, poor, ignorant, and unworthy; that He has pity for the erring, pardon for 
the guilty, love for the pure, knowledge for the humble, and promises of immortal life for those who 
trust in and obey Him. 

Without a belief in Him, life is miserable, the world is dark, the Universe disrobed of its splendors, the 
intellectual tie to nature broken, the charm of existence dissolved, the great hope of being lost; and the 
mind, like a stár struck from its sphere, wanders through the infinite desert of its conceptions, without 
attraction, tendency, destiny, or end. 

Masonry teaches, that, of all the events and actions, that také pláce in the universe of worlds and the 
eternal succession of ages, there is not one, even the minutest, which God did not forever forsee with all 
the distinctness of immediate vision, combining all, so that man's free will should be His instrument, 
like all the other forces of nature. 

It teaches that the soul of man is formed by Him for a purpose; that, built up in its proportions, and 
fashioned in every part, by infinite skill, an emanation from His spirit, its nature, necessity, and design 
are virtue. It is so formed, so moulded, so fashioned, so exactly balanced, so exquisitely proportioned in 
every part, that sin introduced into it is misery; that vicious thoughts fall upon it like drops of poison; 
and guilty desires, breathing on its delicate fibres, make plague-spots there, deadly as those of 
pestilence upon the body. It is made for virtue, and not for vice; for purity, as its end, rest, and 
happiness. Not more vainly would we attempt to make the mountain sink to the level of the valley, the 
waves of the angry sea turn back from its shores and cease to thunder upon the beach, the stars to halt 
in their swift courses, than to change any one law of our own nature. And one of those laws, uttered by 
Goďs voice, and speaking through every nerve and fibre, every force and element, of the moral 
constitution He has given us, is that we must be upright and virtuous; that if tempted we must resist; 

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that we must govern our unruly pas- sions, and hold in hand our sensual appetites. And this is not the 
dictate of an arbitrary will, nor of some stern and impracticable law; but it is part of the great firm law 
of harmony that binds the Universe together, not the mere enactment of arbitrary will; but the dictate of 
Infinite Wisdom. 

We know that God is good, and that what He does is right. This known, the works of creation, the 
changes of life, the destinies of eternity, are all spread before us, as the dispensations and counsels of 
infinite love. This known, we then know that the love of God is working to issues, like itself, beyond all 
thought and imagination good and glorious; and that the only reason why we do not understand it, is 
that it is too glorious for us to un- derstand. Goďs love takés care for all, and nothing is neglected. It 
watches over all, provides for all, makes wise adaptations for all; for age, for infancy, for maturity, for 
childhood; in every scene of this or another world; for want, weakness, joy, sorrow, and even for sin. All 
is good and well and right; and shall be so forever. Through the eternal ages the light of Goďs 
beneficence shall shine hereafter, disclosing all, consummating all, rewarding all that deserve reward. 
Then we shall see, what now we can only believe. 

The cloud will be lifted up, the gate of mystery be passed, and the full light shine forever; the light of 
which that of the Lodge is a symbol. Then that which caused us trial shall yield us triumph; and that 
which made our heart ache shall fill us with gladness; and we shall then feel that there, as here, the only 
true happiness is to learn, to advance, and to improve; which could not happen unless we had 
commenced with error, ignorance, and imperfection. We must pass through the darkness, to reach the 


We no longer expect to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem. To us it has become but a symbol. To us the 
whole world is Goďs Temple, as is every upright heart. To establish all over the world the New Law and 
Reign of Love, Peace, Charity, and Toleration, is to build that Temple, most acceptable to God, in 
erecting which Masonry is now engaged. No longer needing to repair to Jerusa- lem to worship, nor to 
offer up sacrifices and shed blood to propi- tiate the Deity, man may make the woods and mountains his 
Churches and Temples, and worship God with a devout gratitude, and with works of charity and 
beneficence to his fellow men. 

Wherever the humble and contrite heart silently offers up its adoration, under the overarching trees, in 
the open, level meadows, on the hillside, in the glen, or in the city's swarming streets; there is Goďs 
House and the New Jerusalem. 

The Princes of Jerusalem no longer sit as magistrates to judge between the people; nor is their number 
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limited to five. But their duties still remain substantially the samé, and their insignia and symbols 
retain their old significance. Justice and Equity are still their characteristics. To reconcile disputes and 
heal dissensions, to restore amity and peace, to soothe dislikes and soften, prejudices, are their peculiar 
duties; and they know that the peacemakers are blessed. 

Their emblems háve been already explained. They are part of language of Masonry; the samé now as it 
was when Moses learned it from the Egyptian Hierophants. 

Still we observe the spirit of the Divine law, as thus enunciated to our ancient brethren, when the 
Temple was rebuilt, and the book of the law again opened: "Execute true judgment; and show mercy 
and compassion every man to his brother. Oppress not the widow nor the fatherless, the stranger nor the 
poor and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in his heart. Speak ye every man the truth to 
his neighbor; execute the judgment of Truth and Peace in your gates; and love no falše oath; for all 
these I hatě, saith the Lord". 

"Let those who háve power rule in righteousness, and Princes in judgment. And let him that is a judge 
be as an hiding pláce from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry pláce; as 
the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. Then the vile person shall no more be called liberal; nor the 
churl bountiful; and the work of justice shall be peace; and the effect of justice, quiet and security; and 
wisdom and knowledge shall be the stability of the times. Walk ye righteously and speak uprightly; 
despise the gains of oppression, shake from your hands the contamination of bribes; stop not your ears 
against the cries of the oppressed, nor shut your eyes that you may not see the crimes of the great; and 
you shall dwell on high, and your pláce of defence be like munitions of rocks." 

Forget not these precepts of the old Law and especially do not forget, as you advance, that every Mason, 
however humble, is your brother, and the laboring man your peer! Remember always that all Masonry is 
work, and that the trowel is an emblém of the Degrees in this Council. Labor, when rightly understood, 
is both noble and ennobling, and intended to develop man's moral and spirituál nature, and not to be 
deemed a disgrace or a misfortune. 

Everything around us is, in its bearings and influences, moral. The serene and bright morning, when we 
recover our conscious existence from the embraces of sleep; when, from that image of Death God calls 
us to a new life, and again gives us existence, and His mercies visit us in every bright ray and glad 
thought, and call for gratitude and content; the silence of that early dawn, the hushed silence, as it were, 
of expectation; the holý eventide, its cooling breeze, its lengthening shadows, its falling shades, its still 
and sober hour; the sultry noontide and the stern and solemn midnight; and Spring-time, and chastening 
Autumn; and Sum- mer, that unbars our gates, and carries us forth amidst the ever- renewed wonders of 
the world; and Winter, that gathers us around the evening hearth; all these, as they pass, touch by turns 

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the springs of the spirituál life in us, and are conducting that life to good or evil. The idle watch-hand 
often points to something within us; and the shadow of the gnomon on the dial often falls upon the 

A life of labor is not a statě of inferiority or degradation. The Almighty has not cast man's lot beneath 
the quiet shades, and amid glad groves and lovely hills, with no task to perform; with nothing to do but 
to rise up and eat, and to lie down and rest. He has ordained that Work shall be doně, in all the 
dwellings of life, in every productive field, in every busy city, and on every wave of every oceán. And 
this He has doně, because it has plrased Him to give man a nature destined to higher ends than indolent 
repose and irresponsible profitless indulgence and because, for developing the energies of such a 
nature, work was the necessary and proper element. We might as well ask why He could not make two 
and two be six, as why He could not develop these energies without the instrumentality of work. They 
are equally impossibilities. 

This Masonry teaches, as a great Truth; a great moral land- mark, that ought to guide the course of all 
mankind. It teaches its toiling children that the scene of their daily life is all spirituál, that the very 
implements of their toil, the fabrics they weave, the merchandise they barter, are designed for spirituál 
ends; that so believing, their daily lot may be to them a sphere for the noblest improvement. That which 
we do in our intervals of relaxation, our church-going, and our book reading, are especially designed to 
prepare our minds for the action of Life. We are to hear and read and meditate, that we may act well and 
the action of Life is itself the great field for spirituál improvement. 

There is no task of industry or business, in field or forest, on the wharf or the ship's deek, in the office 
or the exchange, but has spirituál ends. There is no care or cross of our daily labor, but was especially 
ordained to nurture in us patience, calmness, resolution, perseverance, gen- tleness, disinterestedness, 
magnanimity. Nor is there any tool or implement of toil, but is a part of the great spirituál 

All the relations of life, those of parent, child, brother, sister, friend, associate, lover and beloved, 
husband, wife, are moral, throughout every living tie and thrilling nerve that blnd them together. They 
cannot subsist a day nor an hour without putting the mind to a trial of its truth, fidelity, forbearance, and 

A great city is one extended scene of moral action. There is blow struck in it but has a purpose, 
ultimately good or bad, and therefore moral. There is no action performed, but has a motive; and 
motives are the speciál jurisdiction of morality. Equipages, houses, and furniture are symbols of what is 
moral, and they in a thousand ways minister to right or wrong feeling. Everything that belongs to us, 
ministering to our comfort or luxury, awakens in us emotions of pride or gratitude, of selfishness or 

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vanity; thoughts of self-indulgence, or merciful remembrances of the needy and the destitute. 

Everything acts upon and influences us. Goďs great law of sympathy and harmony is potent and 
inflexible as His law of gravitation. A sentence embodying a noble thought stirs our blood; a noise 
made by a child frets and exasperates us, and influences our actions. 

A world of spirituál objects, influences, and relations lies around us all. We all vaguely deem it to be 
so; but he only li ves a charmed life, like that of genius and poetic inspiration, who communes with the 
spirituál scene around him, hears the voice of the spirit in every sound, sees its signs in every passing 
form of things, and feels its impulse in all action, passion, and being. Věry near to us lies the mineš of 
wisdom; unsuspected they lie all around us. There is a secret in the simplest things, a wonder in the 
plainest, a charm in the dullest. 

We are all naturally seekers of wonders. We travel far to see the majesty of old ruins, the venerable 
forms of the hoary mountains, great waterfalls, and galleries of art. And yet the world wonder is all 
around us; the wonder of setting suns and evening stars, of the magie springtime, the blossoming of the 
trees, the strange transformations of the moth; the wonder of the Infinite Divinity and of His boundless 
revelation. There is no splendor beyond that which sets its morning throne in the golden East; no dome 
sublime as that of Heaven; no beauty so fair as that of the verdant, blossoming earth; no pláce, however 
invested with the sanctities of old time, like that home which is hushed and folded within the embrace 
of the humblest wall and roof. 

And all these are but the symbols of things far greater and higher. All is but the clothing of the spirit. 
In this vesture of time is wrapped the immortal nature: in this show of circumstance and form stands 
revealed the stupendous reality. Let man but be, as he is, a living soul, communing with himself and 
with God, and his vision becomes eternity; his abode, infinity; his home, the bosom of all embracing 

The great problém of Humanity is wrought out in the humblest abodes; no more than this is doně in the 
highest. A human heart throbs beneath the beggaťs gabardine; and that and no more stirs with its 
beating the Prince's mantle. The beauty of Love, the charm of Friendship, the sacredness of Sorrow, 
the heroism of Patience, the noble Self-sacrifice, these and their like, alone, make life to be life indeed, 
and are its grandeur and its power. They are the priceless treasures and glory of humanity; and they are 
not things of condition. All places and all scenes are alike clothed with the grandeur and charm of 
virtues such as these. 

The million occasions will come to us all, in the ordinary paths of our life, in our homes, and by our 
firesides, wherein we may act as nobly, as if, all our life long, we led armies, sat in senates, or visited 

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beds of sickness and pain. Varying every hour, the million occasions will come in which we may 
restrain our pas- sions, subdue our hearts to gentleness and patience, resign our own interst for anotheťs 
advantage, speak words of kindness and wisdom, raise the fallen, cheer the fainting and sick in spirit, 
and soften and assuage the weariness and bitterness of their mortal lot. To every Mason there will be 
opportunity enough for these. They cannot be written on his tomb;but they will be written deep in the 
hearts of men, of friends, of children, of kindred all around him, in the book of the great account, and 
in their eternal influences, on the great pages of the Universe. 

To such a destiny, at least, my Brethren, let us all aspire! These laws of Masonry let us all stři ve to 
obey ! And so may our hearts become true temples of the Living God! And may He encourage our zeal, 
sustain our hopes, and assure us of success! 


This is the first of the Philosophical Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite and the 
beginning of a course of instruction which will fully unveil to you the heart and inner mysteries of 
Masonry. Do not despair because you háve often seemed on the point of attaining the inmost light, and 
háve as often been disappointed. In all time, truth has been hidden under symbols, and often under a 
succession of allegories: where veil after veil had to be penetrated before the true Light was reached 
and the essential truth stood revealed. The Human Light is but an imperfect reflection of a ray of the 
Infinite and Divine. 

We are about to approach those ancient Religions which once ruled the minds of men, and whose ruins 
encumber the plains of the great Past, as the broken columns of Palmyra and Tadmor lie bleaching on 
the sands of the desert. They rise before us, those old, strange, mysterious creeds and faiths, shrouded 
in the mists of antiquity, and stalk dimly and undefined along the line which divides Time from 
Eternity; and forms of strange, wild, startling beauty mingled in the vast throngs of figures with shapes 
mon- strous, grotesque, and hideous. 

The religion taught by Moses, which, like the laws of Egypt, enuciated the principle of exclusion, 
borrowed, at every period of its existence, from all the creeds with which it came in contact. While, by 
the studies of the learned and wise, it enriched itself with the most admirable principles of the religions 
of Egypt and Asia, it was changed, in the wanderings of the People, by every- thing that was most 
impure or seductive in the pagan manners and superstitions. It was one thing in the times of Moses and 
Aaron, another in those of David and Solomon, and still another in those of Daniel and Philo. 

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At the time when John the Baptist made his appearance in the desert, near the shores of the Dead Sea, 
all the old philosophical and religious systems were approximating toward each other. A generál 
lassitude inclined the minds of all toward the quietude of that amalgamation of doctrines for which the 
expeditions of Alexander and the more peaceful occurrences that followed, with the establishment in 
Asia and Africa of many Grecian dynasties and a great number of Grecian colonies, had prepared the 
way. After the intermingling of different nations, which resulted from the wars of Alexander in three 
quarters of the globe, the doctrines of Greece, of Egypt, of Persia, and of India, met and intermingled 
everywhere. All the barriers that had formerly kept the nations apart, were thrown down and while the 
People of the West readily connected their faith with those of the East, those of the Orient hastened to 
learn the traditions of Róme and the legends of Athens. While the Philosophers of Greece, all (except 
the dis- ciples of Epicurus) more or less Platonists, seized eargerly upon the beliefs and doctrines of the 
East, the Jews and Egyptians, before then the most exclusive of all peoples, yielded to that eclecticism 
which prevailed among their masters, the Greeks and Romans. 

Under the samé influences of toleration, even those who embraced Christianity, mingled together the 
old and the new, Christianity and Philosophy, the Apostolic teachings and the traditions of Mythology. 
The man of intellect, devotee of one systém, rarely displaces it with another in all its purity. The people 
také such a creed as is offered them. 

Accordingly, the distinction between the esoteric and the exoteric doctrine, immemorial in other creeds, 
easily gained a foothold among many of the Christians; and it was held by a vast number, even during 
the preaching of Paul, that the writings of the Apostles were incomplete; that they contained only the 
germs of another doctrine, which must receive from the hands of philosophy, not only the systematic 
arrangement which was wanting, but all the development which lay concealed therein. The writings of 
the Apostles, they said, in addressing themselves to mankind in generál, enunciated only the articles of 
the vulgar faith; but transmitted the mysteries of knowledge to superior minds, to the Elect, mysteries 
handed down from generation to generation in esoteric traditions and to this science of the mysteries 
they gave the name of Gnosis. 

The Gnostics derived their leading doctrines and ideas from Plato and Philo, the Zend-avesta and the 
Kabalah, and the Sacred books of India and Egypt; and thus introduced into the bosom of Christianity 
the cosmological and theosophical speculations, which had formed the larger portion of the ancient 
religions of the Orient, joined to those of the Egyptian, Greek, and Jewish doctrines, which the Neo- 
Platonists had equally adopted in the Occident. 

Emanation from the Deity of all spirituál beings, progressive degeneration of these beings from 
emanation to emanation, redemption and return of all to the purity of the Creator and, after the re- 
establishment of the primitive harmony of all, a fortunate and truly divine condition of all, in the bosom 
of God; such were the fundamental teachings of Gnosticism. The genius of the Orient, with its 

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contemplations, irradiations, and intuitions, dictated its doctrines. Its language corresponded to its 
origin. Full of imagery, it had all the magnificence, the inconsistencies, and the mobility of the 
figurative style. 

Behold, it said, the light, which emanates from an immense centre of Light, that spreads everywhere its 
benevolent rays; so do the spirits of Light emanate from the Divine Light. Behold, all the springs 
which nourish, embellish, fertilize, and purify the Earth; they emanate from one and the samé oceán; so 
from the bosom of the Divinity emanate so many streams, which form and fill the universe of 
intelligences. Behold numbers, which all emanate from one primitive number, all resemble it, all are 
composed of its essence, and still vary infinitely; and utterances, decomposable into so many syllables 
and elements, all contained in the primitive Word, and still infinitely various; so the world of 
Intelligences emanated from a Primary Intelligence, and they all resemble it, and yet display an infinite 
variety of existences. 

It revived and combined the old doctrines of the Orient and the Occident; and it found in many 
passages of the Gospels and the Pastorál letters, a warrant for doing so. Christ himself spoke in 
parables and allegories, John borrowed the enigmatical language of the Platonists, and Paul often 
indulged in incomprehensible rhapsodies, the meaning of which could háve been clear to the Initiates 

It is admitted that the cradle of Gnosticism is probably to be looked for in Syria, and even in Palestině. 
Most of its expounders wrote in that corrupted form of the Greek ušed by the Hellenistic Jews, and in 
the Septuagint and the New Testament; and there is a striking analogy between their doctrines and those 
of the Judaeo-Egyptian Philo, of Alexandria; itself the seat of three schools, at once philosophic and 
religious the Greek, the Egyptian, and the Jewish. 

Pythagoras and Plato, the most mystical of the Grecian Philosophers (the latter heir to the doctrines of 
the former), and who had travelled, the latter in Egypt, and the former in Phoenicia, India, and Persia, 
also taught the esoteric doctrine and the distinction between the initiated and the profane. The 
dominant doctrines of Platonism were found in Gnosticism. Emanation of Intelligences from the 
bosom of the Deity; the going astray in error and the sufferings of spirits, so long as they are remote 
from God, and imprisoned in matter; vain and long continued efforts to arrive at the knowledge of the 
Truth, and re-enter into their primitive union with the Supreme Being; alliance of a pure and divine 
soul with an irrational soul, the seat of evil desires; angels or demons who dwell in and govern the 
planets, having but an imperfect knowledge of the ideas that presided at the creation; regeneration of all 
beings by their return to the kosmos noetos, the world of Intelligences, and its Chief, the Supreme 
Being; sole possible mode of re-establishing that primitive harmony of the creation, of which the music 
of the spheres of Pythagoras was the image; these were the analogies of the two systems and we 
discover in them some of the ideas that form a part of Masonry; in which, in the present mutilated 

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condition of the symbolic Degrees, they are disguised and overlaid with fiction and absurdity, or 
present themselves as casual hints that are passed by wholly unnoticed. 

The distinction between the esoteric and exoteric doctrines (a distinction purely Masonic), was always 
and from the very earliest times preserved among the Greeks. It remounted to the fabulous times of 
Orpheus and the mysteries of Theosophy were found in all their traditions and myths. And after the 
time of Alexander, they resorted for instruction, dogmas, and mysteries, to all the schools, to those of 
Egypt and Asia, as well as those of Ancient Thrace, Sicily, Etruria, and Attica. 

The Jewish-Greek School of Alexandria is known only by two of its Chiefs, Aristobulus and Philo, both 
Jews of Alexandria in Egypt. Belonging to Asia by its origin, to Egypt by its residence, to Greece by its 
language and studies, it strove to show that all truths embedded in the philosophies of other countries 
were transplanted thither from Palestině. Aristobulus declared that all the facts and details of the 
Jewish Scriptures were so many allegories, concealing the most profound meanings, and that Plato had 
borrowed from them all his finest ideas. 

Philo, who lived a century after him, following the samé theory, endeavored to show that the Hebrew 
writings, by their systém of allegories, were the true source of all religious and philosophical doctrines. 
According to him, the literal meaning is for the vulgar alone. Whoever has meditated on philosophy, 
purified himself by virtue, and raised himself by contemplation, to God and the intellectual world, and 
received their inspiration, pierces the gross envelope of the letter, discovers a wholly different order of 
things, and is initiated into mysteries, of which the elementary or literal instruction offers but an 
imperfect image. A historical fact, a figuře, a word, a letter, a number, a rite, a custom, the parable or 
vision of a prophet, veils the most profound truths; and he who has the key of science will interpret all 
according to the light he possesses. 

Again we see the symbolism of Masonry, and the search of the Candidate for light. "Let men of narrow 
minds withdraw," he says, "with closed ears. We transmit the divine mysteries to those who háve 
received the sacred initiation, to those who practise true piety and who are not enslaved by the empty 
trappings of words or the preconceived opinions of the pagans." 

To Philo, the Supreme Being was the Primitive Light, or the Archetype of Light, Source whence the 
rays emanate that illuminate Souls. He was also the Soul of the Universe, and as such acted in all its 
parts. He Himself fills and limits His whole Being. His Powers and Virtues fill and penetrate all. These 
Powers (dunameis) are Spirits distinct from God, the "Ideas" of Plato personified. He is without 
beginning, and lives in the prototype of Time (aion). 

His image is THE WORD, a form more brilliant than fire; that not being the pure light. This LOGOS 
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dwells in God; for the Supreme Being makes to Himself within His Intelligence the types or ideas of 
everything that is to become reality in this World. The LOGOS is the vehicle by which God acts on the 
Universe, and may be compared to the speech of man. 

The LOGOS being the World of Ideas, by means whereof God has created visible things, He is the 
most ancient God, in comparison with the World, which is the youngest production. The LOGOS, Chief 
of Intelligence, of which He is the generál representative, is named Archangel, type and representative 
of all spirits, even those of mortals. He is also styled the man-type and primitive man, Adam Kadmon. 

God only is Wise. The wisdom of man is but the reflection and image of that of God. He is the Father, 
and His WISDOM the mother of creation; for He united Himself with WISDOM (Sophia), and 
communicated to it the germ of creation, and it brought forth the materiál world. He created the ideál 
world only, and caused the materiál world to be made reál after its type, by His LOGOS, which is His 
speech, and at the samé time the Idea of Ideas, the Intellectual World. The Intellectual City was but the 
Thought of the Architect, who meditated the creation, accord- ing to that pian of the Materiál City. 

The Word is not only the Creator, but occupies the pláce of the Supreme Being. Through Him all the 
Powers and Attributes of God act. On the other side, as first representative of the Human Family, He is 
the Protector of men and their Shepherd. 

God gives to man the Soul or Intelligence, which exists before the body, and which he unites with the 
body. The reasoning Principle comes from God through the Word, and communes with God and with 
the Word; but there is also in man an irrational Principle, that of the inclinations and passions which 
produce disorder, emanating from inferior spirits who fill the air as ministers of God. The body, taken 
from the Earth, and the irrational Principle that animates it concurrently with the rational Principle, are 
hated by God, while the rational soul which He has given it, is, as it were, captive in this prison, this 
coffin, that encompasses it. 

The present condition of man is not his primitive condition, when he was the image of the Logos. He 
has fallen from his first estate. But he may raise himself again, by following the directions of 
WISDOM and of the Angels which God has commissioned to aid him in freeing himself from the 
bonds of the body, and combating Evil, the existence whereof God has permitted, to furnish him the 
means of exercising his liberty. The souls that are purified, not by the Law but by light, rise to the 
Heavenly regions, to enjoy there a perfect felicity. Those that persevere in evil go from body to body, 
the seats of passions and evil desires. The familiar lineaments of these doctrines will be recognized by 
all who read the Epistles of St. Paul, who wrote after Philo, the latter living till the reign of Caligula, 
and being the contemporary of Christ. 

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And the Mason is familiar with these doctrines of Philo: that the Supreme Being is a centre of Light 
whose rays or emanations pervade the Universe; for that is the Light for which all Masonic journeys are 
a search, and of which the sun and moon in our Lodges are only emblems: that Light and Darkness, 
chief enemies from the beginning of Time, dispute with each other the empire of the world; which we 
symbolize by the candidate wandering in darkness and being brought to light: that the world was 
created, not by the Supreme Being, but by a secondary agent, who is but His WORD, and by types 
which are but his ideas, aided by an INTELLIGENCE, or WISDOM, which gives one of His 
Attributes; in which we see the occult meaning of the ne- cessity of recovering "the Word"; and of our 
two columns of STRENGTH and WISDOM, which are also the two parallel lineš that bound the circle 
representing the Universe: that the visible world is the image of the invisible world; that the essence of 
the Human Soul is the image of God, and it existed before the body; that the object of its terrestrial life 
is to disengage itself of its body or its sepulchre; and that it will ascend to the Heavenly regions 
whenever it shall be purified; in which we see the meaning, now almost forgotten in our Lodges, of the 
mode of preparation of the candidate for apprenticeship, and his tests and purifications in the first 
Degree, according to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. 

Philo incorporated in his eclecticism neither Egyptian nor Oriental elements. But there were other 
Jewish Teachers in Alexandria who did both. The Jews of Egypt were slightly jealous of, and a little 
hostile to, those of Palestině, particularly after the erection of the sanctuary at Leontopolis by the High- 
Priest Onias; and therefore they admired and magnified those sages, who, like Jeremiah, had resided in 
Egypt. "The wisdom of Solomon" was written at Alexandria, and, in the time of St. Jerome, was 
attributed to Philo; but it contains principles at variance with his. It personifies Wisdom, and draws 
between its children and the Profane, the samé line of demarcation that Egypt had long before taught to 
the Jews. That distinction existed at the beginning of the Mosaic creed. Moshah himself was an Initiate 
in the mysteries of Egypt, as he was compelled to be, as the adopted son of the daughter of Pharaoh, 
Thouoris, daughter of Sesostris-Ramses; who, as her tomb and monuments show, was, in the right of 
her infant husband, Regent of Lower Egypt or the Delta at the time of the Hebrew Propheťs birth, 
reigning at Heliopolis. She was also, as the reliefs on her tomb show, a Priestess of HATHOR and 
NEITH, the two great primeval goddesses. As her adopted son, living in her Paláce and presence fořty 
years, and during that time scarcely acquainted with his brethren the Jews, the law of Egypt compelled 
his initiation: and we find in many of his enactments the intention of preserving, between the common 
people and the Initiates, the line of separation which he found in Egypt. Moshah and Aharun his 
brother, the whole series of High-Priests, the Council of the 70 Elders, Salomoh and the entire 
succession of Prophets, were in possession of a higher science; and of that science Masonry is, at least, 
the lineal descendant. It was famili- arly known as THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORD. 

AMUN, at first the God of Lower Egypt only, where Moshah was reared (a word that in Hebrew means 
Truth), was the Su- přeme God. He was styled "the Celestial Lord, who sheds Light on hidden things." 
He was the source of that divine life, of which the crux ansata is the symbol; and the source of all 
power. He united all the attributes that the Ancient Oriental Theosophy assigned to the Supreme Being. 
He was the Pleroma, or "Fullness of things," for He comprehended in Himself everything and the 

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LIGHT; for he was the Sun-God. He was unchangeable in the midst of everything phenomenal in his 
worlds. He created nothing; but everything emanated from Him; and of Him all the other Gods were but 

The Ram was His living symbol which you see reproduced in this Degree, lying on the book with seven 
seals on the tracing board. He caused the creation of the world by the Primitive Thought (Ennoia), or 
Spirit (Pneuma), that issued from him by means of his Voice or the WORD; and which Thought or 
Spirit was personified as the Goddess NEITH. She, too, was a divinity of Light, and mother of the 
Sun; and the Feast of Lamps was celebrated in her honor at Sais. The Creative Power, another 
manifestation of Deity, proceeding to the creation conceived of in her, the Divine Intelligence, produced 
with its Word the Universe, symbolized by an egg issuing from the mouth of KNEPH; from which egg 
came PHTHA, image of the Supreme Intelligence as realized in the world, and the type of that 
manifested in man; the principál agent, also, of Nature, or the creative and productive Fire. PHRE or 
RS, the Sun, or Celestial Light, whose symbol was the point within a circle, was the son of PHTHA; 
and TIPHE, his wife, or the celestial firmament, with the seven celestial bodies, animated by spirits of 
genii that govern them, was represented on many of the monuments, clad in blue or yellow, her 
garments sprinkled with stars, and accompanied by the sun, moon, and five planets; and she was the 
type of Wisdom, and they of the Seven Planetary Spirits of the Gnostics, that with her presided over 
and governed the sublunary world. 

In this Degree, unknown for a hundred years to those who háve practised it, these emblems reproduced 
refer to these old doctrines. The lamb, the yellow hangings strewed with stars, the seven columns, 
candlesticks, and seals all recall them to us. 

The Lion was the symbol of ATHOM-RE, the Great God of Upper Egypt; the Hawk, of RA or PHRE; 
the Eagle, of MENDES; the Bull, of APIS; and three of these are seen under the platform on which our 
altar stands. 

The first HERMES was the INTELLIGENCE, or WORD of God. Moved with compassion for a race 
living without law, and wishing to teach them that they sprang from His bosom, and to point out to 
them the way that they should go (the books which the first Hermes, the samé with Enoch, had written 
on the mysteries of divine science, in the sacred characters, being unknown to those who lived after the 
flood), God sent to man OSIRIS and ISIS, ac- accompanied by THOTH, the incarnation or terrestrial 
repetition of the first Hermes; who taught men the arts, science, and the ceremonies of religion; and 
then ascended to Heaven or the Moon. OSIRIS was the Principle of Good. TYPHON, like AHRIMAN, 
was the principle and source of all that is evil in the moral and physi- cal order. Like the Satan of 
Gnosticism, he was confounded with Matter. 

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From Egypt or Persia the new Platonists borrowed the idea, and the Gnostics received it from them, that 
man, in his terrestrial career, is successively under the influence of the Moon, of Mercury, of Venus, of 
the Sun, of Mars, of Jupiter, and of Saturn, until he finally reaches the Elysian Fields; an idea again 
symbolized in the Seven Seals. 

The Jews of Syria and Judea were the direct precursors of Gnosticism; and in their doctrines were 
ample oriental elements. These Jews had had with the Orient, at two different periods, intimate 
relations, familiarizing them with the doctrines of Asia, and especially of Chaldea and Persia; their 
forced residence in Central Asia under the Assyrians and Persians; and their voluntary dispersion over 
the whole East, when subjects of the Seleucidae and the Romans. Living near two-thirds of a cen tury, 
and many of them long afterward, in Mesopotamia, the cradle of their race; speaking the samé 
language, and their children reared with those of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, and 
receiving from them their names (as the čase of Danayal, who was called Baeltasatsar, proves), they 
necessarily adopted many of the doctrines of their conquerors. Their descendants, as Azra and 
Nahamaiah show us, hardly desired to leave Persia, when they were allowed to do so. They had a 
speciál jurisdiction, and governors and judges taken from their own people; many of them held high 
office, and their children were educated with those of the highest nobles. Danayal was the friend and 
minister of the King, and the Chief of the College of the Magi at Babylon; if we may believe the book 
which bears his name, and trust to the incidents related in its highly figurative and imaginative style. 
Mordecai, too, occupied a high station, no less than that of Prime Minister, and Esther or Astar, his 
cousin, was the Monarch's wife. 

The Magi of Babylon were expounders of figurative writings, interpreters of nature, and of dreams, 
astronomers and divines; and from their influences arose among the Jews, after their rescue from 
captivity, a number of sects, and a new exposition, the mystical interpretation, with all its wild fancies 
and infinite caprices. The Aions of the Gnostics, the Ideas of Plato, the Angels of the Jews, and the 
Demons of the Greeks, all correspond to the Ferouers of Zoroaster. 

A great number of Jewish families remained permanently in their new country; and one of the most 
celebrated of their schools was at Babylon. They were soon familiarized with the doctrine of Zoroaster, 
which itself was more ancient than Kuros. From the systém of the Zend-Avesta they borrowed, and 
subsequently gave large development to, everything that could be reconciled with their own faith; and 
these additions to the old doctrine were soon spread, by the constant intercourse of commerce, into 
Syria and Palestině. 

In the Zend-Avesta, God is Illimitable Time. No origin can be assigned to Him: He is so entirely 
enveloped in His glory, His nature and attributes are so inaccessible to human Intelligence, that He can 
be only the object of a silent Veneration. Creation took pláce by emanation from Him. The first 
emanation was the primitive Light, and from that the King of Light, ORMUZD. By the "WORD," 

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Ormuzd created the world pure. He is its pre- server and Judge; a Being Holý and Heavenly; 
Intelligence and Knowledge; the First-born of Time without limits; and invested with all the Powers of 
the Supreme Being. 

Still he is, strictly speaking, the Fourth Being. He had a Ferouer, a pre-existing Soul (in the language 
of Plato, a type or ideál); and it is said of Him, that He existed from the beginning, in the primitive 
Light. But, that Light being but an element, and His Ferouer a type, he is, in ordinary language, the 
First-born of ZEROUANE-AKHERENE. Behold again "THE WORD" of Masonry; the Man, on the 
Tracing-Board of this Degree; the LIGHT toward which all Masons travel. 

He created after his own image, six Genii called Amshaspands, who surround his Throne, are his 
organs of communication with inferior spirits and men, transmit to Him their prayers, solicit for them 
His favors, and serve them as models of purity and perfection. Thus we háve the Demiourgos of 
Gnosticism, and the six Genii that assist him. These are the Hebrew Archangels of the Planets. 

The names of these Amshaspands are Bahman, Ardibehest, Schariver, Sapandomad, Khordad, and 
Amerdad. The fourth, the Holý SAPANDOMAD, created the first man and woman. 

Then ORMUZD created 28 Iseds, of whom MITHERAS is the chief. They watch, with Ormuzd and the 
Amshaspands, over the happiness, purity, and preservation of the world, which is under their 
government; and they are also models for mankind and interpreters of men's prayers. With Mithras and 
Ormuzd, they make a pleroma (or complete number) of 30, corresponding to the thirty Aions of the 
Gnostics, and to the ogdoade, dodecade, and decade of the Egyptians. Mithras was the Sun-God, 
invoked with, and soon confounded with him, becoming the object of a speciál worship, and eclipsing 
Ormuzd himself. 

The third order of pure spirits is more numerous. They are the Ferouers, the THOUGHTS of Ormuzd, 
or the IDEAS which he conceived before proceeding to the creation of things. They too are superior to 
men. They protéct them during their life on earth; they will purify them from evil at their resurrection. 
They are their tutelary genii, from the fall to the complete regeneration. 

AHRIMAN, second-born of the Primitive Light, emanated from it, pure like ORMUZD; but, proud and 
ambitious, yielded to jeal- ousy of the First-born. For his hatred and pride, the Eternal condemned him 
to dwell, for 12,000 years, in that part of space where no ray of light reaches; the black empire of 
darkness. In that period the struggle between Light and Darkness, Good and Evil will be terminated. 

AHRIMAN scorned to submit, and took the field against ORMUZD. To the good spirits created by his 
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Brother, he opposed an innumerable army of Evil Ones. To the seven Amshaspands he opposed seven 
Archdevs, attached to the seven Planets; to the Izeds and Ferouers an equal number of Devs, which 
brought upon the world all moral and physical evils. Hence Poverty, Maladies, Impurity, Envy, Chagrin, 
Drunkenness, Falsehood, Calumny, and their horrible array. 

The image of Ahriman was the Dragon, confounded by the Jews with Satan and the Serpent Tempter. 
After a reign of 3000 years, Ormuzd had created the Materiál World, in six periods, calling 
successively into existence the Light, Water, Earth, plants, animals, and Man. But Ahriman concurred 
in creatmg the earth and water; for darkness was already an element, and Ormuzd could not exclude its 
Master. So also the two concurred in producing Man. Ormuzd produced, by his Will and Word, a 
Being that was the type and source of universal life for everything that exists under Heaven. He placed 
in man a pure principle, or Life, proceeding from the Supreme Being. But Ahriman destroyed that pure 
principle, in the form wherewith it was clothed; and when Ormuzd had made, of its recovered and 
purified essence, the first man and woman, Ahriman seduced and tempted them with wine and fruits; 
the woman yielding first. 

Often, during the three latter periods of 3000 years each, Ahriman and Darkness are, and are to be, 
triumphant. But the pure souls are assisted by the Good Spirits; the Triumph of Good is decreed by the 
Supreme Being, and the period of that triumph will infallibly arrive. When the world shall be most 
afflicted with the evils poured out upon it by the spirits of perdition, three Prophets will come to bring 
reliéf to mortals. SOSIOSCH, the principál of the Three, will regenerate the earth, and restore to it its 
primitive beauty, strength, and purity. He will judge the good and the wicked. After the universal 
resurrection of the good, he will conduct them to a home of everlasting happiness. Ahriman, his evil 
demons, and all wicked men, will also be purified in a tor- rent of melted metal. The law of Ormuzd 
will reign everywhere; all men will be happy; all, enjoying unalterable bliss, will sing with Sosiosch the 
praises of the Supreme Being. 

These doctrines, the details of which were sparingly borrowed by the Pharisaic Jews, were much more 
fully adopted by the Gnostics; who taught the restoration of all things, their return to their originál pure 
condition, the happiness of those to be saved, and their admission to the feast of Heavenly Wisdom. 

The doctrines of Zoroaster came originally from Bactria, an Indián Province of Persia. Naturally, 
therefore, it would include Hindu or Buddhist elements, as it did. The fundamental idea of Buddhism 
was, matter subjugating the intelligence, and intelligence freeing itself from that slavery. Perhaps 
something came to Gnosticism from China. "Before the chaos which preceded the birth of Heaven and 
Earth," says Lao-Tseu, "a single Being existed, immense and silent, immovable and ever active the 
mother of the Universe. I know not its name: but I designate it by the word Reason. Man has his type 
and model in the Earth; Earth in Heaven; Heaven in Reason; and Reason in Itself." Here again are the 
Ferouers, the Ideas, the Aions the REASON or INTELLIGENCE, SILENCE, WORD, and WISDOM 

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of the Gnostics. 

The dominant systém among the Jews after their captivity was that of the Pharoschim or Pharisees. 
Whether their name was derived from that of the Parsees, or followers of Zoroaster, or from some other 
source, it is certain that they had borrowed much of their doctrine from the Persians. Like them they 
claimed to háve the exclusive and mysterious knowledge, unknown to the mass. Like them they taught 
that a constant war was waged between the Empire of Good and that of Evil. Like them they attributed 
the sin and fall of man to the demons and their chief ; and like them they admitted a speciál protection 
of the righteous by inferior beings, agents of Jehovah. All their doctrines on these subjects were at 
bottom those of the Holý Books; but singularly developed and the Orient was evidently the source from 
which those developments came. 

They styled themselves Interpreters; a name indicating their claim to the exclusive possession of the 
true meaning of the Holý Writings, by virtue of the oral tradition which Moses had re- ceived on Mount 
Sinai, and which successive generations of lni- tiates had transmitted, as they claimed, unaltered, unto 
them. Their very costume, their belief in the influences of the stars, and in the immortality and 
transmigration of souls, their systém of angels and their astronomy, were all foreign. 

Sadduceeism arose merely from an opposition essentially Jewish, to these foreign teachings, and that 
mixture of doctrines, adopted by the Pharisees, and which constituted the popular creed. 

We come at last to the Essenes and Therapeuts, with whom this Degree is particularly concerned. That 
intermingling of oriental and Occidental rites, of Persian and Pythagorean opinions, which we háve 
pointed out in the doctrines of Philo, is unmistakable in the creeds of these two sects. 

They were less distinguished by metaphysical speculations than by simple meditations and moral 
practices. But the latter always partook of the Zoroastrian principle, that it was necessary to free the 
soul from the trammels and influences of matter; which led to a systém of abstinence and maceration 
entirely opposed to the ancient Hebrai cideas, favorable as they were to physical pleasures. 

In generál, the life and manners of these mystical associations, as Philo and Josephus describe them, 
and particularly their prayers at sunrise, seem the image of what the Zend-Avesta pre- scribes to the 
faithful adorer or Ormuzd; and some of their observances cannot otherwise be explained. 

The Therapeuts resided in Egypt, in the neighborhood of Alexandria and the Essenes in Palestině, in 
the vicinity of the Dead Sea. But there was nevertheless a striking coincidence in their ideas, readily 
explained by attributing it to a foreign influence. The Jews of Egypt, under the influence of the School 

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of Alexan- dria, endeavored in generál to make their doctrines harmonize with the traditions of Greece 
and thence came, in the doctrines of the Therapeuts, as stated by Philo, the many analogies between the 
Pythagorean and Orphic ideas, on one side and those of Judaism on the other: while the Jews of 
Palestině, having less communication with Greece, or contemning its teachings, rather imbibed the 
Oriental doctrines, which they drank in at the source and with which their relations with Persia made 
them familiar. This attachment was particularly shown in the Kabalah, which belonged rather to 
Palestině than to Egypt, though extensively known in the latter; and furnished the Gnostics with some 
of their most striking theories. 

It is a significant fact, that while Christ spoke often of the Pharisees and Sadducees, He nevěr once 
mentioned the Essenes, between whose doctrines and His there was so great a resemblance, and, in 
many points, so perfect an identity. Indeed, they are not named, nor even distinctly alluded to, 
any where in the New Testament. John, the son of a Priest who ministered in the Temple at Jerusalem, 
and whose mother was of the family of Aharun, was in the deserts until the day of his showing unto 
Israel. He drank neither wine nor strong drink. Clad in haircloth, and with a girdle of leather, and 
feeding upon such food as the desert afforded, he preached, in the country about Jordán, the baptism of 
repentance, for the remission of sins; that is, the necessity of repentance proven by reformation. He 
taught the people charity and liberality; the publicans, justice, equity, and fair dealing; the soldiery 
peace, truth, and contentment; to do violence to none, accuse none falsely, and be content with their 
pay. He inculcated necessity of a virtuous life, and the foliy of trusting to their descent from Abraham. 

He denounced both Pharisees and Sadducees as a generation of vipers threatened with the anger of 
God. He baptized those who confessed their sins. He preached in the desert; and therefore in the 
country where the Essenes lived, professing the samé doctrines. He was imprisoned before Christ began 
to preach. Matthew mentions him without preface or explanation; as if, apparently, his history was too 
well known to need any. "In those days," he says, "came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness 
of Judea." His disciples frequently fasted; for we find them with the Pharisees coming to Jesus to 
inquire why His Disciples did not fast as often as they; and He did not denounce them, as His hábit was 
to denounce the Pharisees; but answered them kindly and genťly. 

From his prison, John sent two of his disciples to inquire of Christ: "Art thou he that is to come, or do 
we look for another?" Christ referred them to his miracles as an answer and declared to the people that 
John was a prophet, and more than a prophet, and that no greater man had ever been born; but that the 
humblest Christian was his superior. He declared him to be Elias, who was to come. 

John had denounced to Herod his marriage with his broťheťs wife as unlawful; and for this he was 
imprisoned, and finally executed to gratify her. His disciples buried him; and Herod and others thought 
he had risen from the dead and appeared again in the person of Christ. The people all regarded John as 
a prophet; and Christ silenced the Priests and Elders by asking them whether he was inspired. They 

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feared to excite the anger of the people by saying that he was not. Christ declared that he came "in the 
way of righteousness" and that the lower classes 

believed him, though the Priests and Pharisees did not. 

Thus John, who was often consulted by Herod and to whom that monarch showed great deference and 
was often governed by his advice; whose doctrine prevailed very extensively among the people and the 
publicans, taught some creed older than Christianity. That is plain: and it is equally plain, that the very 
large body of the Jews that adopted his doctrines, were neither Pharisees nor Sadducees, but the 
humble, common people. They must, therefore, háve been Essenes. It is plain, too, that Christ applied 
for baptism as a sacred rite, well known and long practiced. It was becoming to him, he said, to fulfill 
all righteousness. 

In the 18th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles we read thus: "And a certain Jew, named Apollos, born 
at Alexandria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus. This man was 
instructed in the way of the Lord, and, being fervent in spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things 
of the Lord, knowing only the baptism of John; and he began to speak boldly in the synagogue; whom, 
when Aquilla and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of 
God more perfectly." 

Translating this from the symbolic and figurative language into the true ordinary sense of the Greek 
text, it reads thus: "And a certain Jew, named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man, and 
of extensive learning, came to Ephesus. He had learned in the mysteries the true doctrine in regard to 
God; and, being a zealous enthusiast, he spoke and taught diligently the truths in regard to the Deity, 
having received no other baptism than that of John." He knew nothing in regard to Christianity; for he 
had resided in Alexandria, and had just then come to Ephesus; being, probably, a disciple of Philo, and 
a Therapeut. 

"That, in all times," says St. Augustine, "is the Christian religion, which to know and follow is the most 
sure and certain health, called according to that name, but not according to the thing itself, of which it 
is the name; for the thing itself, which is now called the Christian religion, really was known to the An- 
cients, nor was wanting at any time from the beginning of the human race, until the time when Christ 
came in the flesh; from whence the true religion, which had previously existed, began to be called 
Christian; and this in our days is the Christian religion, not as having been wanting in former times, but 
as having, in later times, received this name." The disciples were first called "Christians," at Antioch, 
when Barnabas and Paul began to preach there. 

The Wandering or Itinerant Jews or Exorcists, who assumed to employ the Sacred Name in exorcising 
evil spirits, were no doubt Therapeutae or Essenes. 

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"And it came to pass," we read in the 19th chapter of the Acts, verses 1 to 4, "that while Apollos was at 
Corinth, Paul, having passed through the upper parts of Asia Minor, came to Ephesus; and finding 
certain disciples, he said to them, 'Háve ye received the Holý Ghost since ye became Believers?' And 
they said unto him, 'We háve not so much as heard that there is any Holý Ghost.' And he said to them, 
'In what, then, were you baptized?' And they said In John's baptism.' Then said Paul, 'John indeed 
baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying to the people that they should believe in Him who was 
to come after him, that is, in Jesus Christ. When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the 
Lord Jesus." 

This faith, taught by John, and so nearly Christianity, could háve been nothing but the doctrine of the 
Essenes; and there can be no doubt that John belonged to that séct. The pláce where he preached, his 
macerations and frugal diet, the doctrines he taught, all prove it conclusively. There was no other séct 
to which he could háve belonged; certainly none so numerous as his, except the Essenes. 

We find, from the two letters written by Paul to the brethren at Corinth, that City of Luxury and 
Corruption, that there were contentions among them. Rival sects had already, about the 57th year of 
our era, reared their banners there, as followers, some of Paul, some of Apollos, and some of Cephas. 
Some of them denied the resurrection. Paul urged them to adhere to the doctrines taught by himself, 
and had sent Timothy to them to bring them afresh to their recollection. 

According to Paul, Christ was to come again. He was to put an end to all other Principalities and 
Powers, and finally to Death, and then be Himself once more merged in God; who should then be all in 

The forms and ceremonies of the Essenes were symbolical. They had, according to Philo the Jew, four 
Degrees; the members being divided into two Orders, the Practici and Therapeutici; the latter being the 
contemplative and medical Brethren; and the former the active, practical, business men. They were 
Jews by birth; and had a greater affection for each other than the mem- bers of any other séct. Their 
brotherly love was intense. They fulfilled the Christian law, "Love one another." They despised riches. 
No one was to be found among them, having more than another. The possessions of one were 
intermingled with those of the others; so that they all had but one patrimony, and were brethren. Their 
piety toward God was extraordinary. Before sunrise they nevěr spake a word about profane matters; but 
put up certain prayers which they had received from their forefathers. At dawn of day, and before it was 
light, their prayers and hymns ascended to Heaven. They were eminently faithful and true, and the 
Ministers of Peace. They had mysterious ceremonies, and initiations into their mysteries; and the 
Candidate promised that he would ever practise fidelity to all men, and especially to those in authority, 
"because no one obtains the government without Goďs assistance." 

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Whatever they said, was firmer than an oath; but they avoided swearing, and esteemed it worse than 
perjury. They were simple in their diet and mode of living, bore torture with fortitude, and despised 
death. They cultivated the science of medicine and were very skillful. They deemed it a good omen to 
dress in white robes. They had their own courts, and passed righteous judgments. They kept the 
Sabbath more rigorously than the Jews. 

Their chief towns were Engaddi, near the Dead Sea, and Hebron. Engaddi was about 30 miles southeast 
from Jerusalem, and Hebron about 20 miles south of that city. Josephus and Eusebius speak of them as 
an ancient séct; and they were no doubt the first among the Jews to embrace Christianity: with whose 
faith and doctrine their own tenets had so many points of resemblance, and were indeed in a great 
measure the samé. Pliny regarded them as a very ancient people. 

In their devotions they turned toward the rising sun; as the Jews generally did toward the Temple. But 
they were no idolaters; for they observed the law of Moses with scrupulous fidelity. They held all things 
in common, and despised riches, their wants being supplied by the administration of Curators or 
Stewards. The Tetractys, composed of round dots instead of jods, was re- vered among them. This 
being a Pythagorean symbol, evidently shows their connection with the school of Pythagoras; but their 
peculiar tenets more resemble those of Confucius and Zoroaster; and probably were adopted while they 
were prisoners in Persia; which explains their turning toward the Sun in prayer. 

Their demeanor was sober and chaste. They submitted to the superintendence of governors whom they 
appointed over themselves. The whole of their time was spent in labor, meditation, and prayer and they 
were most sedulously attentive to every call of justice and humanity, and every moral duty. They 
believed in the unity of God. They supposed the souls of men to háve fallen, by a disastrous fate, from 
the regions of purity and light, into the bodies which they occupy; during their continuance in which 
they considered them confined as in a prison. Therefore they did not believe in the resurrection of the 
body; but in that of the soul only. They believed in a future statě of rewards and punishments; and they 
disregarded the ceremonies or external forms enjoined in the law of Moses to be observed in the 
worship og God; holding that the words of that lawgiver were to be understood in a mysterious and 
recondite sense, and not according to their literal meaning. They offered no sacrifices, except at home; 
and by meditation they endeavored, as far as possible, to isolate the soul from the body, and carry it 
back to God. 

Eusebius broadly admits "that the ancient Therapeutae were Christians; and that their ancient writings 
were our Gospels and Epistles." 

The ESSENES were of the Eclectic Séct of Philosophers, and held PLATo in the highest esteem; they 
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believed that true philosophy, the greatest and most salutary gift of God to mortals, was scattered, in 
various portions, through all the different Sects; and that it was, consequently, the duty of every wise 
man to gather it from the several quarters where it lay dispersed, and to employ it, thus reunited, in 
destroying the dominion of impiety and vice. 

The great festivals of the Solstices were observed in a distinguished manner by the Essenes; as would 
naturally be supposed, from the fact that they reverenced the Sun, not as a god, but as a symbol of light 
and fire; the fountain of which, the Orientals supposed God to be. They lived in continence and 
abstinence, and had establislments similar to the monasteries of the early Christians. 

The writings of the Essenes were full of mysticism, parables, enigmas, and allegories. They believed in 
the esoteric and exoteric meanings of the Scriptures; and, as we háve already said, they had a warrant 
for that in the Scriptures themselves. They found it in the Old Testament, as the Gnostics found it in the 
New. The Christian writers, and even Christ himself, recognized it as a truth, that all Scripture had an 
inner and an outer meaning. Thus we find it said as follows, in one of the Gospels: 

"Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the Kingdom of God; but unto men that are without, all 
these things are doně in parables; that seeing, they may see and not perceive, and hearing they may hear 
and not understand. And the disciples came and said unto him, 'Why speakest Thou the truth in 
parables?' He answered and said unto them, 'Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the 
Kingdom of Heaven, but to them it is not given.'" 

Paul, in the 4th chapter of his Epistle to the Galatians, speaking of the simplest facts of the Old 
Testament, asserts that they are an allegory. In the 3d chapter of the second letter to the Corinthians, he 
declares himself a minister of the New Testament, appointed by God; "Not of the letter, but of the spirit; 
for the letter killeth." Origen and St. Gregory held that the Gospels were not to be taken in their literal 
sense; and Athanasius admonishes us that "Should we understand sacred writ according to the letter, we 
should fall into the most enormous blasphemies." 

Eusebius said, "Those who preside over the Holý Scriptures, philosophize over them, and expound their 
literal sense by allegory." 

The sources of our knowledge of the Kabalistic doctrines, are the books of Jezirah and Sohar, the 
former drawn up in the second century, and the latter a little later; but containing materials much older 
than themselves. In their most characteristic elements, they go back to the time of the exile. In them, 
as in the teachings of Zoroaster, everything that exists emanated from a source of infinite LiGHT 
Before everything, existed THE AN- CIENT OF DAYS, the KING OF LIGHT; a title often given to the 
Creator in the Zend-Avesta and the code of the Sabaeans. With the idea so expressed is connected the 

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pantheism of India. KING OF LIGHT, THE ANCIENT, is ALL THAT IS. He is not only the reál 
cause of all Existences; he is Infinite (AINSOPH). He is HIMSELF: there is nothing in Him that We 
can call Tnou. 

In the Indián doctrine, not only is the Supreme Being the reál cause of all, but he is the only reál 
Existence: all the rest is illusion. In the Kabalah, as in the Persian and Gnostic doctrines, He is the 
Supreme Being unknown to all, the "Unknown Father." The world is his revelation, and subsists only in 
Him. His attri- butes are reproduced there, with different modifications, and in different degrees, so that 
the Universe is His Holý Splendonit is but His Mantle; but it must be revered in silence. All beings 
háve emanated from the Supreme Being: The nearer a being is to Him, the more perfect it is; the more 
remote in the scale, the less its purity. 

A ray of Light, shot from the Deity, is the cause and principle of all that exists. It is at once Father and 
Mother of All, in the sublimest sense. It penetrates everything; and without it nothing can exist an 
instant. From this double FORCE, designated by the two parts of the word 1.^. H.^. U.^. H.^. 
emanated the FIRST-BORN of God, the Universal Form, in which are contained all beings; the Persian 
and Platonic Archetype of things, united with the Infinite by the primitive ray of Light. 

This First-Born is the Creative Agent, Conservator, and animating Principle of the Universe. It is THE 
LIGHT OF LIGHT. It possesses the three Primitive Forces of the Divinity, LIGHT, SPIRIT and LIFE. 
As it has received what it gives, Light and Life, it is equally considered as the generative and conceptive 
Principle, the Primitive Man, ADAM KADMON. As such, it has revealed itself in ten emanations or 
Sephiroth, which are not ten different beings, nor even beings at all; but sources of life, vessels of 
Omnipotence, and types of Creation. They are Sovereignty or Will, Wisdom, Intelligence, Benignity, 
Severity, Beauty, Victory, Glory, Permanency, and Empire. These are attributes of God; and this idea, 
that God re- veals Himself by His attributes, and that the human mind cannot perceive or discern God 
Himself, in his works, but only his mode of manifesting Himself, is a profound Truth. We know of the 
Invisible only what the Visible reveals. 

Wisdom was called NOUS and LOGOS, 1NTELLECT or the WORD. Intelligence, source of the oil of 
anointing, responds to the Holý Ghost of the Christian Faith. 

Beauty is represented by green and yellow. Victory is YA-HOVAH-TSABAOTH, the column on the 
right hand, the column Jachin: Glory is the column Boaz, on the left hand. And thus our symbols 
appear again in the Kabalah. And again the LIGHT, the object of our labors, appears as the creative 
power of Deity. The circle, also, was the speciál symbol of the first Sephirah, Kether, or the Crown. 

We do not further follow the Kabalah in its four Worlds of Spirits, Aziluth, Briah, Yezirah, and Asiah, 
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or of emanation, creation, formation, and fabrication, one inferior to and one emerging from the other, 
the superior always enveloping the inferior; its doctrine that, in all that exists, there is nothing purely 
materiál; that all comes from God, and in all He proceeds by irradiation; that everything subsists by the 
Divine ray that penetrates creation; and all is united by the Spirit of God, which is the life of life; so 
that all is God; the Existences that inhabit the four worlds, inferior to each other in proportion to their 
distance from the Great King of Light: the contest between the good and evil Angels and Principles, to 
endure until the Eternal Himself comes to end it and re-establish the primitive harmony; the four 
distinct parts of the Soul of Man; and the migrations of impure souls, until they are sufficiently purified 
to share with the Spirits of Light the contemplation of the Supreme Being whose Splendor fills the 
Uni verse. 

The WORD was also found in the Phoenician Creed. As in all those of Asia, a WORD of God, written 
in starry characters, by the planetary Divinities, and communicated by the Demi-Gods, as a profound 
mystery, to the higher classes of the human race, to be communicated by them to mankind, created the 
world. The faith of the Phoenicians was an emanation from that ancient worship of the Stars, which in 
the creed of Zoroaster alone, is connected with a faith in one God. Light and Fire are the most 
important agents in the Phoenician faith. There is a race of children of the Light. They adored the 
Heaven with its Lights, deeming it the Supreme God. 

Everything emanates from a Single Principle, and a Primitive Love, which is the Moving Power of All 
and governs all. Light, by its union with Spirit, whereof it is but the vehicle or symbol, is the Life of 
everything, and penetrates everything. It should therefore be respected and honored everywhere; for 
everywhere it governs and controls. 

The Chaldaic and Jerusalem Paraphrasts endeavored to render the phrase, DEBAR-YAHOVAH, the 
Word of God, a personalty, wherever they met with it. The phrase, 'And God created man," is, in the 
Jerusalem Targum, "And the Word of IFÍUH created man." 

So, in xxviii. Gen. 20,21, where Jacob says: "If God (IHIH ALHIM) will be with me...then shall IHUH 
be my ALHIM; UHIH IHUH LI LALHIM; and this stone shall be Goďs House (IHIH BITH ALHIM): 
Onkelos paraphrases it, "If the word of IHUH will be my help. . . . then the word of IHUH shall be my 

So, in iii. Gen. 8, for "The Voice of the Lord God" (IHUH ALHIM), we háve, "The Voice of the Word 
of IHUH." In ix. Wisdom, 1, "O God of my Fathers and Lord of Mercy ! who has made all things with 
thy word." And in xviii. Wisdom, 15, "Thine Almighty Word leaped down from Heaven." 

Philo speaks of the Word as being the samé with God. So in several places he calls it the Second 
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Divinity; the Image of God: the Divine Word that made all things: substitute, of God; and the like. 

Thus when John commenced to preach, had been for ages agitated, by the Priests and Philosophers of 
the East and West, the great questions concerning the eternity or creation of matter: immediate or 
intermediate creation of the Universe by the Supreme God; the origin, object, and finál extinction of 
evil; the relations between the intellectual and materiál worlds, and between God and man; and the 
creation, fall, redemption, and restoration to his first estate, of man. 

The Jewish doctrine, differing in this from all the other Oriental creeds, and even from the Alohayistic 
legend with which the book of Genesis commences, attributed the creation to the immediate action of 
the Supreme Being. The Theosophists of the other Eastern Peoples interposed more than one 
intermediary between God and the world. To pláce between them but a single Being, to suppose for the 
production of the world but a single intermediary, was, in their eyes, to lower the Supreme Majesty. 
The interval between God, who is perfect Purity, and matter, which is base and foul, was too great for 
them to clear it at a single step. Even in the Occident, neither Plato nor Philo could thus impoverish the 
Intellectual World. 

Thus, Cerinthus of Ephesus, with most of the Gnostics, Philo, the Kabalah, the Zend-Avesta, the 
Puranas, and all the Orient, deemed the distance and antipathy between the Supreme Being and the 
materiál world too great, to attribute to the former the creation of the latter. Below, and emanating 
from, or created by, the Ancient of Days, the Central Light, the Beginning, or First Principle, one, two, 
or more Principles, Existences, or Intellectual Beings were imagined, to some one or more of whom 
(without any immediate creative act on the part of the Great Immovable, Silent Deity), the immediate 
creation of the materiál and mental universe was due. 

We háve already spoken of many of the speculations on this point. To some, the world was created by 
the LOGOS or WORD, first manifestation of, or emanation from, the Deity. To others, the beginning 
of creation was by the emanation of a ray of Light, creating the principle of Light and Life. The 
Primitive THOUGHT, creating the inferior Deities, a succession of INTELLGENCES, the Iynges of 
Zoroaster, his Amshaspands, Izeds, and Ferouers, the Ideas of Plato, the Aions of the Gnostics, the 
Angels of the Jews, the Nous, the Demiourgos, the DIVINE REASON, the Powers or Forces of Philo, 
and the Alohayim, Forces or Superior Gods of the ancient legend with which Genesis begins, to these 
and other intermediaries the creation was owing. No restraints were laid on the Fancy and the 
Imagination. The veriest Abstractions became Existences and Realities. The attributes of God, 
personified, became Powers, Spirits, Intelligences. 

God was the Light of Light, Divine Fire, the Abstract Intellectuality, the Root or Germ of the Universe. 
Simon Mágus, founder of the Gnostic faith, and many of the early Judaizing Christians, admitted that 

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the manifestations of the Supreme Being, as FATHER, or JEhOVAh, SON or CHRIST, and HOLÝ 
SPIRIT, were only so many different modes of Existence, or Forces of the samé God. To others they 
were, as were the multitude of Subordinate Intelligences, reál and distinct beings. 

The Oriental imagination revelled in the creation of these Inferior Intelligences, Powers of Good and 
Evil, and Angels. We háve spoken of those imagined by the Persians and the Kabalists. In the Talmud, 
every stár, every country, every town, and almost every tongue has a Prince of Heaven as its Protector. 
JEHUEL, is the guardian of fire, and MICHAEL of water. Seven spirits assist each; those of fire being 
Seraphiel, Gabriel, Nitriel, Tammael, Tchimschiel, Hadarniel, and Sarniel. These seven are represented 
by the square columns of this Degree, while the columns JACHIN and BOAZ represent the angels of 
fire and water. But the col- umns are not representatives of these alone. 

To Basilides, God was without name, uncreated, at first containing and concealing in Himself the 
Plenitude of His Perfections and when these are by Him displayed and nianifested, there result as many 
particular Existences, all analogous to Him, and still and always Him. To the Essenes and the Gnostics, 
the East and the West both devised this faith; that the Ideas, Conceptions, or Manifestations of the 
Deity were so many Creations, so many Beings, all God, nothing without Him, but more than what we 
now understand by the word ideas. They emanated from and were again merged in God. They had a 
kind of middle existence between our modern ideas, and the intelligences or ideas, elevated to the rank 
of genii, of the Oriental mythology. 

These personified attributes of Deity, in the theory of Basilides, were the Firstborn, Nous or Mind: 
from it emanates Logos, or THE WORD from it: Phronesis, Intellect: from it Sophia, Wisdom: from it 
Dunamis, Power: and from it Dikaiosune, Righteousness: to which latter the Jews gave the name of 
Eirene, Peace, or Calm, the essential characteristics of Divinity, and harmonious effect of all His 
perfections. The whole number of successive emanations was 365, expressed by the Gnostics, in Greek 
letters, by the mystic word Abraxas; designating God as manifested, or the aggregate of his 
manifestations; but not the Supreme and Secret God Himself. These three hundred and sixty-five 
Intelligences compose altogether the Fullness or Plenitude of the Divine Emanations. 

With the Ophites, a séct of the Gnostics, there were seven inferior spirits (inferior to Ialdabaoth, the 
Demiourgos or Actual Creator: Michael, Suriel, Raphael, Gabriel, Thauthabaoth, Erataoth, and 
Athaniel, the genii of the stars called the Bull; the Dog, the Lion, the Bear, the Serpent, the Eagle, and 
the Ass that formerly figured in the constellation Cancer, and symbolized respectively by those animals; 
as Ialdabaoth, Iao, Adonai, Eloi, Orai, and As- taphai were the genii of Saturn, the Moon, the Sun, 
Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury. 

The WORD appears in all these creeds. It is the Ormuzd of Zoroaster, the Ainsoph of the Kabalah, the 
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Nous of Platonism and Philonism, and the Sophia or Demiourgos of the Gnostics. 

And all these creeds, while admitting these different manifestations of the Supreme Being, held that His 
identity was immutable and permanent. That was Plato's distinction between the Being always the samé 
and the perpetual flow of things incessantly changing, the Genesis. 

The belief in dualism in some shape, was universal. Those who held that everything emanated from 
God, aspired to God, and re-entered into God, believed that, among those emanations were two adverse 
Principles, of Light and Darkness, Good and Evil. This prevailed in Central Asia and in Syria; while in 
Egypt it assumed the form of Greek speculation. In the former, a second Intellectual Principle was 
admitted, active in its Empire of Darkness, audacious against the Empire of Light. So the Persians and 
Sabeans understood it. In Egypt, this second Principle was Matter, as the word was ušed by the Platonic 
School, with its sad attributes, Vacuity, Darkness, and Death. In their theory, matter could be animated 
only by the low communication of a principle of divine life. It resists the influences that would 
spiritualize it. That resisting Power is Satan, the rebellious Matter, Matter that does not partake of God. 

To many there were two Principles; the Unknown Father, or Supreme and Eternal God, living in the 
centre of the Light, happy in the perfect purity of His being; the other, eternal Matter, that inert, 
shapeless, darksome mass, which they considered as the source of all evils, the mother and dwelling 
pláce of Satan. 

To Philo and the Platonists, there was a Soul of the world, creating visible things, and active in them, as 
agent of the Supreme Intelligence; realizing therein the ideas communicated to Him by that 
Intelligence, and which sometimes excel His conceptions, but which He executes without 
comprehending them. 

The Apocalypse or Revelations, by whomever written, belongs to the Orient and to extréme antiquity. 
It reproduces what is far older than itself. It paints, with the strongest colors that the Oriental genius 
ever employed, the closing scenes of the great struggle of Light, and Truth, and Good, against 
Darkness, Error, and Evil; personified in that between the New Religion on one side, and Paganism and 
Judaism on the other. It is a particular application of the ancient myth of Ormuzd and his Genii against 
Ahri- man and his Devs; and it celebrates the finál triumph of Truth against the combined powers of 
men and demons. The ideas and imagery are borrowed from every quarter; and allusions are found in it 
to the doctrines of all ages. We are continually reminded of the Zend-Avesta, the Jewish Codes, Philo, 
and the Gnosis. The Seven Spirits surrounding the Throne of the Eternal, at the opening of the Grand 
Drama, and acting so important a part throughout, everywhere the first instruments of the Divine Will 
and Vengence, are the Seven Amshaspands of Parsism; as the Twenty-four Ancients, offering to the 
Supreme Being the first supplications and the first homage, remind us of the Mysterious Chiefs of 

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Judaism, foreshadow the Eons of Gnosticism, and reproduce the twenty-four Good Spirits created by 
Ormuzd and inclosed in an egg. 

The Christ of the Apocalypse, First-born of Creation and of the Resurrection is invested with the 
characteristics of the Ormuzd and Sosiosch of the Zend-Avesta, the Ainsoph of the Kabalah and the 
Carpistes of the Gnostics. The idea that the true Initiates and Faithful become Kings and Priests, is at 
once Persian, Jewish, Christian, and Gnostic. And the definition of the Supreme Being, that He is at 
once Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end He that was, and is, and is to come, i.e., Time 
illimitable, is Zoroasteťs definition of Zerouane-Ak- herene. 

The depths of Satan which no man can measure; his triumph for a time by fraud and violence; his being 
chained by an angel; his reprobation and his precipitation into a sea of metal; his names of the Serpent 
and the Dragon; the whole conflict of the Good Spirits or celestial armies against the bad; are so many 
ideas and designations found alike in the Zend-Avesta, the Kabalah, and the Gnosis. 

We even find in the Apocalypse that singulár Persian idea, which regards some of the lower animals as 
so many Devs or vehicles of Devs. 

The guardianship of the earth by a good angel, the renewing of the earth and heavens, and the finál 
triumph of pure and holý men, are the samé victory of Good over Evil, for which the whole Orient 

The gold, and white raiments of the twenty-four Elders are, as in the Persian faith, the signs of a lofty 
perfection and divine purity. 

Thus the Human mind labored and struggled and tortured itself for ages, to explain to itself what it felt, 
without confessing it, to be inexplicable. A vast crowd of indistinct abstractions, hovering in the 
imagination, a train of words embodying no tangible meaning, an inextricable labyrinth of subtleties, 
was the result. 

But one grand idea ever emerged and stood prominent and unchangeable over the weltering chaos of 
confusion. God is great, and good, and wise. Evil and pain and sorrow are temporary, and for wise and 
beneficent purposes. They must be consistent with Goďs goodness, purity, and infinite perfection; and 
there must be a mode of explaining them, if we could but find it out; as, in all ways we will endeavor to 
do. Ultimately, Good will prevail, and Evil be overthrown. God, alone can do this, and He will do it, by 
an Emanation from Himself, assuming the Human form and redeeming the world. 

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Behold the object, the end, the result, of the great speculations and logomachies of antiquity; the 
ultimate annihilation of evil, and restoration of Man to his first estate, by a Redeemer, a Masayah, a 
Christos, the incarnate Word, Reason, or Power of Deity. 

This Redeemer is the Word or Logos, the Ormuzd of Zoroaster, the Ainsoph of the Kabalah, the Nous 
of Platonism and Philonism; He that was in the Beginning with God, and was God, and by Whom 
everything was made. That He was looked for by all the People of the East is abundantly shown by the 
Gospel of John and the Letters of Paul; wherein scarcely anything seemed neces- sary to be said in 
proof that such a Redeemer was to come; but all the energies of the writers are devoted to showing that 
Jesus was that Christos whom all the nations were expecting; the "Word," the Masayah, the Anointed or 
Consecrated One. 

In this Degree the great contest between good and evil, in anticipation of the appearance and advent of 
the Word or Redeemer is symbolized; and the mysterious esoteric teachings of the Essenes and the 
Cabalists. Of the practices of the former we gain but glimpses in the ancient writers; but we know that, 
as their doc- trines were taught by John the Baptist, they greatly resembled those of greater purity and 
more nearly perfect, taught by Jesus; and that not only Palestině was full of John's disciples, so that the 
Priests and Pharisees did not dare to děny John's inspiration; but his doctrine had extended to Asia 
Minor, and had made converts in luxurious Ephesus, as it also had in Alexandria in Egypt; and that they 
readily embraced the Christian faith, of which they had before not even heard. 

These old controversies háve died away, and the old faiths háve faded into oblivion. But Masonry still 
survives, vigorous and strong, as when philosophy was taught in the schools of Alexandria and under 
the Portico; teaching the samé old truths as the Essenes taught by the shores of the Dead Sea, and as 
John the Baptist preached in the Desert; truths imperishable as the Deity, and undeniable as Light. 
Those truths were gathered by the Essenes from the doctrines of the Orient and the Occident, from the 
Zend-Avesta and the Vedas, from Plato and Pythagoras, from India, Persia, Phoenicia, and Syria, from 
Greece and Egypt, and from the Holý Books of the Jews. Hence we are called Knights of the East and 
West, because their doctrines came from both. And these doctrines, the wheat sifted from the chaff, the 
Truth seperated from Error, Masonry has garnered up in her heart of hearts, and through the fires of 
persecution, and the storms of calamity, has brought them and delivered them unto us. That God is 
One, řmmutable, unchangeable, infinitely just and good; that Light will finally overcome Darkness, 
Good conquer Evil, and Truth be victor over Error; these, rejecting all the wild and useless speculations 
of the Zend-Avesta, the Kabalah, the Gnostics, and the Schools, are the religion and Philosophy of 

Those speculations and fancies it is useful to study; that knowing in what worthless and unfruitful 
investigations the mind may engage, you may the more value and appreciate the plain, simple, sublime, 

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universally-acknowledged truths, which háve in all ages been the Light by which Masons háve been 
guided on their way; the Wisdom and Strength that like imperishable columns háve sustained and will 
continue to sustain its glorious and magnificent Temple. 


[Prince Rose Croix] 

Each of us makes such applications to his own faith and creed, of the symbols and ceremonies of this 
Degree, as seems to him proper. With these speciál interpretations we háve here nothing to do. Like 
the legend of the Master Khurum, in which some see figured the condemnation and sufferings of 
Christ; others those of the unfortunate Grand Master of the Templars; others those of the first Charles, 
King of England; and others still the annual descent of the Sun at the winter Solstice to the regions of 
darkness, the basis of many an ancient legend; so the ceremonies of this Degree receive different 
explanations; each interpreting them for himself, and being offended at the interpretation of no other. 

In no other way could Masonry possess its character of Universality; that character which has ever been 
peculiar to it from its origin; and which enables two Kings, worshippers of different Deities, to sit 
together as Masters, while the walls of the first temple arose and the men of Gebal, bowing down to the 
Phoenician Gods, to work by the side of the Hebrews to whom those Gods were abomination; and to sit 
with them in the samé Lodge as brethren. 

You háve already learned that these ceremonies háve one generál significance, to every one, of every 
faith, who believes in God, and the soufs immortality. 

The primitive men met in no Temples made with human hands. "God," said Sthe existence of a single 
uncreated God, in whose bosom everything grows, is developed and trans- formed. The worship of this 
God reposed upon the obedience of all the beings He created. His feasts were those of the Solstices. 
The doctrines of Buddha pervaded India, China, and Japan. The Priests of Brahma, professing a dark 
and bloody creed, brutalized by Superstition, united together against Buddhism, and with the aid of 
Despotism, exterminated its followers. But their blood fertilized the new docfřrst falling themselves, 
and plunged in misery and darkness, tempted man to his fall, and brought sin into the world. All 
believed in a future life, to be attained by purification and trials; in a statě or successive states of reward 
and punishment; and in a Mediator or Redeemer, by whom the Evil Principle was to be overcome and 
the Supreme Deity reconciled to His creatures. The belief was generál, that He was to be born of a 
Virgin, and suffer a painful death. The Indians called him Chrishna; the Chinese, Kioun-tse; the 
Persians, Sosiosch; the Chaldeans, Dhouvanai; the Egyptians, Har-Oeri; Plato, Love; and the 
Scandinavians, Balder. 

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Chrishna,the Hindoo Redeemer, was cradled and educated among Shepherds. A Tyrant, at the time of 
his birth, ordered all male children to be slain. He performed miracles, say his legends, even raising the 
dead. He washed the feet of the Brahmins, and was meek and lowly of spirit. He was born of a Virgin; 
descended to Hell, rose again, ascended to Heaven, charged his disciples to teach his doctrines, and 
gave them the gift of miracles. 

The first Masonic Legislator whose memory is preserved to us by history, was Buddha, who, about a 
thousand years before the Christian era, reformed the religion of Manous. He called to the Priesthood 
all men, without distinction of caste, who felt themselves inspired by God to instruct men. Those who 
so associated themselves formed a Society of Prophets under the name of Sa- maneans. They 
recognized the existence of a single uncreated God, in whose bosom everything grows, is developed 
and transformed. The worship of this God reposed upon the obedience of all the beings He created. His 
feasts were those of the Solstices. The doctrines of Buddha pervaded India, China, and Japan. The 
Priests of Brahma, professing a dark and bloody creed, brutalized by Superstition, united together 
against Buddhism, and with the aid of Despotism, exterminated its folio wers. But their blood fertilized 
the new doctrine, which produced a new Society under the name of Gymnosophists; and a large 
number, fleeing to Ireland, planted their doctrines there, and there erected the round towers, some of 
which still stand, solid and unshaken as at first, visible monuments of the remotest ages. 

The Phoenician Cosmogony, like all others in Asia, was the Word of God, written in astral characters, 
by the planetary Divinities, and communicated by the Demi-gods, as a profound mystery, to the 
brighter intelligences of Humanity, to be propagated by them among men. Their doctrines resembled 
the Ancient Sabeism, and being the faith of Hiram the King and his namesake the Artist, are of interest 
to all Masons. With them, the First Principle was half materiál, half spirituál, a dark air, animated and 
impregnated by the spirit; and a disordered chaos, covered with thick darkness. From this came the 
Word, and thence creation and generation; and thence a race of men, children of light, who adored 
Heaven and its Stars as the Supreme Being; and whose different gods were but incarnations of the Sun, 
the Moon, the Stars, and the Ether. Chrysor was the great igneous power of Nature, and Baal and 
Malakarth representations of the Sun and Moon, the latter word, in Hebrew, meaning Queen. 

Man had fallen, but not by the tempting of the serpent. For, with the Phoenicians, the serpent was 
deemed to partake of the Divine Nature, and was sacred, as he was in Egypt. He was deemed to be 
immortal, unless slain by violence, becoming young again in his old age, by entering into and 
consuming himself. Hence the Serpent in a circle, holding his tail in his mouth, was an emblém of 
eternity. With the head of a hawk he was of a Divine Nature, and a symbol of the sun. Hence one Séct 
of the Gnostics took him for their good genius, and hence the brazen serpent reared by Moses in the 
Desert, on which the Israelites looked and lived. 

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"Before the chaos, that preceded the birth of Heaven and Earth," said the Chinese Lao-Tseu, "a single 
Being existed, immense and silent, immutable and always acting; the mother of the Universe. I know 
not the name of that Being, but I designate it by the word Reason. Man has his model in the earth, the 
earth in Heaven, Heaven in Reason, and Reason in itself." 

"I am," says Isis, "Nature; parent of all things, the sovereign of the Elements, the primitive progeny of 
Time, the most exalted of the Deities, the first of the Heavenly Gods and Goddesses, the Queen of the 
Shades, the uniform countenance; who dispose with my rod the numerous lights of Heaven, the 
salubrious breezes of the sea, and the mournful silence of the dead; whose single Divinity the whole 
world venerates in many forms, with various rites and by many names. The Egyptians, skilled in 
ancient lore, worship me with proper ceremonies, and call me by my true name, Isis the Queen." 

The Hindu Vedas thus define the Deity: "He who surpasses speech, and through whose power speech is 
expressed, know thou that He is Brahma; and not these perishable things that man adores. 

"He whom Intelligence cannot comprehend, and He alone, say the sages, through whose Power the 
nature of Intelligence can be understood, know thou that He is Brahma; and not these perishable things 
that man adores. 

"He who cannot be seen by the organ of sight and through whose power the organ of seeing sees, know 
thou that He is Brahma; and not these perishable things that man adores. 

"He who cannot be heard by the organ of hearing, and through whose power the organ of hearing hears, 
know thou that He is Brahma; and not these perishable things that man adores. 

"He who cannot be perceived by the organ of smelling, and through whose power the organ of smelling 
smells, know thou that He is Brahma; and not these perishable things that man adores." 

"When God resolved to create the human race," said Arius, "He made a Being that He called The 
WORD, The Son, Wisdom, to the end that this Being might give existence to men." This WORD is the 
Ormuzd of Zoroaster, the Ainsoph of the Kabalah, the Nous of Plato and Philo, the Wisdom or 
Demiourgos of the Gnostics. 

That is the True Word, the knowledge of which our ancient brethren sought as the priceless reward of 
their labors on the Holý Temple: the Word of Life, the Divine Reason, "in whom was Life, and that Life 
the Light of men";"which long shone in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not;" the Infinite 

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Reason that is the Soul of Nature, immortal, of which the Word of this Degree reminds us; and to 
believe wherein and revere it, is the peculiar duty of every Mason. 

"In the beginning," says the extract from some older work, with which John commences his Gospel, 
"was the Word, and the Word was near to God, and the Word was God. All things were made by Him, 
and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was Life, and the life was the Light of 
man; and the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not contain it." 

It is an old tradition that this passage was from an older work. And Philostorgius and Nicephorus statě, 
that when the Emperor Julian undertook to rebuild the Temple, a stone was taken up, that covered the 
mouth of a deep square cave, into which one of the laborers, being let down by a ropě, found in the 
centre of the floor a cubical pillar, on which lay a roli or book, wrapped in a fine linen cloth, in which, 
in capital letters, was the foregoing passage. 

However this may háve been, it is plain that John's Gospel is a polemic against the Gnostics; and, 
stating at the outset the current doctrine in regard to the creation by the Word, he then addresses himself 
to show and urge that this Word was Jesus Christ. 

And the first sentence, fully rendered into our language, would read thus:'When the process of 
emanation, of creation or evolution of existences inferior to the Supreme God began, the Word came 
into existence and was: and this word was near to God; i.e. the immediate or first emanation from God: 
and it was God Himself, developed or manifested in that particular mode, and in action. And by that 
Word everything that is was created."-And thus Tertullian says that God made the World out of nothing, 
by means of His Word, Wisdom, or Power. 

To Philo the Jew, as to the Gnostics, the Supreme Being was the Primitive Light, or Archetype of Light 
Source whence the rays emanate that illuminate Souls. He is the Soul of the World, and as such acts 
everywhere. He himself fills and bounds his whole existence, and his forces fill and penetrate 
everything. His Image is the WORD [LOGOS], a form more brilliant than fire, which is not pure light. 
This WORD dwells in God; for it is within His Intelligence that the Supreme Being frames for Himself 
the Types of Ideas of all that is to assume reality in the Universe. The WORD is the Vehicle by which 
God acts on the Universe; the World of Ideas by means whereof God has created visible things; the 
more Ancient God, as compared with the Materiál World; Chief and General Representative of all 
Intelligences; the Archangel and representative of all spirits, even those of Mortals; the type of Man; 
the primitive man himself. These ideas are borrowed from Plato. And this Word is not only the Creator 
["by Him was everything made that was made"], but acts in the pláce of God and through him act all 
the Powers and Attributes of God. And also, as first representative of the human race, he is the 
protector of Men and their Shepherd, the "Ben HAdam," or Son of Man. 

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The actual condition of Man is not his primitive condition, that in which he was the image of the Word. 
His unruly passions háve caused him to fall from his originál lofty estate. But he may rise again, by 
following the teachings of Heavenly Wisdom, and the Angels whom God commissions to aid him in 
escaping from the entanglements of the body; and by fighting bravely against Evil, the existence of 
which God has allowed solely to furnish him with the means of exercising his free will. 

The Supreme Being of the Egyptians was Amun, a secret and concealed God, the Unknown Father of 
the Gnostics, the Source of Divine Life, and of all force, the Plenitude of all, comprehending all things 
in Himself, the originál Light. He creates nothing; but everything emanates from Him: and all other 
Gods are but his manifestations. From Him, by the utterance of a Word, emanated Neith, the Divine 
Mother of all things, the Primitive THOUGHT, the FORCE that puts everything in movement, the 
SPIRIT everywhere extended, the Deity of Light and Mother of the Sun. 

Of this Supreme Being, Osiris was the image, Source of all Good in the moral and physical world, and 
constant foe of Typhon, the Genius of Evil, the Satan of Gnosticism, brute mat- ter, deemed to be 
always at feud with the spirit that flowed from the Deity; and over whom Har-Oeri, the Redeemer, Son 
of Isis and Osiris, is finally to prevail. 

In the Zend-Avesta of the Persians the Supreme Being is Time without limit, ZERUANE AKHERENE. 
No origin could be assigned to Him; for He was enveloped in His own Glory, and His Nature and 
Attributes were so inaccessible to human Intelli- gence, that He was but the object of a silent 
veneration. The commencement of Creation was by emanation from him. The first emanation was the 
Primitive Light, and from this Light emerged Ormuzd, the King of Light, who, by the WORD, created 
the World in its purity, is its Preserver and Judge, a Holý and Sacred Being, Intelligence and 
Knowledge, Himself Time without limit, and wielding all the powers of the Supreme Being. 

In this Persian faith, as taught many centuries before our era, and embodied in the Zend-Avesta, there 
was in man a pure Principle, proceeding from the Supreme Being, produced by the Will and Word of 
Ormuzd. To that was united an impure principle, proceeding from a foreign influence, that of Ahriman, 
the Dragon, or principle of Evil. Tempted by Ahriman, the first man and woman had fallen; and for 
twelve thousand years there was to be war between Ormuzd and the Good Spirits created by him, and 
Ahrirnan and the Evil ones whom he had called into existence. 

But pure souls are assisted by the Good Spirits, the Triumph of the Good Principle is determined upon 
in the decrees of the Supreme Being, and the period of that triumph will infallibly arrive. At the 
moment when the earth shall be most afflicted with the evils brought upon it by the Spirits of perdition, 
three Prophets will appear to bring assistance to mortals. Sosiosch, Chief of the Three, will regenerate 

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the world, and restore to it its primitive Beauty, Strength, and Purity. He will judge the good and the 
wicked. After the universal resurrection of the Good, the pure Spirits will conduct them to an abode of 
eternal happiness. Ahri- man, his evil Demons, and all the world, will be purified in a torrent of liquid 
burning metal. The Law of Ormuzd will rule everywhere: all men will be happy: all, enjoying an 
unalterable bliss, will unitě with Sosiosch in singing the praises of the Supreme Being. 

These doctrines, with some modifications, were adopted by the Kabalists and afterward by the 

Apollonius of Tyana says:"We shall render the most appropriate worship to the Deity, when to that God 
whom we call the First, who is One, and separate from all, and after whom we recog- nize the others, 
we present no offerings whatever, kindle to Him no fire, dedicate to Him no sensible thing; for he needs 
nothing, even of all that natures more exalted than ours could give. The earth produces no plant, the air 
nourishes no animal, there is in short nothing, which would not be impure in his sight. In addressing 
ourselves to Him, we must use only the higher word, that, I mean, which is not expressed by the mouth, 
the silent inner word of the spirit. From the most Glorious of all Beings, we must seek for blessings, by 
that which is most glorious in ourselves; and that is the spirit, which needs no organ." 

Strabo says: "This one Supreme Essence is that which embraces us all, the water and the land, that 
which we call the Heavens, the World, the Nature of things. This Highest Being should be worshipped, 
without any visible image, in sacred groves. In such retreats the devout should lay themselves down to 
sleep, and expect signs from God in dreams." 

Aristolte says: "It has been handed down in a mythical form, from the earliest times to posterity, that 
there are Gods, and that The Divine compasses entire nature. All besides this has been added, after the 
mythical style, for the purpose of persuading the multitude, and for the interest of the laws and the 
advantage of the State. Thus men háve given to the Gods human forms, and háve even represented them 
under the figuře of other beings, in the train of which fictions followed many more of the samé sort. 
But if, from all this, we separate the originál principle, and consider it alone, námely, that the first 
Essences are Gods, we shall find that this has been divinely said; and since it is probable that 
philosophy and the arts háve been several times, so far as that is possible, found and lost, such doctrines 
may háve been preserved to our times as the remains of ancient wisdom." 

Porphyry says: "By images addressed to sense, the ancients represented God and his powers by the 
visible they typified the invisible for those who had learned to read, in these types, as in a book, a 
treatise on the Gods. We need not wonder if the ignorant consider the images to be nothing more than 
wood or stone; for just so, they who are ignorant of writing see nothing in monuments but stone, 
nothing in tablets but wood, and in books but a tissue of papyrus." 

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Apollonius of Tyana held, that birth and death are only in appearance; that which separates itself from 
the one substance (the one Divine essence), and is caught up by matter, seems to be born; that, again, 
which releases itself from the bonds of matter, and is reunited with the one Divine Essence, seems to 
die. There is, at most, an alteration between becoming visible and becoming in- visible. In all there is, 
properly speaking, but the one essence, which alone acts and suffers, by becoming all things to all; the 
Eternal God, whom men wrong, when they deprive Him of what properly can be attributed to Him 
only, and transfer it to other names and persons. 

The New Platonists substituted the idea of the Absolute, for the Supreme Essence itself; as the first, 
simplest principle, anterior to all existence; of which nothing determinate can be predicated; to which 
no consciousness, no self-contemplation can be ascribed; inasmuch as to 

do so, would immediately imply a quality, a distinction of subject and object. This Supreme Entity can 
be known only by an intellectual intuition of the Spirit, transcending itself, and emancipating itself 
from its own limits. 

This mere logical tendency, by means of which men thought to arrive at the conception of such an 
absolute, the ov, was united with a certain mysticism, which, by a transcendent statě of feeling, 
communicated, as it were, to this abstraction what the mind would receive as a reality. The absorption 
of the Spirit into that superexistence, so as to be entirely identified with it, or such a revelation of the 
latter to the spirit raised above itself, was regarded as the highest end which the spirituál life could 

The New Platonists' idea of God, was that of One Simple Originál Essence, exalted akes a distinction 
between those who are in the proper sense Sons of God, having by means of contemplation raised 
themselves to the highest Being, or attained to a knowledge of Him, in His immediate self- 
manifestation, and those who know God only in his mediate revelation through his operation such as He 
declares Himself in creation in the revelation still veiled in the letter of Scripture those, in short, who 
attach themselves simply to the Logos, and consider this to be the Supreme God; who arén; and after it 
has rid itself from all that pertains to sense from all manifoldness. They are the mediators between man 
(amazed and stupefied by manifold- ness) and the Supreme Unity. 

Philo says:"He who disbelieves the miraculous, simply as the miraculous, neither knows God, nor has 
he ever sought after Him; for otherwise he would háve understood, by looking at that truly great and 
awe-inspiring sight, the miracle of the Universe, that these miracles (in Goďs providential guidance of 
His people) are but chilďs play for the Divine Power. But the truly miraculous has become despised 
through familiarity. The universal, on the contrary, although in itself insignificant, yet, through our love 
of no vel ty, transports us with amazement." 

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In opposition to the anthropopathism of the Jewish Scriptures, the Alexandrian Jews endeavored to 
purify the idea of God from all admixture of the Human. By the exclusion of every human passion, it 
was sublimated to a something devoid of all attributes, and wholly transcendental; and the mere Being, 
the Good, in and by itself, the Absolute of Platonism, was substituted for the personál Deity of the Old 
Testament. By soaring upward, beyond all created existence, the mind, disengaging itself from the 
Sensible, attains to the intellectual intuition of this Absolute Being; of whom, however, it can predicate 
nothing but existence, and sets aside all other determinations as not answering to the exalted nature of 
the Supreme Essence. 

Thus Philo makes a distinction between those who are in the proper sense Sons of God, having by 
means of contemplation raised themselves to the highest Being, or attained to a knowledge of Him, in 
His immediate self-manifestation, and those who know God only in his mediate revelation through his 
operation such as He declares Himself in creation in the revelation still veiled in the letter of Scripture 
those, in short, who attach themselves simply to the Logos, and consider this to be the Supreme God; 
who are the sons of the Logos, rather than of the True Being. 

"God," says Pythagoras, "is neither the object of sense, nor subject to passion, but invisible, only 
intelligible, and supremely intelligent. In His body He is like the light, and in His soul He resembles 
truth. He is the universal spirit that pervades and diffuseth itself over all nature. All beings receive 
their life from Him. There is but one only God, who is not, as some are apt to imagine, seated above the 
world, beyond the orb of the Universe; but being Himself all in all, He sees all the beings that fill His 
immensity; the only Principle, the Light of Heaven, the Father of all. He produces everything; He 
orders and disposes everything; He is the REASON, the LIFE, and the MOTION of all being." 

"I am the LIGHT of the world;he that followeth Me shall not walk in DARKNESS, but shall háve the 
LIGHT of LIFE." So said the Founder of the Christian Religion, as His words are reported by John the 

God, say the sacred writings of the Jews, appeared to Moses in a FLÁME OF FIRE, in the midst of a 
bush, which was not consumed. He descended upon Mount Sinai, as the smoke of a furnace; He went 
before the children of Israel, by day, in a pillar of cloud, and, by night, in a pillar of fire, to give them 
light. "Call you on the name of your Gods," said Elijah the Prophet to the Priests of Baal, "and I will 
call upon the name of ADONAI; and the God that answereth by fire, let him be God." 

According to the Kabalah, as according to the doctrines of Zoroaster, everything that exists has 
emanated from a source of infinite light. Before all things, existed the Primitive Being, THE 
ANCIENT OF DAYS, the Ancient King of Light; a title the more remarkable, because it is frequently 

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given to the Creator in the Zend-Avesta, and in the Code of the Sabeans, and occurs in the Jewish 

The world was His Revelation, God revealed and subsisted only in Him. His attributes were there 
reproduced with various modifications and in different degrees; so that the Universe was His Holý 
Splendor, His Mantle. He was to be adored in silence and perfection consisted in a nearer approach to 

Before the creation of worlds, the PRIMITIVE LIGHT filled all space, so that there was no void. 
When the Supreme Being, existing in this Light, resolved to display His perfections, or manifest them 
in worlds, He withdrew within Himself, formed around Him a void space, and shot forth His first 
emanation, a ray of light; the cause and principle of everything that exists, uniting both the generative 
and conceptive power, which penetrates every- thing, and without which nothing could subsist for an 

Man fell, seduced by the Evil Spirits most remote from the Great King of Light; those of the fourth 
world of spirits, Asiah, whose chief was Belial. They wage incessant war against the pure Intelligences 
of the other worlds, who, like the Amshaspands, Izeds, and Ferouers of the Persians are the tutelary 
guardians of man. In the beginning, all was unison and harmony; Ml of the samé divine light and 
perfect purity. The Seven Kings of Evil fell, and the Universe was troubled. Then the Creator took from 
the Seven Kings the principles of Good and of Light, and divided them among the four worlds of 
Spirits, giving to the first three the Pure Intelligences, united in love and harmony, while to the fourth 
were vouchsafed only some feeble glimmerings of light. 

When the strife between these and the good angels shall háve continued the appointed time, and these 
Spirits enveloped in darkness shall long and in vain háve endeavored to absorb the Divine light and life, 
then will the Eternal Himself come to correct them. He will deliver them from the gross envelopes of 
matter that hold them captive, will reanimate and strengthen the ray of light or spirituál nature which 
they háve preserved, and re-establish throughout the Universe that primitive Harmony which was its 

Marcion, the Gnostic, said, "The Soul of the True Christian, adopted as a child by the Supreme Being, 
to whom it has long been a stranger, receives from Him the Spirit and Divine life. It is led and 
confirmed, by this gift, in a pure and holý life, like that of God; and if it so completes its earthly career, 
in charity, chastity, and sanctity, it will one day be disengaged from its materiál envelope, as the ripe 
grain is detached from the straw, and as the young bird escapes from its shell. Like the angels, it will 
share in the bliss of the Good and Perfect Father, re-clothed in an aerial body or organ, and made like 
unto the Angels in Heaven." 

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You see, my brother, what is the meaning of Masonic "Light." You see why the EAST of the Lodge, 
where the initial letter of the Name of the Deity overhangs the Master, is the pláce of Light. Light, as 
contradistinguished from darkness, is Good, as contradistinguished from Evil: and it is that Light, the 
trae knowledge of Deity, the Eternal Good, for which Masons in all ages háve sought. Still Masonry 
marches steadily onward toward that Light that shines in the great distance, the Light of that day when 
Evil, overcome and vanquished, shall fade away and disappear forever, and Life and Light be the one 
law of the Universe, and its eternal Harmony. 

The Degree of Rose Croix teaches three things; the unity, immutability and goodness of God; the 
immortality of the Soul; and the ultimate defeat and extinction of evil and wrong and sorrow, by a 
Redeemer or Messiah, yet to come, if he has not already appeared. 

It replaces the three pillars of the old Temple, with three that háve already been explained to you, Faith 
[in God, mankind, and man's šelf], Hope [in the victory over evil, the advancement of Humanity, and a 
hereafter], and Charity [relieving the wants, and tolerant of the errors and faults of others]. To be 
trustful, to be hopeful, to be indulgent; these, in an age of selfishness, of ill opinion of human nature, of 
harsh and bitter judgment, are the most important Masonic Virtues, and the true supports of every 
Masonic Temple. And they are the old pillars of the Temple under different names. For he only is wise 
who judges others charitably; he only is strong who is hopeful; and there is no beauty like a firm faith 
in God, our fellows and ourself. 

The second apartment, clothed in mourning, the columns of the Temple shattered and prostrate, and the 
brethren bowed down in the deepest dejection, represents the world under the tyranny of the Principle 
of Evil; where virtue is persecuted and vice rewarded; where the righteous starve for bread, and the 
wicked live sumptuously and dress in purple and fine linen; where insolent ignorance rules, and 
learning and genius serve; where King and Priest trample on liberty and the rights of conscience; where 
freedom hides in caves and mountains, and sycophancy and servility fawn and thrive; where the cry of 
the widow and the orphan starving for want of food, and shivering with cold, rises ever to Heaven, from 
a million miserable hovels; where men, willing to labor, and starving, they and their children and the 
wives of their bosoms, beg plaintively for work, when the pampered capitalist stops his mills; where the 
law punishes her who, starving, steals a loaf, and lets the seducer go free; where the success of a party 
justifies murder, and violence and rapine go unpunished; and where he who with many years' cheating 
and grinding the faces of the poor grows rich, receives office and honor in life, and after death brave 
funeral and a splendid mausoleum: this world, where, since its making, war has nevěr ceased, nor man 
paused in the sad task of torturing and murdering his brother; and of which ambition, avarice, envy, 
hatred, lust, and the rest of Ahrimaďs and Typhoďs army make a Pandemonium: this world, sunk in sin, 
reeking with baseness, clamorous with sorrow and misery. If any see in it also a type of the sorrow of 
the Craft for the death of Hiram, the grief of the Jews at the fall of Jerusalem, the misery of the 
Templars at the ruin of their order and the death of De Molay, or the worlďs agony and pangs of woe at 

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the death of the Redeemer, it is the right of each to do so. 

The third apartment represents the consequences of sin and vice, and the hell made of the human heart, 
by its fiery passions. If any see in it also a type of the Hades of the Greeks, the Gehenna of the 
Hebrews, the Tartarus of the Romans, or the Hell of the Christians, or only of the agonies of remorse 
and the tortures of an upbraiding conscience, it is the right of each to do so. 

The fourth apartment represents the Universe, freed from the insolent dominion and tyranny of the 
Principle of Evil, and brilliant with the true Light that flows from the Supreme Deity; when sin and 
wrong, and pain and sorrow, remorse and misery shall be no more forever; when the great plans of 
Infinite Eternal Wisdom shall be fully developed; and all Goďs creatures, seeing that all apparent evil 
and individual suffering and wrong were but the drops that went to swell the great river of infinite 
goodness, shall know that vast as is the power of Deity, His goodness and beneficence are infinite as 
His power. If any see in it a type of the peculiar mysteries of any faith or creed, or an allusion to any 
past occurrences, it is their right to do so. Let each apply its symbols as he pleases. To all of us they 
typify the universal rule of Masonry, of its three chief virtues, Faith, Hope and Charity; of brotherly 
love and universal benevolence. We labor here to no other end. These symbols need no other 

The obligations of our Ancient Brethren of the Rose Croix were to fulfill all the duties of friendship, 
cheerfulness, charity, peace, liberality, temperance and chastity and scrupulously to avoid impurity, 
haughtiness, hatred, anger, and every other kind of vice. They took their philosophy from the old 
Theology of the Egyptians, as Moses and Solomon had doně, and borrowed its hieroglyphics and the 
ciphers of the Hebrews. Their principál rules were to exercise the profession of medicine charitably 
and without fee, to advance the cause of virtue, enlarge the sciences, and induce men to live as in the 
primitive times of the world. 

When this Degree had its origin, it is not important to inquire; nor with what different rites it has been 
practised in different countries and at various times. It is of very high antiquity. Its ceremonies differ 
with the degrees of latitude and longitude, and it receives variant interpretations. If we were to examine 
all the different ceremonials, their emblems, and their formulas, we should see that all that belongs to 
the primitive and essential elements of the order, is respected in every sanctuary. All alike practise 
virtue, that it may produce fruit. All labor, like us, for the extirpation of vice, the purification of man, 
the development of the arts and sciences, and the reliéf of humanity. 

None admit an adept to their lofty philosophical knowledge, and mysterious sciences, until he has been 
purified at the altar of the symbolic Degrees. Of what importance are differences of opinion as to the 
age and genealogy of the Degree, or variance in the practice, ceremoniál and liturgy, or the shade of 

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color of the banner under which each tribe of Israel marched, if all revere 'the Holý Arch of the 
symbolic Degrees, first and unalterable source of Free Masonry; if all revere our conservative 
principles, and are with us in the great purposes of our organization? 

If, anywhere, brethren of a particular religious belief háve been excluded from this Degree, it merely 
shows how gravely the purposes and pian of Masonry may be misunderstood. For whenever the dooř of 
any Degree is closed against him who believes in one God and the soufs immortality, on account of the 
other tenets of his faith, that Degree is Masonry no longer. No Mason has the right to interpret the 
symbols of this Degree for another, or to refuse him its mysteries, if he will not také them with the 
explanation and commentary superadded. 

Listen, my brother, to our explanation of the symbols of the Degree, and then give them such further 
interpretation as you think fit. 

The Cross has been a sacred symbol from the earliest Antiquity. It is found upon all the enduring 
monuments of the world, in Egypt, in Assyria, in Hindostan, in Persia, and on the Buddhist towers of 
Ireland. Buddha was said to háve died upon it. The Druids cut an oak into its shape and held it sacred, 
and built their temples in that form. Pointing to the four quarters of the world, it was the symbol of 
universal nature. It was on a cruciform tree, that Chrishna was said to háve expired, pierced with 
arrows. It was revered in Mexico. 

But its peculiar meaning in this Degree, is that given to it by the Ancient Egyptians. Tltoth or Phika is 
represented on the oldest monuments carrying in his hand the Crux Ansata, or Ankh, [a Tau cross, with 
a ring or circle over it]. He is so seen on the double tablet of Shufu and Nob Shufu, builders of the 
greatest of the Pyramids, at Wady Meghara, in the peninsula of Sinai. It was the hieroglyphic for life, 
and with a triangle prefixed meant life giving. To us therefore it is the symbol of Life of that life that 
emanated from the Deity, and of that Eternal Life for which we all hope; through our faith in Goďs 
infinite goodness. 

The ROSE was anciently sacred to Aurora and the Sun. It is a symbol of Dawn, of the resurrection of 
Light and the renewal of life, and therefore of the dawn of the first day, and more particularly of the 
resurrection: and the Cross and Rose together are therefore hieroglyphically to be read, the Dawn of 
Eternal Life which all Nations háve hoped for by the advent of a Redeemer. 

The Pelican feeding her young is an emblém of the large and bountiful beneficence of Nature, of the 
Redeemer of fallen man, and of that humanity and charity that ought to distinguish a Knight of this 

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The Eagle was the living Symbol of the Egyptian God Mendes or Menthra, whom Sesostris-Ramses 
made one with Amun-Re, the God of Thebes and Upper Egypt, and the representative of the Sun, the 
word RE meaning Sun or King. 

The Compass surmounted with a crown signifies that notwithstanding the high rank attained in 
Masonry by a Knight of the Rose Croix, equity and impartiality are invariably to govern his conduct. 

To the word INRI, inscribed on the Crux Ansata over the Masteťs Seat, many meanings háve been 
assigned. The Christian Initiate reverentially sees in it the initials of the inscription upon the cross on 
which Christ suffered Iesus Nazarenus Rex ludce orum. The sages of Antiquity connected it with one of 
the greatest secrets of Nature, that of universal regeneration. They inter- preted it thus, Igne Nátura 
renovatur integra; [entire nature is renovated by fire]: The Alchemical or Hermetic Masons framed for it 
this aphorism, Igne nitrům roris invenitur. And the Jes- uits are charged with having applied to it this 
odious axiom, Justum necare reges impios. The four letters are the initials of the Hebrew words that 
represent the four elements lammim, the seas or water; Nour, fire; Rouach, the air and Iebeschah, the 
dry earth. How we read it, I need not repeat to you. 

The CROSS, X, was the Sign of the Creative Wisdom or Logos, the Son of God. Plato says, "He 
expressed him upon the Universe in the figuře of the letter X. The next Power to the Supreme God was 
decussated or figured in the shape of a Cross on the Universe." Mithras signed his soldiers on the 
forehead with a Cross. X is the mark of 600, the mysterious cycle of the Incarnations. 

We constantly see the Tau and the Resh united thus P. These -I- 1 two letters, in the old Samaritán, as 
found in Arius, stand, the first for 400, the second for 200=600. This is the Staff of Osiris, also, and his 
monogram, and was adopted by the Christians as a Sign. On a medal P of Constanius is this inscription, 
"In hoc X I signo victor eris." An inscription in the Duomo at Milan reads, "X. et P. Christi. Nomina. 
Sancta. Tenei." 

The Egyptians ušed as a Sign of theřr God Canobus, a T or a -1- indifferentfy. The Vaishnavas of India 
háve also the samé Sacred Tau, which they also mark with crosses, and with triangles. The vestments of 
the ptiests of Horus were covered with these crosses. So was the dress of the Lama of Thibet. The 
Sectarian marks of the Jains are similar. The distinctive badge of the Séct of Xac Jaonicus is the 
swastica. It is the Sign of Fo, identical with the Cross of Christ. On the ruins of Mandore, in India, 
among other mystic emblems, are the mystic triangle, and the interlaced triangle. This is also found on 
ancient coins and medals, excavated from the ruins of Oojein and other ancient cities of India. 

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You entered here amid gloom and into shadow, and are clad in the apparel of sorrow. Lament, with us, 
the sad condition of the Human race, in this vale of tears! the calamities of men and the agonies of 
nations! the darkness of the bewildered soul, oppressed by doubt and apprehension! 

There is no human soul that is not sad at times. There is no thoughtful soul that does not at times 
despair. There is perhaps none, of all that think at all of anything beyond the needs and interests of the 
body, that is not at times startled and terrified by the awful questions which, feeling as though it were a 
guilty thing for doing so, it whispers to itself in its inmost depths. Some Démon seems to torture it 
with doubts, and to crush it with despair, asking whether, after all, it is certain that its convictions are 
true, and its faith well rounded: whether it is indeed sure that a God of Infinite Love and Beneficence 
rules the Universe, or only some great remorseless Fate and iron Necessity, hid in impenetrable gloom, 
and to which men and their sufferings and sorrows. Their hopes and joys, their ambitions and deeds, are 
of no more interest or importance than the motes that dance in the sunshine; or a Being that amuses 
Himself with the incredible vanity and foliy, the writings and contortions of the insignificant insects 
that compose Humanity, and idly imagine that they resemble the Omnipotent. "What are we," the 
Tempter asks, "but puppets in a show-box? O Omnipotent destiny, pull our strings gently! Dance us 
mercifully off our miserable little stage!" 

"Is it not," the Démon whispers, "merely the inordinate vanity of man that causes him now to pretend to 
himself that he is like unto God in intellect, sympathies and passions, as it was that which, at the 
beginning, made him believe that he was, in his bodily shape and organs, the very image of the Deity? 
Is not his God merely his own shadow, projected in gigantic outlines upon the clouds? Does he not 
create for himself a God out of himself, by merely adding indefinite extension to his own faculties, 
powers, and passions?" 

"Who," the Voice that will not be always silent whispers, "has ever thoroughly satisfied himself with 
his own arguments in respect to his own nature ? Who ever demonstrated to himself, with a 
conclusiveness that elevated the belief to certainty, that he was an immortal spirit, dwelling only 
temporarily in the house and envelope of the body, and to live on forever after that shall háve decayed? 
Who ever has demonstrated or ever can demonstrate that the intellect of Man differs from that of the 
wiser animals, otherwise than in degree? Who has ever doně more than to utter nonsense and 
incoherencies in regard to the difference between the instincts of the dog and the reason of Man? The 
horše, the dog, the elephant, are as conscious of their identity as we are. They think, dream, remember, 
argue with themselves, devise, pian, and reason. What is the intellect and intelligence of the man but 
the intellect of the animal in a higher degree or larger quantity?" In the reál explanation of a single 
thought of a dog, all metaphysics will be condensed. 

And with still more terrible significance, the Voice asks, in what respect the masses of men, the vast 
swarms of the human race, háve proven themselves either wiser or better than the animals in whose 

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eyes a higher intelligence shines than in their duli, unintellectural orbs; in what respect they háve 
pro ven themselves worthy of or suited for an immortal life. Would that be a prize of any value to the 
vast majority? Do they show, here upon earth, any capacity to improve, any fitness for a statě of 
existence in which they could not crouch to power, like hounds dreading the lash, or tyrannize over 
defenceless weakness;in which they could not hatě, and persecute, and torture, and exterminate; in 
which they could not trade, and speculate, and over-reach, and entrap the unwary and cheat the 
confiding and gamble and thrive, and sniff with šelf righteousness at the short-comings of others, and 
thank God that they were not like other men? What, to immense numbers of men, would be the value 
of a Heaven where they could not lie and libel, and ply base avocations for profitable returns? 

Sádly we look around us, and read the gloomy and dreary records of the old dead and rotten ages. More 
than eighteen centuries háve staggered away into the spectral realm of the Past, since Christ, teaching 
the Religion of Love, was crucified, that it might become a Religion of Hatě; and His Doctrines are not 
yet even nominally accepted as true by a fourth of mankind. Since His death, what incalculable swarms 
of human beings háve lived and died in total unbelief of all that we deem essential to Salvation! What 
multitudinous myriads of souls, since the darkness of idolatrous superstition settled down, thick and 
impenetrable, upon the earth, háve flocked up toward the eternal Throne of God, to receive His 

The Religion of Love proved to be, for seventeen long centuries, as much the Religion of Hatě, and 
infinitely more the Religion of Persecution, than Mahometanism, its unconquerable rival. Heresies 
grew up before the Apostles died; and God hated the Nicolaitans, while John, at Patmos, proclaimed 
His coming wrath. Sects wrangled, and each, as it gained the power, persecuted the other, until the soil 
of the whole Christian world was watered with the blood, and fattened on the flesh, and whitened with 
the bones, of martyrs, and human ingenuity was taxed to its utmost to invent new modes by which 
tortures and agonies could be prolonged and made more exquisite. "By what right," whispers the Voice, 
"does this savage, merciless, persecuting animal, to which the sufferings and writhings of others of its 
wretched kind furnish the most pleasurable sensations, and the mass of which care only to eat, sleep, be 
clothed, and wallow in sensual pleasures, and the best of which wrangle, hatě, envy, and, with few 
exceptions, regard their own interests alone,- with what right does it endeavor to delude itself into the 
conviction that it is not an animal, as the wolf, the hyena, and the tiger are but a somewhat nobler, a 
spirit destined to be immortal, a spark of the essential Light, Fire and Reason, which are God? What 
other immortality than one of selfishness could this creature enjoy? Of what other is it capable? Must 
not immortality commence here and is not life a part of it? How shall death change the base nature of 
the base soul? Why háve not those other animals that only faintly imitate the wanton, savage, human 
cruelty and thirst for blood, the samé right as man has, to expect a resurrection and an Eternity of 
existence, or a Heaven of Love? 

The world improves. Man ceases to persecute, when the persecuted become too numerous and strong, 
longer to submit to it. That source of pleasure closed, men exercise the ingenuities of their cruelty on 

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the animals and other living things below them. To deprive other creatures of the life which God gave 
them, and this not only that we may eat their flesh for food, but out of mere savage wantonness, is the 
agreeable employment and amusement of man, who prides himself on being the Lord of Creation, and 
a little lower than the Angels. If he can no longer use the rack, the gibbet, the pincers, and the stake, he 
can hatě, and slander, and delight in the thought that he will, hereafter, luxuriously enjoying the sensual 
beatitudes of Heaven, see with pleasure the writhing agonies of those justly damned for daring to hold 
opinions contrary to his own, upon subjects totally beyond the comprehension both of them and him. 

Where the armies of the despots cease to slay and ravage, the armies of "Freedom" také their pláce, 
and, the black and white commingled, slaughter and burn and ravish. Each age re-enacts the crimes as 
well as the follies of its predecessors, and still war licenses outrage and turns fruitful lands into deserts, 
and God is thanked in the Churches for bloody hutcheries, and the remorse- less devastators, even when 
swollen by plunder, are crowned with laurels and receive ovations. 

Of the whole of mankind, not one in ten thousand has any aspirations beyond the daily needs of the 
gross animal life. In this age and in all others, all men except a few, in most countries, are born to be 
mere beasts of burden, co-laborers with the horše and the ox. Profoundly ignorant, even in "civilized" 
lands, they think and reason like the animals by the side of which they toil. For them, God, Soul, Spirit, 
Immortality, are mere words, without any reál meaning. The God of nineteen-twentieths of the 
Christian world is only Bel, Moloch, Zeus, or at best Osiris, Mithras, or Adonai, under another name, 
worshipped with the old Pagan ceremonies and ritualistic formulas. It is the Statue of Olympian Jove, 
worshipped as the Father, in the Christian Church that was a Pagan Temple; it is the Statue of Venus, 
become the Virgin Mary. For the most part, men do not in their hearts believe that God is either just or 
merciful. They fear and shrink from His lightnings and dread His wrath. For the most part, they only 
think they believe that there is another life, a judgment, and a punishment for sin. Yet they will none the 
less persecute as Infidels and Atheists those who do not believe what they themselves imagine they 
believe, and which yet they do not believe, because it is incomprehensible to them in their ignorance 
and want of intellect. To the vast majority of mankind, God is but the reflected image, in infinite space, 
of the earthly Tyrant on his Throne, only more powerful, more inscrutable, and more implacable. To 
curse Humanity, the Despot need only be, what the popular mind has, in every age, imagined God. 

In the great cities, the lower strata of the populace are equally without faith and without hope. The 
others háve, for the most part, a mere blind faith, imposed by education and circumstances, and not as 
productive of moral excellence or even common honesty as Mohammedanism. "Your property will be 
safe here," said the Moslem; "There are no Christians here." The philosophical and scientific world 
becomes daily more and more unbelieving. Faith and Reason are not opposites, in equilibrium; but 
antagonistic and hostile to each other; the result being the darkness and despair of scepticism, avowed, 
or half-veiled as rationalism. 

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Over more than three-fourths of the habitable globe, humanity still kneels, like the camels, to také upon 
itself the burthens to be tamely borne for its tyran ts. If a Republic occasionally rises like a Star, it 
hastens with all speed to set in blood. The kings need not make war upon it, to crush it out of their way. 
It is only necessary to let it alone, and it soon lays violent hands upon itself. And when a people long 
enslaved shake off its fetters, it may well be incredulously asked, 

Shall the braggart shout For some blind glimpse of Freedom, link itself, Through madness, hated by the 
wise, to law, System and Empire? 

Everywhere in the world labor is, in some shape, the slavě of capital; generally, a slavě to be fed only so 
long as he can work; or, rather, only so long as his work is profitable to the owner of the human chattel. 
There are famines in Ireland, strikes and starvation in England, pauperism and tenement-dens in New 
York, misery, squalor, ignorance, destitution, the brutality of vice and the insensibility to shame, of 
despairing beggary, in all the human cesspools and sewers everywhere. Here, a sewing-woman 
famishes and freezes; there, mothers murder their children, that those spared may live upon the bread 
purchased with the burial allowances of the dead starveling; and at the next dooř young girls prostitute 
themselves for food. 

Moreover, the Voice says, this besotted race is not satisfied with seeing its multitudes swept away by the 
great epidemics whose causes are unknown, and of the justice or wisdom of which the human mind 
cannot conceive. It must also be ever at war. There has not been a moment since men divided into 
Tribes, when all the world was at peace. Always men háve been engaged in murdering each other 
somewhere. Always the armies háve lived by the toil of the husbandman, and war has exhausted the 
resources, wasted the energies, and ended the prosperity of Nations. Now it loads unborn posterity 
with crushing debt, mortgages all estates, and brings upon States the shame and infamy of dishonest 

At times, the baleful fires of war light up half a Continent at once; as when all the Thrones unitě to 
compel a people to receive again a hated and detestable dynasty, or States děny States the right to 
dissolve an irksome union and create for themselves a seperate government. Then again the flames 
flicker and die away, and the fire smoulders in its ashes, to break out again, after a time, with renewed 
and a more concentrated fůry. At times, the storm, revolving, howls over small areas only; at times its 
lights are seen, like the old beacon-fires on the hills, belting the whole globe. No sea, but hears the roar 
of cannon; no river, but runs red with blood; no plain, but shakes, trampled by the hoofs of charging 
squadrons; no field, but is fertilized by the blood of the dead; and everywhere man slays, the vulture 
gorges and the wolf howls in the ear of the dying soldier. No city is not tortured by shot and shell; and 
no people fail to enact the horrid blasphemy of thanking a God of Love for victories and carnage. Te 
Deums are still sung for the Eve of St. Bartholomew and the Sicilian Vespers. Man's ingenuity is 
racked, and all his inventive powers are tasked, to fabricate the infernal enginery of destruction, by 

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which human bodies may be the more expeditiously and effectually crushed, shattered, torn, and 
mangled; and yet hypocritical Humanity, drunk with blood and drenched with gore, shrieks to Heaven 
at a single murder, perpetrated to gratify a revenge not more unchristian, or to satisfy a cupidity not 
more ignoble, than those which are the promptings of the Devil in the souls of Nations. 

When we háve fondly dreamed of Utopia and the Millennium, when we háve begun almost to believe 
that man is not, after all, a tiger half tamed, and that the smell of blood will not wake the sav- age 
within him, we are of a sudden startled from the delusive dream, to find the thin mask of civilization 
rent in twain and thrown contemptuously away. We lie down to sleep, like the peas- ant on the lava- 
slopes of Vesuvius. The mountain has been so long inert, that we believe its fires extinguished. Round 
us hang the clustering grapes, and the green leaves of the olivě tremble in the soft night-air over us. 
Above us shine the peaceful, patient stars. The crash of a new eruption wakes us, the roar of the 
subterranean thunders, the stabs of the volcanic lightning into the shrouded bosom of the sky; and we 
see, aghast, the tortured Titan hurling up its fires among the pale stars, its great tree of smoke and 
cloud, the red torrents pouring down its sides. The roar and the shriekings of Civil War are all around 
us: the land is a pandemonium: man is again a Savage. The great armies roli along their hideous waves, 
and leave behind them smoking and depopulated deserts. The pillager is in every house, plucking even 
the morsel of bread from the lips of the starving child. Gray hairs are dabbled in blood, and innocent 
girlhood shrieks in vain to Lust for mercy. Laws, Courts, Constitutions, Christianity, Mercy, Pity, 
disappear. God seems to háve abdicated, and Moloch to reign in His stead; while Press and Pulpit alike 
exult at universal murder, and urge the extermination of the Conquered, by the sword and the flaming 
torch; and to plunder and murder entitles the human beasts of prey to the thanks of Christian Senates. 

Commercial greed deadens the nerveš of sympathy of Nations, and makes them deaf to the demands of 
honor, the impulses of generosity, the appeals of those who suffer under injustice. Elsewhere, the 
universal pursuit of wealth dethrones God and pays divine honors to Mammon and Baalzebub. 
Selfishness rules supreme: to win wealth becomes the whole business of life. The villanies of legalized 
gaming and speculation become epidemie; treacery is but evidence of shrewdness; office becomes the 
prey of successful faction; the Country, like Actaeon, is torn by its own hounds, and the villains it has 
carefully educated to their trade, most greedily plunder it, when it is in extremis. 

By what right, the Voice demands, does a creature always engaged in the work of mutual robbery and 
slaughter, and who makes his own interest his God, claim to be of a nature superior to the savage beasts 
of which he is the prototype? 

Then the shadows of a horrible doubt fall upon the soul that would fain love, trust and believe; a 
darkness, of which this that surrounded you was a symbol. It doubts the truth of Revelation, its own 
spirituality, the very existence of a beneficent God. It asks itself if it is not idle to hope for any great 
progress of Humanity toward perfection, and whether, when it advances in one respect, it does not 

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retrogress in some other, by way of compensation: whether advance in civilization is not increase of 
selfishness: whether freedom does not necessarily lead to license and anarchy: whether the destitution 
and debasement of the masses does not inevitably follow increase of population and commercial and 
manufacturing prosperity. It asks itself whether man is not the sport of blind, merciless Fate: whether 
all philosophies are not delusions, and all religions the fantastic creations of human vanity and self- 
conceit; and above all, whether, when Reason is abandoned as a guide, the faith of Buddhist and 
Brahmin has not the samé claims to sovereignty and implicit, unreasoning credence, as any other. 

He asks himself whether it is not, after all, the evident and palpable injustices of this life, the success 
and prosperity of the Bad, the calamities, oppressions, and miseries of the Good, that are the bases of 
all beliefs in a future statě of existence? Doubting man's capacity for indefinite progress here, he doubts 
the possibility of it anywher; and if he does not doubt whether God exists, and is just and beneficent, he 
at least cannot silence the constantly recurring whisper, that the miseries and calamities of men, their 
lives and deaths, their pains and sorrows, their extermination by war and epidemics, are phenomena of 
no higher dignity, significance, and importance, in the eye of God, than what things of the samé nature 
occur to other organisms of matter; and that the fish of the ancient seas, destroyed by myriads to make 
room for other species, the contorted shapes in which they are found as fossils testifying to their 
agonies; the coral insects, the animals and birds and vermin slain by man, háve as much right as he to 
clamor at the injustice of the dispensations of God, and to demand an immortality of life in a new 
universe, as compensation for their pains and sufferings and untimely death in this world. 

This is not a picture painted by the imagination. Many a thoughtful mind has so doubted and despaired. 
How many of us can say that our own faith is so well grounded and complete that we nevěr hear those 
painful whisperings within the soul? Thrice blessed are they who nevěr doubt, who ruminate in patient 
contentment like the kině, or doze under the opiáte of a blind faith; on whose souls nevěr rests that 
Awful Shadow which is the absence of the Divine Light. 

To explain to themselves the existence of Evil and Suffering, the Ancient Persians imagined that there 
were two Principles or Deities in the Universe, the one of Good and the other of Evil, constantly in 
conflict with each other in struggle for the mastery and alternately overcoming and overcome. Over 
both, for the SAGES, was the One Supreme; and for them Light was in the end to prevail over 
Darkness, the Good over the Evil, and even Ahriman and his Demons to part with their wicked and 
vicious natures and share the universal Salvation. It did not occur to them that the existence of the Evil 
Principle, by the consent of the Omnipotent Supreme, presented the samé difficulty, and left the 
existence of Evil as unexplained as before. The human mind is always content, if it can remove a 
difficulty a step further off. It cannot believe that the world rests on nothing, but is devoutly content 
when taught that it is borne on the back of an immense elephant, who himself stands on the back of a 
tortoise. Given the tortoise, Faith is always satisfied; and it has been a great source of happiness to 
multitudes that they could believe in a Devil who could relieve God of the odium of being the Author of 

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But not to all is Faith sufficient to overcome this great difficulty. They say, with the Suppliant, "Lord! I 
believe!" but like him they are constrained to add, "Help Thou my unbelief!" Reason must, for these, 
co-operate and coincide with Faith, or they remain still in the darkness of doubt, most miserable of all 
conditions of the human mind. 

Those only, who care for nothing beyond the interests and pursuits of this life, are uninterested in these 
great Problems. The animals, also, do not consider them. It is the characteristic of an immortal Soul, 
that it should seek to satisfy itself of its immortality, and to understand this great enigma, the Universe. 
If the Hottentot and the Papuan are not troubled and tortured by these doubts and speculations, they are 
not, for that, to be regarded as either wise or fortunate. The swine, also, are indifferent to the great 
riddles of the Universe, and are happy in being wholly unaware that it is the vast Revelation and 
Manifestation, in Time and Space, of a Single Thought of the Infinite God. 

Exalt and magnify Faith as we will, and say that it begins where Reason ends, it must, after all, háve a 
foundation, either in Reason, Analogy, the Consciousness, or human testimony. The worshipper of 
Brahma also has implicit Faith in what seems to us palpably falše and absurd. His faith rests neither in 
Reason, Analogy, or the Consciousness, but on the testimony of his Spirituál teachers, and of the Holý 
Books. The Moslem also believes, on the positive testimony of the Prophet and the Mormon also can 
say, "I believe this, because it is impossible." No faith, how- ever absurd or degrading, has ever wanted 
these foundations, testimony, and the books. Miracles, proven by unimpeachable testimony háve been 
ušed as a foundation for Faith, in every age; and the modern miracles are better authenticated, a 
hundred times, than the ancient ones. 

So that, after all, Faith must flow out from some source within us, when the evidence of that which we 
are to believe is not presented to our senses, or it will in no čase be the assurance of the truth of what is 

The Consciousness, or inhering and innate conviction, or the instinct divinely implanted, of the verity 
of things, is the highest possible evidence, if not the only reál proof, of the verity of certain things, but 
only of truths of a limited class. 

What we call the Reason, that is, our imperfect human reason, not only may, but assuredly will, lead us 
away from the Truth in regard to things invisible and especially those of the Infinite, if we determine to 
believe nothing but that which it can demonstrate or not to believe that which it can by its processes of 
logic prove to be contradictory, unreasonable, or absurd. Its tape-line cannot measure the arcs of 
Infinity. For example, to the Human reason, an Infinite Justice and an Infinite Mercy or Love, in the 
samé Being, are inconsistent and impossible. One, it can demonstrate, necessarily excludes the other. 

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So it can demonstrate that as the Creation had a beginning, it necessarily follows that an Eternity had 
elapsed before the Deity began to create, during which He was inactive. 

When we gáze, of a moonless clear night, on the Heavens glittering with stars, and know that each fixed 
stár of all the myriads is a Sun, and each probably possessing its retinue of worlds, all peopled with 
living beings, we sensibly feel our own unimportance in the scale of Creation, and at once reflect that 
much of what has in different ages been religious faith, could nevěr háve been believed, if the nature, 
size, and distance of those Suns, and of our own Sun, Moon, and Planets, had been known to the 
Ancients as they are to us. 

To them, all the lights of the firmament were created only to give light to the earth, as its lamps or 
candles hung above it. The earth was supposed to be the only inhabited portion of the Universe. The 
world and the Universe were synonymous terms. Of the immense size and distance of the heavenly 
bodies, men had no conception. The Sages had, in Chaldaea, Egypt, India, China, and in Persia, and 
therefore the sages always had, an esoteric creed, taught only in the mysteries and unknown to the 
vulgar. No Sage, in either country, or in Greece or Róme, believed the popular creed. To them the Gods 
and the Idols of the Gods were symbols, and symbols of great and mysterious truths. 

The Vulgar imagined the attention of the Gods to be continually centred upon the earth and man. The 
Grecian Divinities inhabited Olympus, an insignificant mountain of the Earth. There was the Court of 
Zeus, to which Neptune came from the Sea, and Pluto and Persephone from the glooms of Tartarus in 
the unfathomable depths of the Earth's bosom. 

God came down from Heaven and on Sinai dictated laws for the Hebrews to His servant Moses. The 
Stars were the guardians of mortals whose fates and fortunes were to be read in their movements, 
conjunctions, and oppositions. The Moon was the Bride and Sister of the Sun, at the samé distance 
above the Earth, and, like the Sun, made for the service of mankind alone. 

If, with the great telescope of Lord Rosse, we examine the vast nebulae of Hercules, Orion, and 
Andromeda, and find them resolvable into Stars more numerous than the sands on the seashore; if we 
reflect that each of these Stars is a Sun, like and even many times larger than ours, each, beyond a 
doubt, with its retinue of worlds swarming with life; if we go further in imagination and endeavor to 
conceive of all the infinities of space, filled with similar suns and worlds, we seem at once to shrink 
into an incredible insignificance. 

The Universe, which is the uttered Word of God, is infinite in extent. There is no empty space beyond 
creation on any side. The Universe, which is the Thought of God pronounced, nevěr was not, since God 
nevěr was inert; nor WAS, without thinking and creating. The forms of creation change, the suns and 

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worlds live and die like the leaves and the insects, but the Universe itself is infinite and eternal, because 
God Is, Was and Will forever Be, and nevěr did not think and create. 

Reason is fain to admit that a Supreme Intelligence, infinitely powerful and wise, must háve created this 
boundless Universe; but it also tells us that we are as unimportant in it as the zoophytes and entozoa, or 
as the invisible particles of animated life that float upon the air or swarm in the water-drop. 

The foundations of our faith, resting upon the imagined interest of God in our race, an interest easily 
supposable when man believed himself the only intelligent created being, and therefore eminenťiy 
worthy the especial care and watchful anxiety of a God who had only this earth to look after, and its 
house-keeping alone to superintend, and who was content to create, in all the infinite Universe, only 
one single being, possessing a soul, and not a mere animal, are rudely shaken as the Universe broadens 
and expands for us and the darkness of doubt and distrust settles heavy upon Soul. 

The modes in which it is ordinarily endeavored to satisfy our doubts, only increase them. To 
demonstrate the necessity for a cause of the creation, is equally to demonstrate the necessity of a cause 
for that cause. The argument from pian and design only removes the difficulty a step further off. We 
rest the world on the elephant, and the elephant on the tortoise, and the tortoise on nothing. 

To telí us that the animals possess instinct only and that Reason belongs to us alone, in no way tends to 
satisfy us of the radical difference between us and them. For if the mental phenomena exhibited by 
animals that think, dream, remember, argue from cause to effect, pian, devise, combine, and 
communicate their thoughts to each other, so as to act rationally in concert, if their love, hatě, and 
revenge, can be conceived of as results of the organization of matter, like color and perfume, the resort 
to the hypothesis of an immaterial Soul to explain phenomena of the samé kind, only more perfect, 
manifested by the human being, is supremely absurd. That organized matter can think or even feel, at 
all, is the great insoluble mystery. "Instinct" is but a word without a meaning, or else it means 
inspiration. It is either the animal itself, or God in the animal, that thinks, remembers, and reasons and 
instinct, according to the common acceptation of the term, would be the greatest and most wonderful of 
mysteries, no less a thing than the direct, immediate, and continual promptings of the Deity, for the 
animals are not machines, or automata moved by springs, and the ape is but a dumb Australian. 

Must we always remain in this darkness of uncertainty, of doubt? Is there no mode of escaping from 
the labyrinth except by means of a blind faith, which explains nothing, and in many creeds, ancient and 
modern, sets Reason at defiance, and leads to the belief either in a God without a Universe, a Universe 
without a God, or a Universe which is itself a God? 

We read in the Hebrew Chronicles that Schlomoh the wise King caused to be placed in front of the 
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entrance to the Temple two huge columns of bronze, one of which was called YAKAYIN and the other 
BAHAZ; and these words are rendered in our version Strength and Establishment. The Masonry of the 
Blue Lodges gives no explanation of these symbolic columns; nor do the Hebrew Books advise us that 
they were symbolic. If not so intended as symbols, they were subsequently understood to be such. 

But as we are certain that everything within the Temple was symbolic, and that the whole structure was 
intended to represent the Universe, we may reasonably conclude that the columns of the portico also 
had a symbolic signification. It would be tedious to repeat all the interpretations which fancy or 
dullness has found for them. 

The key to their true meaning is not undiscoverable. The perfect and eternal distinction of the two 
primitive terms of the creative syllogism, in order to attain to the demonstration of their harmony by the 
analogy of contraries, is the second grand principle of that occult philosophy veiled under the name 
"Kabalah," and indicated by all the sacred hieroglyphs of the Ancient Sanctuaries, and of the rites, so 
little understood by the mass of the Initiates, of the Ancient and Modern FreeMasonry. 

The Sohar declares that everything in the Universe proceeds by the mystery of "the Balance," that is, of 
Equilibrium. Of the Sephiroth, or Divine Emanations, Wisdom and Understanding, Severity and 
Benignity, or Justice and Mercy, and Victory and Glory, constitute pairs. 

Wisdom, or the Intellectual Generative Energy, and Understanding, or the Capacity to be impregnated 
by the Active Energy and produce intellection or thought, are represented symbolically in the Kabalah 
as male and female. So also are Justice and Mercy. Strength is the intellectual Energy or Activity; 
Establishment or Stability is the intellectual Capacity to produce, a Tpassivity. They are the POWER of 
generation and the CAPACITY of production. By WISDOM, it is said, God creates, and by 
UNDERSTANDING establishes. These are the two Columns of the Temple, contraries like the Man 
and Woman, like Reason and Faith, Omnipotence and Liberty, Infinite Justice and Infinite Mercy, 
Absolute Power or Strength to do even what is most unjust and unwise, and Absolute Wisdom that 
makes it impossible to do it; Right and Duty. They were the columns of the intellectual and moral 
world, the monumental hieroglyph of the antinomy necessary to the grand law of creation. 

There must be for every Force a Resistance to support it, to every light a shadow, for every Royalty a 
Realm to govern, for every affirmative a negative. 

For the Kabalists, Light represents the Active Principle, and Darkness or Shadow is analogous to the 
Passive Principle. Therefore it was that they made of the Sun and Moon emblems of the two Divine 
Sexes and the two creative forces; therefore, that they ascribed to woman the Temptation and the first 
sin, and then the first labor, the maternal labor of the redemption, because it is from the bosom of the 

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darkness itself that we see the Light born again. The Void attracts the Full; and so it is that the abyss of 
poverty and misery, the Seeming Evil, the seeming empty nothingness of life, the temporary rebellion 
of the creatures, eternally attracts the overflowing oceán of being, of riches, of pity, and of love. Christ 
completed the Atonement on the Cross by descending into Hell. 

Justice and Mercy are contraries. If each be infinite, their co-existence seems impossible, and being 
equal, one cannot even annihilate the other and reign alone. The mysteries of the Divine Nature are 
beyond our finite comprehension; but so indeed are the mysteries of our own finite nature; and it is 
certain that in all nature harmony and movement are the result of the equilibrium of opposing or 
contrary forces. 

The analogy of contraries gives the solution of the most interesting and most difficult problém of 
modern philosophy, the definite and permanent accord of Reason and Faith, of Authority and Liberty of 
examination, of Science and Belief, of Perfection in God and Imperfection in Man. If science or 
knowledge is the Sun, Belief is the Man; it is a reflection of the day in the night. Faith is the veiled Isis, 
the Supplement of Reason, in the shadows which precede or follow Reason. It emanates from the 
Reason, but can nevěr confound it nor be confounded with it. The encroachments of Reason upon Faith, 
or of Faith on Reason, are eclipses of the Sun or Moon; when they occur, they make useless both the 
Source of Light and its reflection, at once. 

Science perishes by systems that are nothing but beliefs and Faith succumbs to reasoning. For the two 
Columns of the Temple to uphold the edifice, they must remain separated and be parallel to each other. 
As soon as it is attempted by violence to bring them together, as Samson did, they are overturned, and 
the whole edifice falls upon the head of the rash blind man or the revolutionist whom personál or 
national resentments háve in advance devoted to death. 

Harmony is the result of an alternating preponderance of forces. Whenever this is wanting in 
government, government is a failure, because it is either Despotism or Anarchy. All theoretical 
governments, however plausible the theory, end in one or the other. Governments that are to endure are 
not made in the closet of Locke or Shaftesbury, or in a Congress or a Convention. In a Republic, forces 
that seem contraries, that indeed are contraries, alone give movement and life. The Spheres are field in 
their orbits and made to revolve harmoniously and unerringly, by the concurrence, which seems to be 
the opposition, of two contrary forces. If the centripetal force should overcome the centrifugal, the 
equilibrium of forces cease, the rush of the Spheres to the centrál Sun would annihilate the systém. 
Instead of consolidation, the whole would be shattered into fragments. 

Man is a free agent, though Omnipotence is above and all around him. To be free to do good, he must 
be free to do evil. The Light necessitates the Shadow. A State is free like an individual in any 

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government worthy of the name. The State is less potent than the Deity, and therefore the freedom of 
the individual citizen is consistent with its Sovereignty. These are opposites, but not antagonistic. So, 
in a union of States, the freedom of the states is consistent with the Supremacy of the Nation. When 
either obtains the permanent mastery over the other, and they cease to be in equilibrio, the 
encroachment continues with a velocity that is accelerated like that of a falling body, until the feebler is 
annihilated, and then, there being no resistance to support the stronger, it rushes into ruin. 

So, when the equipoise of Reason and Faith, in the individual or the Nation, and the alternating 
preponderance cease, the result is, according as one or the other is permanent victor, Atheism or 
Superstition, disbelief or blind credulity; and the Priests either of Unfaith or of Faith become despotic. 

"Whomsoever God loveth, him he chasteneth," is an expression that formulates a whole dogma. The 
trials of life are the blessings of life, to the individual or the Nation, if either has a Soul that is truly 
worthy of salvation. "Light and darkness," said ZOROASTER, "are the worlďs eternal ways." The 
Light and the Shadow are everywhere and always in proportion; the Light being the reason of being of 
the Shadow. It is by trials only, by the agonies of sorrow and the sharp disciplině of adversities, that 
men and Nations attain initiation. The agonies of the garden of Gethsemane and those of the Cross on 
Calvary preceded the Resurrection and were the means of Redemption. It is with prosperity that God 
afflicts Humanity. 

The Degree of Rose is devoted to and symbolizes tne finál triumph of truth over falsehood, of liberty 
over slavery, of light over darkness, of life over death, and of good over evil. The great truth it 
inculcates is, that notwithstanding the existence of Evil, God is infinitely wise, just, and good: that 
though the affairs of the world proceed by no rule of right and wrong known to us in the narrowness of 
our views, yet all is right, for it is the work of God; and all evils, all miseries, all misfortunes, are but as 
drops in the vast current that is sweeping onward, guided by Him, to a great and magnificent result: 
that, at the appointed time, He will redeem and regenerate the world, and the Principle, the Power, and 
the existence of Evil will then cease; that this will be brought about by such means and instruments as 
He chooses to employ; whether by the merits of a Redeemer that has already appeared, or a Messiah 
that is yet waited for, by an incarnation of Himself, or by an inspired prophet, it does not belong to us as 
Masons to decide. Let each judge and believe for himself. 

In the mean time, we labor to hasten the coming of that day. The morals of antiquity, of the law of 
Moses and of Christianity, are ours. We recognize every teacher of Morality, every Reform- er, as a 
brother in this great work. The Eagle is to us the symbol of Liberty, the Compasses of Equality, the 
Pelican of Humanity and our order of Fraternity. Laboring for these, with Faith, Hope, and Charity as 
our armor, we will wait with patience for the finál triumph of Good and the complete manifestation of 
the Word of God. 

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No one Mason has the right to measure for another, within the walls of a Masonic Temple, the degree 
of veneration which he shall feel for any Reformer, or the Founder of any Religion. We teach a belief in 
no particular creed, as we teach unbelief in none. Whatever higher attributes the Founder of the 
Christian Faith may, in our belief, háve had or not háve had, none can děny that He taught and practised 
a pure and elevated morality, even at the risk and to the ultimate loss of His life. He was not only the 
benefactor of a disinherited people, but a model for mankind. Devotedly He loved the children of Israel. 
To them He came, and to them alone He preached that Gospel which His disciples afterward carried 
among foreigners. He would fain háve freed the chosen People from their spirituál bondage of 
ignorance and degradation. As a lover of all mankind, laying down His life for the emancipation of His 
Brethren, He should be to all, to Christian, to Jew, and to Mahometan, an object of gratitude and 

The Roman world felt the pangs of approaching dissolution. Paganism, its Temples shattered by 
Socrates and Cicero, had spoken its last word. The God of the Hebrews was unknown beyond the limits 
of Palestině. The old religions had failed to give happiness and peace to the world. The babbling and 
wrangling philosophers had confounded all men's ideas, until they doubted of everything and had faith 
in nothing: neither in God nor in his goodness and mercy, nor in the virtue of man, nor in themselves. 
Mankind was divided into two great classes, the master and the slavě; the powerful and the abject, the 
high and the low, the tyrants and the mob; and even the former were satiated with the servility of the 
latter, sunken by lassitude and despair to the low- est depths of degradation. 

When, lo, a voice, in the inconsiderable Roman Province of Judea proclaims a new Gospel a new 
"Goďs Word," to crushed, suffering, bleeding humanity. Liberty of Thought, Equality of all men in the 
eye of God, universal Fraternity! a new doctrine, a new religion; the old Primitive Truth uttered once 

Man is once more taught to look upward to his God. No longer to a God hid in impenetrable mystery, 
and infinitely remote from human sympathy, emerging only at intervals from the darkness to smite and 
crush humanity: but a God, good, kind, beneficent, and merciful; a Father, loving the creatures He has 
made, with a love immeasurable and exhaustless; Who feels for us, and sympathizes with us, and sends 
us pain and want and disaster only that they may serve to develop in us the virtues and excellences that 
befit us to live with Him hereafter. 

Jesus of Nazareth, the "Son of man," is the expounder of the new Law of Love. He calls to Him the 
humble, the poor, the Paraihs of the world. The first sentence that He pronounces blesses the world, 
and announces the new gospel: "Blessed are they that mourn for they shall be comforted." He pours the 
oil of consolation and peace upon every crushed and bleeding heart. Every sufferer is His proselyte. He 
shares their sorrows, and sympathizes with all their afflictions. 

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He raises up the sinner and the Samaritán woman, and teaches them to hope for forgiveness. He 
pardons the woman taken in adultery. He selects his disciples not among the Pharisees or the 
Philosophers, but among the low and humble, even of the fishermen of Galilee. He heals the sick and 
feeds the poor. He lives among the destitute and the friendless. "Suffer little children," He said, "to 
come unto me; for of such is the kingdom of Heaven! Blessed are the humble-minded, for theirs is the 
kingdom of Heaven; the meek, for they shall inherit the Earth; the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy; 
the pure in heart, for they shall see God; the peace-makers, for they shall be called the children of God! 

First be reconciled to they brother, and then come and offer thy gift at the altar. Give to him that asketh 
thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not away! Love your enemies; bless them that curse 
you; do good to them that hatě you; and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you! 
All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye also unto them; for this is the law and 
the Prophets! He that taketh not his cross, and followeth after Me, is not worthy of Me. A new 
commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another: as I háve loved you, that ye also love one 
another: by this shall all know that ye are My disciples. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man 
lay down his life for his friend." 

The Gospel of Love He sealed with His life. The cruelty of the Jewish Priesthood, the ignorant ferocity 
of the mob, and the Roman indifference to barbarian blood, nailed Him to the cross, and He expired 
uttering blessings upon humanity. 

Dying thus, He bequeathed His teachings to man as an inestimable inheritance. Perverted and 
corrupted, they háve served as a basis for many creeds, and been even made the warrant for in- 
tolerance and persecution. We here teach them in their purity. They are our Masonry; for to them good 
men of all creeds can subscribe. 

That God is good and merciful, and loves and sympathizes with the creatures He has made; that His 
finger is visible in all the movements of the moral, intellectual, and materiál universe; that we are His 
children, the objects of His paternal care and regard; that all men are our brothers, whose wants we are 
to supply, their errors to pardon, their opinions to tolerate, their injuries to for- give; that man has an 
immortal soul, a free will, a right to freedom of thought and action; that all men are equal in Goďs 
sight; that we best serve God by humility, meekness, gentleness, kind- ness, and the other virtues which 
the lowly can practise as well as the lofty; this is "the new Law," the "WORD," for which the world had 
waited and pined so long; and every true Knight of the Rose + will revere the memory of Him who 
taught it, and look indulgently even on those who assign to Him a character far above his own 
conceptions or belief, even to the extent of deeming Him Divine. 

Hear Philo, the Greek Jew. "The contemplative soul, unequally guided, sometimes toward abundance 
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and sometimes toward barrenness, though ever advancing, is illuminated by the primitive ideas, the rays 
that emanate from the Divine Intelligence, whenever it ascends toward the Sublime Treasures. When, 
on the contrary, it descends, and is barren, it falls within the domain of those Intelligences that are 
termed Angels for, when the soul is deprived of the light of God, which leads it to the knowledge of 
things, it no longer enjoys more than a feeble and secondary light, which gives it, not the understanding 
of things, but that of words only, as in this baser world. " 

"Let the narrow-souled withdraw, having their ears sealed up! We communicate the divine mysteries to 
those only who háve received the sacred initiation, to those who practise true piety and who are not 
enslaved by the empty pomp of words, or the doctrines of the pagans." 

"O, ye Initiates, ye whose ears are purified, receive this in your souls, as a mystery nevěr to be lost! 
Reveal it to no Profane! Keep and contain it within yourselves, as an incorruptible treasure, not like 
gold or silver, but more precious than everything besides; for it is the knowledge of the Great Cause, of 
Nature, and of that which is born of both. And if you meet an Initiate, besiege him with your prayers, 
that he conceal from you no new mysteries that he may know, and rest not until you háve obtained 
them! For me, although I was initiated in the Great Mysteries by Moses, the Friend of God, yet, having 
seen Jeremiah, I recognized him not only as an Initiate, but as a Hierophant; and I follow his school." 

We, like him, recognize all Initiates as our Brothers. We belong to no one creed or school. In all 
religions there is a basis of Truth; in all there is pure Morality. All that teach the cardinal tenets of 
Masonry we respect; all teachers and reformers of mankind we admire and revere. 

Masonry also has her mission to perform. With her traditions reaching back to the earliest times, and 
her symbols dating further back than even the monumental history of Egypt extends, she invites all men 
of all religions to enlist under her banners and to war against evil, ignorance and wrong. You are now 
her knight, and to her service your sword is consecrated. May you prove a worthy soldier in a worthy 


The true Mason labors for the benefit of those who are to come after him, and for the advancement and 
improvement of his race. That is a poor ambition which contents itself within the limits of a single life. 
All men who deserve to live, desire to survive their funerals, and to live afterward in the good that they 
háve doně mankind, rather than in the fading characters written in men's memories. Most men desire to 
leave some work behind them that may outlast their own day and brief generation. That is an instinctive 

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impulse, given by God, and often found in the rudest human heart; the surest proof of the soiďs 
immortality, and of the fundamental difference between man and the wisest brutes. To plant the trees 
that, after we are dead, shall shelter our children, is as natural as to love the shade of those our fathers 
planted. The rudest unlettered husbandman, painfully conscious of his own inferiority, the poorest 
widowed mother, giving her life-blood to those who pay only for the work of her needle, will toil and 
stint themselves to educate their child, that he may také a higher station in the world than they; and of 
such are the worlďs greatest benefactors. 

In his influences that survive him, man becomes immortal, before the generál resurrection. The 
Spartan mother, who, giving her son his shield, said, "WITH IT, OR UPON IT!" afterward shared the 
government of Lacedaemon with the legislation of Lycurgus; for she too made a law, that lived after 
her; and she inspired the Spartan soldiery that afterward demolished the walls of Athens, and aided 
Alexander to conquer the Orient. The widow who gave Marion the fiery arrows to burn her own house, 
that it might no longer shelter the enemies of her infant country, the house where she had lain upon her 
husbanďs bosom and where her children had been born, legislated more effectually for her State than 
Locke or Shaftesbury, or than many a Legislature has doně, since that State won its freedom. 

It was of slight importance to the Kings of Egypt and the Monarchs of Assyria and Phcenicia, that the 
son of a Jewish woman, a foundling, adopted by the daughter of Sesostris Ramses, slew an Egyptian 
that oppressed a Hebrew slavě, and fled into the desert, to remain there fořty years. But Moses, who 
might other- wise háve become Regent of Lower Egypt, known to us only by a tablet on a tomb or 
monument, became the deliverer of the Jews, and led them forth from Egypt to the frontiers of 
Palestině, and made for them a law, out of which grew the Christian faith and so has shaped the 
destinies of the world. He and the old Roman lawyers, with Alfred of England, the Saxon Thanes and 
Norman Barons, the old judges and chancellors, and the makers of the canons, lost in the mists and 
shadows of the Past, these are our legislators; and we obey the laws that they enacted. 

Napoleon died upon the barren rock of his exile. His bones, borne to France by the son of a King, rest 
in the Hopital des Invalides, in the great city on the Seině. His Thoughts still govern France. He, and 
not the People, dethroned the Bourbon, and drove the last King of the House of Orleans into exile. He, 
in his coffin, and not the People, voted the crown to the Third Napoleon and he, and not the Generals of 
France and England, led their united forces against the grim Northern Despotism. 

Mahomet announced to the Arabian idolaters the new creed, "There is but one God, and Mahomet, like 
Moses and Christ, is His Apostle." For many years unaided, then with the help of his family and a few 
friends, then with many disciples, and last of all with an army, he taught and preached the Korán. The 
religion of the wild Arabian enthusiast converting the fiery Tribes of the Great Desert, spread over 
Asia, built up the Saracenic dynasties, conquered Persia and India, the Greek Empire, Northern Africa, 
and Spain, and dashed the surges of its fierce soldiery against the battlements of Northern Christendom. 

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The law of Mahomet still governs a fourth of the human race; and Turk and Arab, Moor and Persian 
and Hindu, still obey the Prophet, and pray with their faces turned toward Mecca; and he, and not the 
living, rules and reigns in the fairest portions of the Orient. 

Confucius still enacts the law for China; and the thoughts and ideas of Peter the Great govern Russia. 
Plato and the other great Sages of Antiquity still reign as the Kings of Philosophy, and háve dominion 
over the human intellect. The great Statesmen of the past still preside in the Councils of Nations. 
Burke still lingers in the House of Commons and Berryeťs sonorous toneš will long ring in the 
Legislativě Chambers of France. The influences of Webster and Calhoun, conflicting, rent asunder the 
American States, and the doctrine of each is the law and the oracle speaking from the Holý of Holies 
for his own State and all consociated with it: a faith preached and proclaimed by each at the cannoďs 
mouth and consecrated by rivers of blood. 

It has been well said, that when Tamerlane had builded his pyramid of fifty thousand human skulls, and 
wheeled away with his vast armies from the gates of Damascus, to find new conquests, and build other 
pyramids, a little boy was playing in the streets of Mentz, son of a poor artisan, whose apparent 
importance in the scale of beings was, compared With that of Tamerlane, as that of a grain of sand to 
the giant bulk of the earth; but Tamerlane and all his shaggy legions, that swept over the East like a 
hurricane, háve passed away, and become shadows; while printing, the wonderful invention of John 
Faust, the boy of Mentz, has exerted a greater influence on man's destinies and overturned more thrones 
and dynasties than all the victories of all the blood-stained conquerors from Nimrod to Napoleon. 

Long ages ago, the Temple built by Solomon and our Ancient Brethren sank into ruin, when the 
Assyrian Armies sacked Jerusalem. The Holý City is a mass of hovels cowering under the dominion of 
the Crescent and the Holý Land is a desert. The Kings of Egypt and Assyria, who were contemporaries 
of Solomon, are forgotten, and their histories mere fables. The Ancient Orient is a shattered wreck, 
bleaching on the shores of Time. The Wolf and the Jackal howl among the ruins of Thebes and of Tyre, 
and the sculptured images of the Temples and Palaces of Babylon and Nineveh are dug from their ruins 
and carried into strange lands. But the quiet and peaceful Order, of which the Son of a poor Phcenician 
Widow was one of the Grand Masters, with the Kings of Israel and Tyre, has continued to increase in 
stature and influence, defying the angry waves of time and the storms of persecution. Age has not 
weakened its wide foundations, nor shattered its columns, nor marred the beauty of its harmonious 
proportions. Where rudé barbarians, in the time of Solomon, peopled inhospitable howling 
wildernesses, in France and Britain, and in that New World, not known to Jew or Gentile, until the 
glories of the Orient had faded, that Order has builded new Temples, and teaches to its millions of 
Initiates those lessons of peace, good-will and toleration, of reliance on God and confidence in man, 
which it learned when Hebrew and Giblemite worked side by side on the slopes of Lebanon, and the 
Servant of Jehovah and the Phoenician Worshipper of Bel sat with the humble artisan in Council at 

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It is the Dead that govern. The Living only obey. And if the Soul sees, after death, what passes on this 
earth, and watches over the welfare of those it loves, then must its greatest happiness consist in seeing 
the current of its beneficent influences widening out from age to age, as rivulets widen into rivers, and 
aiding to shape the destinies of individuals, families, States, the World; and its bitterest punishment, in 
seeing its evil influences causing mischief and misery, and cursing and afflicting men, long after the 
frame it dwelt in has become dust, and when both name and memory are forgotten. 

We know not who among the Dead control our destinies. The universal human race is linked and bound 
together by those influences and sympathies, which in the truest sense do make men's fates. Humanity 
is the unit, of which the man is but a fraction. What other men in the Past háve doně, said, thought, 
makes the great iron network of circumstance that environs and controls us all. We také our faith on 
trust. We think and believe as the Old Lords of Thought command us; and Reason is powerless before 

We would make or annul a particular contract; but the Thoughts of the dead Judges of England, living 
when their ashes háve been cold for centuries, stand between us and that which we would do, and 
utterly forbid it. We would settle our estate in a particular way; but the prohibition of the English 
Parliament, its uttered Thought when the first or second Edward reigned, comes echoing down the long 
avenues of time, and tells us we shall not exercise the power of disposition as we wish. We would gain a 
particular advantage of another; and the thought of the old Roman lawyer who died before Justinian, or 
that of Rome's great oratoř Cicero, annihilates the act, or makes the intention ineffectual. This act, 
Moses forbids;that, Alfred. We would seli our land; but certain marks on a perishable páper telí us that 
our father or remote ancestor ordered otherwise; and the arm of the dead, emerging from the grave, 
with peremptory gesture prohibits the alienation. About to sin or err, the thought or wish of our dead 
mother, told us when we were children, by words that died upon the air in the utterance, and many a 
long year were forgotten, flashes on our memory, and holds us back with a power that is resistless. 

Thus we obey the dead and thus shall the living, when we are dead, for weal or woe, obey us. The 
Thoughts of the Past are the Laws of the Present and the Future. That which we say and do, if its effects 
last not beyond our lives, is unimportant. That which shall live when we are dead, as part of the great 
body of law enacted by the dead, is the only act worth doing, the only Thought worth speaking. The 
desire to do something that shall benefit the world, when neither praise nor obloquy will reach us where 
we sleep soundly in the grave, is the noblest ambition entertained by man. 

It is the ambition of a true and genuine Mason. Knowing the slow processes by which the Deity brings 
about great results, he does not expect to reap as well as sow, in a single lifetime. It is the inflexible fate 
and noblest destiny, with rare exceptions, of the great and good, to work, and let others reap the harvest 
of their labors. He who does good, only to be repaid in kind, or in thanks and gratitude, or in reputation 
and the worlďs praise, is like him who loans his money, that he may, after certain months, receive it 

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back with interest. To be repaid for eminent services with slander, obloquy, or ridicule, or at best with 
stupid indifference or cold ingratitude, as it is common, so it is no misfortune, except to those who lack 
the wit to see or sense to appreciate the service, or the nobility of soul to thank and reward with eulogy, 
the benefactor of his kind. His influences live, and the great Future will obey; whether it recognize or 
disown the lawgiver. 

Miltiades was fortunate that he was exiled; and Aristides that he was ostracized, because men wearied 
of hearing him called "The Just." Not the Redeemer was unfortunate; but those only who repaid Him 
for the inestimable gift He offered them, and for a life passed in toiling for their good, by nailing Him 
upon the cross, as though He had been a slavě or malefactor. The persecutor dies and rots, and 
Posterity utters his name with execration: but his victinťs memory he has unintentionally made glorious 
and immortal. 

If not for slander and persecution, the Mason who would benefit his race must look for apathy and cold 
indifference in those who se good he seeks, in those who ought to seek the good of others. Except when 
the sluggish depths of the Human Mind are broken up and tossed as with a storm, when at the 
appointed time a great Reformer comes, and a new Faith springs up and grows with supernatural 
energy, the progress of Truth is slower than the growth of oaks and he who plants need not expect to 
gather. The Redeemer, at His death, had twelve disciples and one betrayed and one deserted and denied 
Him. It is enough for us to know that the fruit will come in its due season. When, or who shall gather 
it, it does not in the least concern us to know. It is our business to plant the seed. It is Goďs right to give 
the fruit to whom He pleases; and if not to us, then is our action by so much the more noble. 

To sow, that others may reap; to work and plant for those who are to occupy the earth when we are 
dead; to project our influences far into the future, and live beyond our time; to rule as the Kings of 
Thought, over men who are yet unborn; to bless with the glorious gifts of Truth and Light and Liberty 
those who will neither know the name of the giver, nor care in what grave his unregarded ashes repose, 
is the true office of a Mason and the proudest destiny of a man. 

All the great and beneficent operations of Nature are produced by slow and often imperceptible 
degrees. The work of destruction and devastation only is violent and rapid. The Volcano and the 
Earthquake, the Tornádo and the Avalanche, leap suddenly into full life and fearful energy, and smite 
with an unexpected blow. Vesuvius buried Pompeii and Herculaneum in a night; and Lisbon fell 
prostrate before God in a breath, when the earth rocked and shuddered; the Alpine village vanishes and 
is erased at one bound of the avalanche; and the ancient forests fall like grass be- fóre the mower, when 
the tornádo leaps upon them. Pestilence slays its thousands in a day; and the storm in a night strews the 
sand with shattered navies. 

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The Gourd of the Prophet Jonah grew up, and was withered, in a night. But many years ago, before the 
Norman Conqueror stamped his mailed foot on the neck of prostrate Saxon England, some wandering 
barbarian, of the continent then unknown to the world, in mere idleness, with hand or foot, covered an 
acorn with a little earth, and passed on regardless, on his journey to the dim Past. He died and was 
forgotten; but the acorn lay there still, the mighty force within it acting in the darkness. A tender shoot 
stole gently up; and fed by the light and air and frequent dews, put forth its little leaves, and lived, 
because the elk or buffalo chanced not to pláce his foot upon and crush it. The years marched onward, 
and the shoot became a sapling, and its green leaves went and came with Spring and Autumn. And still 
the years came and passed away again, and William, the Norman Bastard, parcelled England out among 
his Barons, and still the sapling grew, and the dews fed its leaves, and the birds builded their nests 
among its small limbs for many generations. And still the years came and went, and the Indián hunter 
slept in the shade of the sapling, and Richard Lion-Heart fought at Acre and Ascalon, and John's bold 
Barons wrested from him the Great Charter; and the sapling had become a tree; and still it grew, and 
thrust its great arms wider abroad, and lifted its head still higher toward the Heavens; strong-rooted, and 
defiant of the storms that roared and eddied through its branches; and when Columbus ploughed with 
his keels the unknown Western Atlantic, and Cortez and Pizarro bathed the cross in blood; and the 
Puritan, the Huguenot, the Cavalier, and the follower of Penn sought a refuge and a resting pláce 
beyond the oceán, the Great Oak still stood, firm-rooted, vigorous, stately, haughtily domineering over 
all the forest, heed- less of all the centuries that had hurried past since the wild Indián planted the little 
acorn in the forest; a stout and hale old tree, with wide circumference shading many a rood of ground 
and fit to furnish timbers for a ship, to carry the thunders of the Great Republiďs guns around the 
world. And yet, if one had sat and watched it every instant, from the moment when the feeble shoot 
first pushed its way to the light until the eagles built among its branches, he would nevěr háve seen the 
tree or sapling grow. 

Many long centuries ago, before the Chaldaean Shepherds watched the Stars, or Shufu built the 
Pyramids, one could háve sailed in a seventy-four where now a thousand islands gem the surface of the 
Indián Oceán; and the deep-sea lead would nowhere háve found any bottom. But below these waves 
were myriads upon myriads, beyond the power of Arithmetic to number, of minuté existences, each a 
perfect living creature, made by the AI- mighty Creator, and fashioned by Him for the work it had to do 
There they toiled beneath the waters, each doing its allotted work, and wholly ignorant of the result 
which God intended. They lived and died, incalculable in numbers and almost infinite in the 
succession of their generations, each adding his mite to the gigantic work that went on there under 
Goďs direction. Thus hath He chosen to create great Continents and Islands; and still the coral insects 
li ve and work, as when they made the rocks that underlie the valley of the Ohio. 

Thus God hath chosen to create. Where now is firm land, once chafed and thundered the great primeval 
oceán. For ages upon ages the minuté shields of infinite myriads of infusoria, and the stony stems of 
encrinites sunk into its depths, and there, under the vast pressure of its waters, hardened into limestone. 
Raised slowly from the Profound by His hand, its quarries underlie the soil of all the continents, 
hundreds of feet in thickness; and we, of these remains of the countless dead, build tombs and palaces, 

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as the Egyptians, whom we call ancient, built their pyramids. 

On all the broad lakes and oceans the Great Sun looks earnestly and lovingly, and the invisible vapors 
rise ever up to meet him. No eye but Goďs beholds them as they rise. There, in the upper atmospere, 
they are condensed to mist, and gather into clouds, and float and swim around in the ambient air. They 
sail with its currents, and hover over the oceán, and roli in huge masses round the stony shoulders of 
great mountains. Condensed still more by change of temperature, they drop upon the thirsty earth in 
gentle showers, or pour upon it in heavy rains, or storm against its bosom at the angry Equinoctial. The 
shower, the rain, and the storm pass away, the clouds vanish, and the bright stars again shine clearly 
upon the glad earth. The rain-drops sink into the ground, and gather in subterranean reservoirs, and run 
in subterranean channels, and bubble up in springs and fountains; and from the mountain-sides and 
heads of valleys the silver threads of water begin their long journey to the oceán. Uniting, they widen 
into brooks and rivulets, then into streams and rivers; and, at last, a Nile, Ganges, a Danube, an 
Amazon, or a Mississippi rolls between its banks, mighty, majestic, and resistless, creating vast alluvial 
valleys to be the granaries of the world, ploughed by the thousand keels of commerce and serving as 
great highways, and as the impassable boundaries of rival nations; ever returning to the oceán the drops 
that rose from it in vapor, and descended in rain and snow and hail upon the level plains and lofty 
mountains; and causing him to recoil for many a mile before the long rush of their great tide. 

So it is with the aggregate of Human endeavor. As the invisible particles of vapor combine and 
coalesce to form the mists and clouds that fall in rain on thirsty continents, and bless the great green 
forests and wide grassy prairies, the waving meadows and the fields by which men live; as the infinite 
myriads of drops that the glad earth drinks are gathered into springs and rivulets and rivers, to aid in 
levelling the mountains and elevating the plains, and to feed the large lakes and 

restless oceans; so all Human Thought, and Speech and Action, all that is doně and said and thought 
and suffered upon the Earth combine together, and flow onward in one broad resistless current toward 
those great results to which they are determined by the will of God. 

We build slowly and destroy swiftly. Our Ancient Brethren who built the Temples at Jerusalem, with 
many myriád blows felled, hewed, and squared the cedars, and quarried the stones, and carved the 
intricate ornaments, which were to be the Temples. Stone after stone, by the combined effort and long 
toil of Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, and Master, the walls arose; slowly the roof was framed and fashioned; 
and many years elapsed before, at length, the Houses stood finished, all fit and ready for the Worship of 
God, gorgeous in the sunny splendors of the atmosphere of Palestině. So they were built. A single 
motion of the arm of a rudé, barbarous Assyrian Spearman, or drunken Roman or Gothic Legionary of 
Titus, moved by a senseless impulse of the brutal will, flung in the blazing brand; and, with no further 
human agency, a few short hours sufficed to consume and melt each Temple to a smoking mass of black 
unsightly ruin. 

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Be patient, therefore, my Brother, and wait! The issues are with God: To do, Of right belongs to us. 

Therefore faint not, nor be weary in well-doing! Be not discouraged at men's apathy, nor disgusted with 
their follies, nor tired of their indifference! Care not for returns and results;but see only what there is to 
do, and do it, leaving the results to God! Soldier of the Cross! Sworn Knight of Justice, Truth, and 
Toleration! Good Knight and True! be patient and work! 

The Apocalypse, that sublime Kabalistic and prophetic Summary of all the occult figures, divides its 
images into three Septenaries, after each of which there is silence in Heaven. There are Seven Seals to 
be opened, that is to say, Seven mysteries to know, and Seven difficulties to overcome, Seven trumpets 
to sound, and Seven cups to empty. 

The Apocalypse is, to those who receive the nineteenth Degree, the Apothesis of that Sublime Faith 
which aspires to God alone, and despises all the pomps and works of Lucifer. LUCIFER, the Light- 
bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the 
Morning ! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual or 
selfish Souls? Doubt it not! for traditions are full of Divine Revelations and Inspirations: and 
Inspiration is not of one Age nor of one Creed. Plato and Philo, also, were inspired. 

The Apocalypse, indeed, is a book as obscure as the Sohar. 

It is written hieroglyphically with numbers and images and the Apostle often appeals to the intelligence 
of the Initiated. "Let him who hath knowledge, understand! let him who understands, calculate!" he 
often says, after an allegory or the mention of a number. Saint John, the favorite Apostle, and the 
Depositary of all the Secrets of the Saviour, therefore did not write to be undertood by the multitude. 

The Sephar Yezirah, the Sohar, and the Apocalypse are the completest embodiments of Occultism. 
They contain more meanings than words; their expressions are figurative as poetry and exact as 
numbers. The Apocalypse sums up, completes, and surpasses all the Science of Abraham and of 
Solomon. The visions of Ezekiel, by the river Chebar, and of the new Symbolic Temple, are equally 
mysterious expressions, veiled by figures of the enigmatic dogmas of the Kabalah, and their symbols 
are as little understood by the Commentators, as those of Free Masonry. 

The Septenary is the Crown of the Numbers, because it unites the Triangle of the Idea to the Square of 
the Form. 

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The more the great Hierophants were at pains to conceal their absolute Science, the more they sought to 
add grandeur to and multiply its symbols. The huge pyramids, with their triangular sides of elevation 
and square bases, represented their Metaphysics, founded upon the knowledge of Nature. That 
knowledge of Na- ture had for its symbolic key the gigantic form of that huge Sphinx, which has 
hollowed its deep bed in the sand, while keeping watch at the feet of the Pyramids. The Seven grand 
monuments called the Wonders of the World, were the magnificent Commentaries on the Seven lineš 
that composed the Pyramids, and on the Seven mystic gates of Thebes. 

The Septenary philosophy of Initiation among the Ancients may be summed up thus: 

Three Absolute Principles which are but One Principle: four elementary forms which are but one; all 
forming a Single Whole, compounded of the Idea and the Form. 

The three Principles were these: 


In Philosophy, identity of the Idea and of Being or Verity; in Religion, the first Principle, THE 


In Philosophy, identity of Knowing and of Being or Reality; in Religion, the LOGOS of Plato, the 
Demiourgos, the WORD. 


In Philosophy, identity of the Reason and Reality; in Religion, Providence, the Divine Action that 
makes reál the Good, that which in Christianity we call THE HOLÝ SPIRIT 

The union of all the Seven colors is the White, the analogous symbol of the GOOD: the absence of all 
is the Black, the analogous symbol of the EVIL. There are three primary colors, Red, Yellow, and Blue; 
and four secondary, Orange, Green, Indigo, and Violet; and all these God displays to man in the 
rainbow; and they háve their analogies also in the moral and intellectual world. The samé number, 
Seven, continually reappears in the Apocalypse, compounded of three and four; and these numbers 
relate to the last Seven of the Sephiroth, three answering to BENIGNITY or MERCY, SEVERITY or 
JUSTICE, and BEAUTY or HARMONY; and four to Netzach, Hod, Yesod, and Malakoth, VICTORY, 
GLORY, STABILITY, and DOMINATION. The samé numbers also represent the first three Sephiroth, 
KETNER, KHOKMAH, and BAINAH, or Will, Wisdom, and Understanding, which, with DAATH or 
Intellection or Thought, are also four, DAATH not being regarded as a Sephirah, not as the Deity 

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acting, or as a potency, energy, or attribute, but as the Divine Action. 

The Sephiroth are commonly figured in the Kabalah as constituting a human form, the ADAM, 
KADMON Or MACROCOSM. Thus arranged, the universal law of Equipoise is three times 
exernplified. From that of the Divine Intellectual, Active, Masculine ENERGY, and the Passive 
CAPACITY to produce Thought, the action of THINKING results. From that of BENIGNITY and 
SEVERITY, HARMONY flows; and from that of VICTORY or an Infinite overcoming, and GLORY, 
which, being Infinite, would seem to forbid the existence of obstacles or opposition, results 
STABILITY or PERMANENCE, which is the perfect DOMINION Of the Infinite WILL. 

The last nine Sephiroth are included in, at the samé time that they háve flowed forth from, the first of 
all, KETHER, or the CROWN. Each also, in succession flowed from, and yet still remains included in, 
the one preceding it. The Will of God includes His Wisdom, and His Wisdom is His Will specially 
developed and acting. This Wisdom is the LOGOS that creates, mistaken and personified by Simon 
Mágus and the succeeding Gnostics. By means of its utterance, the letter YOD, it creates the worlds, 
first in the Divine Intellect as an Idea, which invested with form became the fabricated World, the 
Universe of materiál reality. YOD and HE, two letters of the Ineffable Name of the Manifested Deity, 
represent the Male and the Female, the Active and the Passive in Equilibrium, and the VAV completes 
the Trinity and the Triliteral Name, the Divine Triangle, which with the repetion of the He becomes the 

Thus the ten Sephiroth contain all the Sacred Numbers, three, five, seven, and nine, and the perfect 
Number Ten and correspond with the Tetractys of Pythagoras. 

BEING IS BEING, Ahayah Asar Ahayah. This is the principle, the "BEGINNING." 

In the Beginning was, that is to say, IS, WAS, and WILL BE, the WORD, that is to say, the REASON 
that Speaks. 

The Word is the reason of belief, and in it also is the expression of the Faith which makes Science a 
living thing. The Word, is the Source of Logic. Jesus is the Word Incarnate. The accord of the Reason 
with Faith, of Knowledge with Belief, of Authority with Liberty, has become in modern times the 
veritable enigma of the Sphinx. 

It is WISDOM that, in the Kabalistic Books of the Proverbs and Ecclesiasticus, is the Creative Agent of 
God. Elsewhere in the Hebrew writings it is Debar Iahavah, the Word of God. 

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It is by His uttered Word that God reveals Himself to us; alone in the visible and invisible but 
intellectual creation, but in our convictions, consciousness, and instincts. Hence it is that! certain 
beliefs are universal. The conviction of all men that God is good led to a belief in a Devil, the fallen 
Lucifer or Lightbearer, Shaitan the Adversary, Ahriman and Tuphon, as an at- tempt to explain the 
existence of Evil, and make it consistent with the Infinite Power, Wisdom, and Benevolence of God. 

Nothing surpasses and nothing equals, as a Summary of all the doctrines of the Old World, those brief 
words engraven by HERMES on a Stone, and known under the name of "The Tablet of Emerald:" the 
Unity of Being and the Unity of the Harmonies, ascending and descending, the progressive and 
proportional scale of the Word; the immutable law of the Equilibrium, and the proportioned progress of 
the universal analogies; the relation of the Idea to the Word, giving the measure of the relation between 
the Creator and the Created, the necessary mathematics of the Infinite, proved by the measures of a 
single corner of the Finite; all this is expressed by this single proposition of the Great Egyptian 

"What is Superior is as that which is Inferior, and what is Below is as that which is Above, to form the 
Marvels of the Unity." 


The true Mason is a practical Philosopher, who, under religious emblems, in all ages adopted by 
wisdom, builds upon plans traced by nature and reason the moral edifice of knowledge. He ought to 
find, in the symmetrical relation of all the parts of this rational edifice, the princip le and rule of all his 
duties, the source of all his pleasures. He improves his moral nature, becomes a better man, and finds in 
the reunion of virtuous men, assembled with pure views, the means of multiplying his acts of 
beneficence. Masonry and Philosophy, without being one and the samé thing, háve the samé object, and 
propose to themselves the samé end, the worship of the Grand Architect of the Universe, acquaintance 
and familiarity with the wonders of nature, and the happiness of humanity attained by the constant 
practice of all the virtues. 

As Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges, it is your especial duty to aid in restoring Masonry to its 
primitive purity. You háve become an instructor. Masonry long wandered in error. Instead of 
improving, it degenerated from its primitive simplicity, and retrograded toward a systém, distorted by 
stupidity and ignorance, which, unable to construct a beautiful machine, made a complicated one. Less 
than two hundred years ago, its organization was simple, and altogether moral, its emblems, allegories, 
and ceremonies easy to be understood, and their purpose and object readily to be seen. It was then 
confined to a very small number of Degrees. Its constitutions were like those of a Society of Essenes, 

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written in the first century of our era. There could be seen the primitive Christianity, organized into 
Masonry, the school of Pythagoras without incongruities or absurdities; a Masonry simple and 
significant, in which it was not necessary to torture the mind to discover reasonable interpretations; a 
Masonry at once religious and philosophical, worthy of a good citizen and an enlightened 

Innovators and inventors overturned that primitive simplicity. Ignorance engaged in the work of making 
Degrees, and trifles and gewgaws and pretended mysteries, absurd or hideous, usurped the pláce of 
Masonic Truth. The picture of a horrid vengeance, the poniard and the bloody head, appeared in the 
peaceful Temple of Masonry, without sufficient explanation of their symbolic meaning. Oaths out of all 
proportion with their object, shocked the candidate, and then became ridiculous, and were wholly 
disregarded. Acolytes were exposed to tests, and compelled to perform acts, which, if reál, would háve 
been abominable; but being mere chimeras, were preposterous, and excited contempt and laughter only. 
Eight hundred Degrees of one kind and another were invented: Infidelity and even Jesuitry were taught 
under the mask of Masonry. The rituals even of the respectable Degrees, copied and mutilated by 
ignorant men, became nonsensical and trivial; and the words so corrupted that it has hitherto been 
found impossible to recover many of them at all. Candidates were made to degrade themselves, and to 
submit to insults not tolerable to a man of spirit and honor. 

Hence it was that, practically, the largest portion of the Degrees claimed by the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite, and before it by the Rite of Perfection, fell into disuse, were merely communicated, and 
their rituals became jejune and insignificant. These Rites resembled those old palaces and baronial 
castles, the different parts of which, built at different periods remote from one another, upon plans and 
according to tastes that greatly varied, formed a discordant and incongruous whole. Judaism and 
chivalry, superstition and philosophy, philanthropy and insane hatred and longing for vengeance, a pure 
morality and unjust and illegal revenge, were found strangely mated and standing hand in hand within 
the Temples of Peace and Concord; and the whole systém was one grotesque commingling of 
incongruous things, of contrasts and contradictions, of shocking and fantastic extravagances, of parts 
repugnant to good taste, and fine conceptions overlaid and disfigured by absurdities engendered by 
ignorance, fanaticism, and a senseless mysticism. 

An empty and sterile pomp, impossible indeed to be carried out, and to which no meaning whatever 
was attached, with far-fetched explanations that were either so many stupid platitudes or themselves 
needed an interpreter; lofty titles, arbitrarily assumed, and to which the inventors had not condescended 
to attach any explanation that should acquit them of the foliy of assuming temporal rank, power, and 
titles of nobility, made the world laugh, and the Initiate feel ashamed. 

Some of these titles we retain; but they háve with us meanings entirely consistent with that Spirit of 
Equality which is the foundation and peremptory law of its being of all Masonry. The Knight, with us, 

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is he who devotes his hand, his heart, his brain, to the Science of Masonry, and professes himself the 
Sworn Soldier of Truth: the Prince is he who aims to be Chief [Princeps], first, leader, among his 
equals, in virtue and good deeds: the Sovereign is he who, one of an order whose members are all 
Sovereigns, is Supreme only because the law and constitutions are so, which he administers, and by 
which he, like every other brother, is governed. The titles, Puissant, Potent, Wise, and Venerable, 
indicate that power of Virtue, Intelligence, and Wisdom, which those ought to strive to attain who are 
placed in high office by the suffrages of their brethren: and all our other titles and designations háve an 
esoteric meaning, consistent with modesty and equality, and which those who receive them should fully 
understand. As Master of a Lodge it is your duty to instruct your Brethren that they are all so many 
constant lessons, teaching the lofty qualifications which are required of those who claim them, and not 
merely idle gewgaws worn in ridiculous imitation of the times when the Nobles and Priests were 
masters and the people slaves: and that, in all true Masonry, the Knight, the Pontiff, the Prince, and the 
Sovereign are but the first among their equals: and the cordon, the clothing, and the jewel but symbols 
and emblems of the virtues required of all good Masons. 

The Mason kneels, no longer to present his petition for admittance or to receive the answer, no longer to 
a man as his superior, who is but his brother, but to his God; to whom he appeals for the rectitude of his 
intentions, and whose aid he asks to enable him to keep his vows. No one is degraded by bending his 
knee to God at the altar, or to receive the honor of Knighthood as Bayard and Du Guesclin knelt. To 
kneel for other purposes, Masonry does not require. God gave to man a head to be borne erect, a port 
upright and majestic. We assemble in our Temples to cherish and inculcate sentiments that conform to 
that loftiness of bearing which the just and upright man is entitled to maintain, and we do not require 
those who desire to be admitted among us, ignominiously to bow the head. We respect man, because we 
respect ourselves that he may conceive a lofty idea of his dignity as a human being free and 
independent. If modesty is a virtue, humility and obsequiousness to man are base: for there is a noble 
pride which is the most reál and solid basis of virtue. Man should humble himself before the Infinite 
God; but not before his erring and imperfect brother. 

As Master of a Lodge, you will therefore be exceedingly careful that no Candidate, in any Degree, be 
required to submit to any degradation whatever; as has been too much the custom in some of the 
Degrees and také it as a certain and inflexible rule, to which there is no exception, that reál Masonry 
requires of no man anything to which a Knight and Gentleman cannot honorably, and without feeling 
outraged or humiliated submit. 

The Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States at length undertook the 
indispensable and long delayed task of revising and reforming the work and rituals of the Thirty 
Degrees under its jurisdiction. Retaining the essentials of the Degrees and all the means by which the 
members recognize one another, it has sought out and developed the leading idea of each Degree, 
rejected the puerilities and absurdities with which many of them were disfigured, and made of them a 
connected systém of moral, religious, and philosophical instruction. Sectarian of no creed, it has yet 

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thought it not improper to use the old allegories, based on occurrences detailed in the Hebrew and 
Christian books, and drawn from the Ancient Mysteries of Egypt, Persia, Greece, India, the Druids and 
the Essenes, as vehicles to communicate the Great Masonic Truths; as it has ušed the legends of the 
Crusades, and the ceremonies of the orders of Knighthood. 

It no longer inculcates a criminal and wicked vengeance. It has not allowed Masonry to play the 
assassin: to avenge the death either of Hiram, of Charles the lst, or of Jaques De Molay and the 
Templars. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry has now become, what Masonry at first 
was meant to be, a Teacher of Great Truths, inspired by an upright and enlightened reason, a firm and 
constant wisdom, and an affectionate and liberal philanťhropy. 

It is no longer a systém, over the composition and arrangement of the different parts of which, want of 
reflection, chance, ignorance, and perhaps motives still more ignoble presided; a systém unsuited to our 
habits, our manners, our ideas, or the world-wide philanthropy and universal toleration of Masonry; or 
to bodies small in number, whose revenues should be devoted to the reliéf of the unfortunate, and not to 
empty show; no longer a hetero- geneous aggregate of Degrees, shocking by its anachronisms and 
contradictions, powerless to disseminate light, information, and moral and philosophical ideas. 

As Master, you will teach those who are under you, and to whom you will owe your office, that the 
decorations of many of the Degrees are to be dispensed with, whenever the expense would interfere 
with the duties of charity, reliéf, and benevolence; and to be indulged in only by wealthy bodies that 
will thereby do no wrong to those entitled to their assistance. The essentials of all the Degrees may be 
procured at slight expense; and it is at the option of every Brother to procure or not to procure, as he 
pleases, the dress, decorations, and jewels of any Degree other than the 14th, 18th, 30th, and 32d. 

We teach the truth of none of the legends we recite. They are to us but parables and allegories, 
involving and enveloping Masonic instruction and vehicles of useful and interesting information. They 
represent the different phases of the human mind, its efforts and struggles to comprehend nature, God, 
the government of the Universe, the permitted existence of sorrow and evil. To teach us wisdom, and 
the foliy of endeavoring to explain to ourselves that which we are not capable of understanding, we 
reproduce the speculations of the Philosophers, the Kabalists, the Mystagogues and the Gnostics. 
Every one being at liberty to apply our symbols and emblems as he thinks most consistent with truth 
and reason and with his own faith, we give them such an interpretation only as may be accepted by all. 
Our Degrees may be conferred in France or Turkey, at Pekin, Ispahan, Róme, or Geneva, in the city of 
Penn or in Catholic Louisiana, upon the subject of an absolute government or the citizen of a Free 
State, upon Sectarian or Theist. To honor the Deity, to regard all men as our Brethren, as children, 
equally dear to Him, of the Supreme Creator of the Universe, and to make himself useful to society and 
himself by his labor, are its teachings to its Initiates in all the Degrees. 

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Preacher of Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality, it desires them to be attained by making men fit to receive 
them, and by the moral power of an intelligent and enlightened People. It lays no plots and 
conspiracies. It hatches no premature revolutions; it encourages no people to revolt against the 
constituted authorities; but recognizing the great truth that freedom follows fitness for freedom as the 
corollary follows the axiom, it stři ves to prepare men to govern themselves. 

Where domestic slavery exists, it teaches the master humanity and the alleviation of the condition of his 
slavě, and moderate correction and gentle disciplině; as it teaches them to the master of the apprentice: 
and as it teaches to the employers of other men, in mineš, manufactories, and workshops, consideration 
and humanity for those who depend upon their labor for their bread, and to whom want of employment 
is starvation, and overwork is fever, consumption, and death. 

As Master of a Lodge, you are to inculcate these duties on your brethren. Teach the employed to be 
honest, punctual, and faithful as well as respectful and obedient to all proper orders: but also teach the 
employer that every man or woman who desires to work, has a right to háve work to do and that they, 
and those who from sickness or feebleness, loss of limb or of bodily vigor, old age or infancy, are not 
able to work, háve a right to be fed, clothed, and sheltered from the inclement elements: that he 
commits an awful sin against Masonry and in the sight of God, if he closes his work- shops or factories, 
or ceases to work his mineš, when they do not yield him what he regards as sufficient profit, and so 
dismisses his workmen and workwomen to starve; or when he reduces the wages of man or woman to 
so low a standard that they and their families cannot be clothed and fed and comfortably housed; or by 
overwork must give him their blood and life in exchange for the pittance of their wages: and that his 
duty as a Mason and Brother peremptorily requires him to continue to employ those who else will be 
pinched with hunger and cold, or resort to theft and vice: and to pay them fair wages, though it may 
reduce or annul his profits or even eat into his capital; for God hath but loaned him his wealth, and 
made him His almoner and agent to invest it. 

Except as mere symbols of the moral virtues and intellectual qualities, the tools and implements of 
Masonry belong exclusively to the first three Degrees. They also, however, serve to remind the Mason 
who has advanced further, that his new rank is based upon the humble labors of the symbolic Degrees, 
as they are improperly termed, inasmuch as all the Degrees are symbolic. 

Thus the Initiates are inspired with a just idea of Masonry, to wit, that it is essentially WORK; both 
teaching and practising LABOR; and that it is altogether emblematic. Three kinds of work are 
necessary to the preservation and protection of man and society: manuál labor, specially belonging to 
the three blue Degrees; labor in arms, symbolized by the Knightly or chivalric Degrees; and intellectual 
labor, belonging particularly to the Philosophical Degrees. 

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We háve preserved and multiplied such emblems as háve a true and profound meaning. We reject many 
of the old and senseless explanations. We háve not reduced Masonry to a cold metaphysics that exiles 
everything belonging to the domain of the imagination. The ignorant, and those half-wise in reality, but 
over-wise in their own conceit, may assail our symbols with sarcasms; but they are nevertheless 
ingenious veils that cover the Truth, respected by all who know the means by which the heart of man is 
reached and his feelings enlisted. The Great Moralists often had recourse to allegories, in order to 
instruct men without repelling them. But we háve been careful not to allow our emblems to be too 
obscure, so as to require far-fetched and forced interpretations. In our days, and in the enlightened land 
in which we live, we do not need to wrap ourselves in veils so strange and impenetrable, as to prevent or 
hinder instruction instead of furthering it; or to induce the suspicion that we háve concealed meanings 
which we communicate only to the most reliable adepts, because they are contrary to good order or the 
well-being of society. 

The Duties of the Class of Instructors, that is, the Masons of the Degrees from the 4th to the 8th, 
inclusive, are, particularly, to perfect the younger Masons in the words, signs and tokens and other work 
of the Degrees they háve received; to explain to them the meaning of the different emblems, and to 
expound the moral instruction which they convey. And upon their report of proficiency alone can their 
pupils be allowed to advance and receive an increase of wages. 

The Directors of the Work, or those of the 9th, lOth, and llth Degrees are to report to the Chapters upon 
the regularity, activity and proper direction of the work of bodies in the lower Degrees, and what is 
needed to be enacted for their prosperity and usefulness. In the Symbolic Lodges, they are particularly 
charged to stimulate the zeal of the workmen, to induce them to engage in new labors and enterprises 
for the good of Masonry, their country and mankind, and to give them fraternal advice when they fall 
short of their duty; or, in cases that require it, to invoke against them the rigor of Masonic law. 

The Architects or those of the 12th, 13th, and 14th, should be selected from none but Brothers well 
instructed in the preceding Degrees; zealous, and capable of discoursing upon that Masonry; 
illustrating it, and discussing the simple questions of moral philosophy. And one of them, at every 
communication, should be prepared with a lecture, communicating useful knowledge or giving good 
advice to the Brethren. 

The Knights, of the 15th and 16th Degrees, wear the sword. They are bound to prevent and repair, as far 
as may be in their power, all injustice, both in the world and in Masonry; to protéct the weak and to 
bring oppressors to justice. Their works and lectures must be in this spirit. They should inquire whether 
Masonry fulfills, as far as it ought and can, its principál purpose, which is to succor the unfortunate. 
That it may do so, they should prepare propositions to be offered in the Blue Lodges calculated to attain 
that end, to put an end to abuses, and to prevent or correct negligence. Those in the Lodges who háve 
attained the rank of Knights, are most fit to be appointed Almoners, and charged to ascertain and make 

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known who need and are entitled to the charity of the Order. 

In the higher Degrees those only should be received who háve sufficient reading and information to 
discuss the great questions of philosophy. From them the Orators of the Lodges should be selected, as 
well as those of the Councils and Chapters. They are charged to suggest such measures as are necessary 
to make Masonry entirely faithful to the spirit of its institution, both as to its charitable purposes, and 
the diffusion of light and knowledge; such as are needed to correct abuses that háve crept in, and 
offences against the rules and generál spirit of the Order; and such as will tend to make it, as it was 
meant to be, the great Teacher of Mankind. 

As Master of a Lodge, Council, or Chapter, it will be your duty to impress upon the minds of your 
Brethren these views of the generál pian and separate parts of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; 
of its spirit and design; its harmony and regularity; of the duties of the officers and members;and of the 
particular lessons intended to be taught by each Degree. 

Especially you are not to allow any assembly of the body over which you may preside, to close, without 
recalling to the minds of the Brethren the Masonic virtues and duties which are represented upon the 
Tracing Board of this Degree. That is an imperative duty. Forget not that, more than three thousand 
years ago, ZOROASTER said: "Be good, be kind, be humane, and charitable; love your fellows; 
console the afflicted; pardon those who háve doně you wrong." Nor that more than two thousand three 
hundred years ago CONFUCR7S repeated, also quoting the language of those who had lived before 
himself: "Love thy neighbor as thyself: Do not to others what thou wouldst not wish should be doně to 
thyself: Forgive injuries. Forgive your enemy, be reconciled to him, give him assistance, invoke God in 

Let not the morality of your Lodge be inferior to that of the Persian or the Chinese Philosopher. Urge 
upon your Brethren the teaching and the unostentatious practice of the morality of the Lodge, without 
regard to times, places, religions, or peoples. 

Urge them to love one another, to be devoted to one another, to be faithful to the country, the 
government, and the laws: for to serve the country is to pay a dear and sacred debt: To respect all forms 
of worship, to tolerate all political and religious opinions; not to blame, and still less to condemn the 
religion of others: not to seek to make converts; but to be content if they háve the religion of Socrates; a 
veneration for the Creator, the religion of good works, and grateful acknowledgment of Goďs blessings: 
To fraternize with all men; to assist all who are unfortunate; and to cheerfully postpone their own 
interests to that of the Order: 

To make it the constant rule of their lives, to think well, to speak well, and to act well: 
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- To pláce the sage above the soldier, the noble, or the prince: and také the wise and good as their 

- To see that their professions and practice, their teachings and conduct, do always agree: 

- To make this also their motto: Do that which thou oughtest to do; let the result be what it will. 

Such, my Brother, are some of the duties of that office which you háve sought to be qualified to 
exercise. May you perform them well; and in so doing gain honor for yourself, and advance the great 
cause of Masonry, Humanity, and Progress. 


You are especially charged in this Degree to be modest and humble, and not vain-glorious nor filled 
with self-conceit. Be not wiser in your own opinion than the Deity, nor find fault with His works, nor 
endeavor to improve upon what He has doně. Be modest also in your intercourse with your fellows, and 
slow to entertain evil thoughts of them and reluctant to ascribe to them evil intentions. A thousand 
presses, flooding the country with their evanescent leaves, are bušily and incessantly engaged in 
maligning the motives and conduct of men and parties, and in making one man think worse of another; 
while, alas, scarcely one is found that ever, even accidentally, labors to make man think better of his 

Slander and calumny were nevěr so insolently licentious in any country as they are this day in ours. The 
most retiring disposition, the most unobtrusive demeanor, is no shield against their poisoned arrows. 
The most eminent public service only makes their vituperation and invective more eager and more 
unscrupulous, when he who has doně such service presents himself as a candidate for the people's 

The evil is widespread and universal. No man, no woman, no household, is sacred or safe from this new 
Inquisition. No act is so pure or so praiseworthy, that the unscrupulous vender of lies who lives by 
pandering to a corrupt and morbid public appetite will not proclaim it as a crime. No motive is so 
innocent or so laudable, that he will not hold it up as villainy. Journalism pries into the interior of 
private houses, gloats over the details of domestic tragedies of sin and shame, and deliberately invents 
and industriously circulates the most unmitigated and baseless falsehoods, to coin money for those who 
pursue it as a trade, or to effect a temporary result in the wars of faction. 

We need not enlarge upon these evils. They are apparent to all and lamented over by all, and it is the 
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duty of a Mason to do all in his power to lessen, if not to remove them. With the errors and even sins of 
other men, that do not personally affect us or ours, and need not our condemnation to be odious, we 
háve nothing to do and the journalist has no patent that makes him the Censor of Morals. There is no 
obligation resting on us to trumpet forth our disapproval of every wrongful or injudicious or improper 
act that every other man commits. One would be ashamed to stand on the street corners and retail them 
orally for pennies. 

One ought, in truth, to write, or speak against no other one in this world. Each man in it has enough to 
do, to watch and keep guard over himself. Each of us is sick enough in this great Lazaretto: and 
journalism and polemical writing constantly remind us of a scene once witnessed in a little hospital; 
where it was horrible to hear how the patients mockingly reproached each other with their disorders and 
infirmities: how one, who was wasted by consumption, jeered at another who was bloated by dropsy: 
how one laughed at anotheťs cancer of the face; and this one again at his neighboťs lockjaw or squint; 
until at last the delirious fever-patient sprang out of his bed, and tore away the coverings from the 
wounded bodies of his companions, and nothing was to be seen but hideous misery and mutilation. 
Such is the revolting work in which journalism and political partisanship, and half the world outside of 
Masonry, are engaged. 

Věry generally, the censure bestowed upon men's acts, by those who háve appointed and commissioned 
themselves Keepers of the Public Morals, is undeserved. Often it is not only undeserved, but praise is 
deserved instead of censure, and, when the latter is not undeserved, it is always extravagant, and 
therefore unjust. 

A Mason will wonder what spirit they are endowed withal, that can basely libel at a man, even, that is 
fallen. If they had any nobility of soul, they would with him condole his disasters, and drop some tears 
in pity of his foliy and wretchedness and if they were merely human and not brutal, Nature did grievous 
wrong to human bodies, to curse them with souls so cruel as to strive to add to a wretchedness already 
intolerable. When a Mason hears of any man that hath fallen into public disgrace, he should háve a 
mind to commiserate his mishap, and not to make him more disconsolate. To envenom a name by 
libels, that already is openly tainted, is to add stripes with an iron rod to one that is flayed with 
whipping; and to every well-tempered mind will seem most inhuman and unmanly. 

Even the man who does wrong and commits errors often has a quiet home, a fireside of his own, a 
gentle, loving wife and innocent children, who perhaps do not know of his past errors and lapses past 
and long repented of or if they do, they love him the better, because, being mortal, he hath erred, and 
being in the image of God, he hath repented. That every blow at this husband and father lacerates the 
pure and tender bosoms of that wife and those daughters, is a consideration that doth not stay the hand 
of the brutal journalist and partisan: but he strikes home at these shrinking, quivering, innocent, tender 
bosoms; and then goes out upon the great arteries of cities, where the current of life pulsates, and holds 

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his head erect, and calls on his fellows to laud him and admire him, for the chivalric act he hath doně, in 
striking his dagger through one heart into another tender and trusting one. 

If you seek for high and strained carriages, you shall, for the most part, meet with them in low men. 
Arrogance is a weed that ever grows on a dunghill. It is from the rankness of that soil that she hath her 
height and spreadings. To be modest and unaffected with our superiors is duty; with our equals, 
courtesy; with our inferiors, nobleness. There is no arrogance so great as the pro- claiming of other 
men's errors and faults, by those who under- stand nothing but the dregs of actions, and who make it 
their business to besmear deserving fames. Public reproof is like striking a deer in the herd: it not only 
wounds him, to the loss of blood, but betrays him to the hound, his enemy. 

The occupation of the spy hath ever been held dishonorable, and it is none the less so, now that with 
rare exceptions editors and partisans háve become perpetual spies upon the actions of ocher men. Their 
malice makes them nimble-eyed, apt to notě a fault and publish it, and, with a strained construction, to 
deprave even those things in which the doeťs intents were honest. Like the crocodile, they slime the 
way of others, to make them fall; and when that has happened, they feed their insulting envy on the life- 
blood of the prostrate. They set the vices of other men on high, for the gáze of the world, and pláce 
their virtues underground, that none may notě them. If they cannot wound upon proofs, they will do it 
upon likelihoods: and if not upon them, they manufacture lies, as God created the world, out of nothing; 
and so corrupt the fair tempter of men's reputations; knowing that the multitude will believe them, 
because affirmations are apter to win belief, than negatives to uncredit them; and that a lie travels faster 
than an eagle flies, while the contradiction limps after it at a snail's páce and halting, nevěr overtakes it. 
Nay, it is contrary to the morality of journalism, to allow a lie to be contradicted in the pláce that 
spawned it. And even if that great favor is conceded, a slander once raised will scarce ever die, or fail of 
finding many that will allow it both a harbor and trust. 

This is, beyond any other, the age of falsehood. Once, to be suspected of equivocation was enough to 
soil a gentleman' s escutcheon; but now it has become a strange merit in a partisan or statesman, always 
and scrupulously to telí the truth. Lies are part of the regular ammunition of all campaigns and 
controversies, valued according as they are profitable and effective; and are stored up and háve a market 
price, like saltpetre and sulphur; being even more deadly than they. 

If men weighed the imperfections of humanity, they would breathe less condemnation. Ignorance gives 
disparagement a louder tongue than knowledge does. Wise men had rather know, than telí. Frequent 
dispraises are but the faults of uncharitable wit: and it is from where there is no judgment, that the 
heaviest judgment comes; for self-examination would make all judgments charitable. If we even do 
know vices in men, we can scarce show ourselves in a nobler virtue than in the charity of concealing 
them: if that be not a flattery persuading to continuance. And it is the basest office man can fall into, to 
make his tongue the defamer of the worthy man. 

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There is but one rule for the Mason in this matter. If there be virtues, and he is called upon to speak of 
him who owns them, let him telí them forth impartially. And if there be vices mixed with them, let him 
be content the world shall know them by some other tongue than his. For if the evil-doer deserve no 
pity, his wife, his parents, or his children, or other innocent persons who love him may; and the bravo's 
trade, practised by him who stabs the defenceless for a price paid by individual or party, is really no 
more respectable now than it was a hundred years ago, in Venice. Where we want experience, Charity 
bids us think the best, and leave what we know not to the Searcher of Hearts; for mistakes, suspicions, 
and envy often injure a clear fame; and there is least danger in a charitable construction. 

And, finally, the Mason should be humble and modest toward the Grand Architect of the Universe, and 
not impugn His Wisdom, nor set up his own imperfect sense of Right against His Providence and 
dispensations, nor attempt too rashly to explore the Mysteries of Goďs Infinite Essence and inscrutable 
plans, and of that Great Nature which we are not made capable to understand. 

Let him steer far away from all those vain philosophies, which endeavor to account for all that is, 
without admitting that there is a God, separate and apart from the Universe which is his work: which 
erect Universal Nature into a God, and worship it alone: which annihilate Spirit, and believe no 
testimony except that of the bodily senses: which, by logical formulas and dextrous collocation of 
words, make the actual, living, guiding, and protecting God fade into the dim mistiness of a mere 
abstraction and unreality, itself a mere logical formula. 

Nor let him háve any alliance with those theorists who chide the delays of Providence and busy 
themselves to hasten the slow march which it has imposed upon events: who neglect the practical, to 
struggle after impossibilities: who are wiser than Heaven; know the aims and purposes of the Deity, and 
can see a short and more direct means of attaining them, than it pleases Him to employ: who would 
háve no discords in the great harmony of the Universe of things; but equal distribution of property, no 
subjection of one man to the will of another, no compulsory labor, and still no starvation, nor 
destitution, nor pauperism. 

Let him not spend his life, as they do, in building a new Tower of Babel; in attempting to change that 
which is fixed by an inflexible law of Goďs enactment: but let him, yielding to the Superior Wisdom of 
Providence, content to believe that the march of events is rightly ordered by an Infinite Wisdom, and 
leads, though we cannot see it, to a great and perfect result, let him be satisfied to follow the path 
pointed out by that Providence, and to labor for the good of the human race in that mode in which God 
has chosen to enact that that good shall be effected: and above all, let him build no Tower of Babel, 
under the belief that by ascending he will mount so high that God will disappear or be superseded by a 
great monstrous aggregate of materiál forces, or mere glittering, logical formula; but, evermore, 
standing humbly and reverendy upon the earth and looking with awe and confidence toward Heaven, let 

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him be satisfied that there is a reál God; a person, and not a formula; a Father and a protector, who 
loves, and sympathizes, and compassionates; and that the eternal ways by which He rules the world are 
infinitely wise, no matter how far they may be above the feeble comprehension and limited vision of 


SYMPATHY with the great laboring classes, respect for labor itself, and resolution to do some good 
work in our day and generation, these are the lessons of this Degree, and they are purely Masonic. 
Masonry has made a working-man and his associates the Heroes of her principál legend, and himself 
the companion of Kings. The idea is as simple and true as it is sublime. From first to last, Masonry is 
work. It venerates the Grand Arckitrct of the Uni verse. It commemorates the building of a Temple. Its 
principál emblems are the working fools of Masons and Artisans. It preserves the name of the first 
worker in brass and iron as one of its pass-words. When the Brethren meet together, they are at labor. 
The Master is the overseer who sets the craft to work and gives them proper instruction. Masonry is the 
apotheosis of Work. It is the hands of brave, forgotten men that háve made this great, populous, 
cultivated world a world for us. It is all work, and forgotten work. The reál conquerors, creators, and 
eternal proprietors of every great and civilized land are all the heroic souls that ever were in it, each in 
his degree: all the men that ever felled a forest-tree or drained a marsh, or contrived a wise scheme, or 
did or said a true or valiant thing therein. Genuine work alone, doně faithfully, is eternal, even as the 
Almighty Founder and World-builder Himself. 

All work is noble: a life of ease is not for any man, nor for any God. The Almighty Maker is not like 
one who, in old immemorial ages, having made his machine of a Universe, sits ever since, and sees it 
go. Out of that belief comes Atheism. The faith in an Invisible, unnamable, Directing Deity, present 
everywhere in all that we see, and work, and suffer, is the essence of all faith whatsoever. 

The life of all Gods figures itself to us as a Sublime Earnestness, of Infinite battle against Infinite labor 
Our highest religion is named the Worship of Sorrow. For the Son of Man there is no noble crown, 
well-worn, or even ill-worn, but is a crown of thorns. Man's highest destiny is not to be happy, to love 
pleasant things and find them. His only true unhappiness should be that he cannot work, and get his 
destiny as a man fulfilled. The day passes swiftly over, our life passes swiftly over, and the night 
cometh, wherein no man can work. That nights once come, our happiness and unhappiness are 
vanished, and become as things that nevěr were. But our work is not abolished, and has not vanished. It 
remains, or the want of it remains, for endless Times and Eternities. 

Whatsoever of morality and intelligence; what of patience, perseverance, faithfulness, of method, 
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insight, ingenuity, energy; in a word, whatsoever of STRENGTH a man has in him, will lie written in 
the WORK he does. To work is to try himself against Nature and her unerring, everlasting laws : and 
they will return true verdict as to him. The noblest Epic is a mighty Empire slowly built together, a 
mighty series of heroic deeds, a mighty conquest over chaos. Deeds are greater than words. They háve a 
life, mute, but undeniably ; and grow. They people the vacuity of Time, and make it green and worthy. 

Labor is the truest emblém of God, the Architect and Eternal Maker; noble Labor, which is yet to be the 
King of this Earth, and sit on the highest Throne. Men without duties to do, are like trees planted on 
precipices; from the roots of which all the earth has crumbled. Nature owns no man who is not also a 
Martyr. She scorns the man who sits screened from all work, from want, danger, hardship, the victory 
over which is work and has all his work and battling doně by other men; and yet there are men who 
pride themselves that they and theirs háve doně no work time out of mind. So neither háve the swine. 

The chief of men is he who stands in the van of men, fronting the peril which frightens back all others, 
and if not vanquished would devour them. Hercules was worshipped for twelve labors. The Czar of 
Russia became a toiling shipwright, and worked with his axe in the docks of Saardam ; and something 
came of that. Cromwell worked, and Napoleon; and effected somewhat. 

There is a perennial nobleness and even sacredness in work. Be he nevěr so benighted and forgetful of 
his high calling, there is always hope in a man who actually and earnestly works : in Idleness alone is 
there perpetual Despair. Man perfects himself by working. Jungles are cleared away. Fair seed-fields 
rise instead, and stately cities ; and withal, the man himself first ceases to be a foul unwholesome jungle 
and desert thereby. Even in the meanest sort of labor, the whole soul of man is composed into a kind of 
reál harmony, the moment he begins to work. Doubt, Desire, Sorrow, Remorse, Indignation, and even 
Despair shrink murmuring far off into their caves, whenever the man bends himself resolutely against 
his task. Labor is life. From the inmost heart of the worker rises his God-given Force, the Sacred 
Celestial life essence, breathed into him by Almighty God ; and awakens him to all nobleness, as soon 
as work fitly begins. By it man learns Patience, Courage, Perseverance, Openness to light, readiness to 
own himself mistaken, resolution to do better and improve. Only by labor will man continually learn the 

There is no Religion in stagnation and inaction; but only in activity and exertion. There was the deepest 
truth in that saying of the old monks, "laborare est orare." "He prayeth best who liveth best all things 
both great and small;" and can man love except by working earnestly to benefit that being whom he 

"Work; and therein háve well-being," is the oldest of Gospels; unpreached, inarticulate, but 
ineradicable, and enduring forever. To make Disorder, wherever found, an eternal enemy; to attack and 

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subdue him, and make order of him, the subject not of Chaos, but of Intelligence and Divinity, and of 
ourselves ; to attack ignorance, stupidity and brute-mindedness, wherever found, to smite it wisely and 
unweariedly, to rest not while we live and it lives in the name of God, this is our duty as Masons; 
commanded us by the Highest God. Even He, with his unspoken voice, more awful than the thunders of 
Sinai, or the syllabled speech of the Hurricane, speaks to us. The Unborn Ages ; the old Graves, with 
their long-moldering dust speak to us. The deep Death-Kingdoms, the Stars in their never-resting 
course, all Space and all Time, silently and continually admonish us that we too must work whore it is 
called to-day. Labor, wide as the Earth, has its summit in Heaven. To toil, whether with the sweat of the 
brow, or of the brain or heart, is worship, the noblest thing yet discovered beneath the Stars. Let the 
weary cease to think that labor is a curse and doom pronounced by Deity. Without it there could be no 
true excellence in human nature. Without it, and pain, and sorrow, where would be the human virtues? 
Where Patience, Perseverance, Submission, Energy, Endurance, Fortitude, Bravery, Disinterestedness, 
Self-Sacrifice, the noblest excellencies of the Soul? 

Let him who toils complain not, nor feel humiliated! Let him look up and see his fellow-workmen there, 
in Goďs Eternity, they alone surviving there. Even in the weak human memory they long survive, as 
Saints, as Heroes, and as Gods : they alone survive, and people the unmeasured solitudes of Time. To 
the primeval man, whatsoever good came, descended on him (as in mere fact, it ever does) direct from 
God; whatsoever duty lay visible for him, this a Supreme God had prescribed. For the primeval man, in 
whom dwelt Thought, this Uni verse was all a Temple, life every where a Worship. 

Duty is with us ever and evermore forbids us to be idle. To work with the hands or brain, according to 
our requirements and our capacities, to do that which lies before us to do, is more honorable than rank 
and title. Ploughers, spinners and builders, inventors, and men of science, poets, advocates, and writers, 
all stand upon one common level, and form on grand, innumerable host, marching ever onward since 
the beginning of the world: each entitled to our sympathy and respect, each a man and our brother. 

It was well to give the earth to man as a dark mass, whereon to labor. It was well to provide rudé and 
uprightly materials in the ore-bed and the forest, for him to fashion into splendor and beauty. It was 
well, not because of that splendor and beauty; but because the act creating them is better than the things 
themselves; because exertion is nobler than enjoyment; because the laborer is greater and more worthy 
of honor than the idler. Masonry stands up for the nobility of labor. It is Heaveďs great ordinance for 
human improvement. It has been broken down for ages ; and Masonry desires to build it up again. It has 
beán broken down, because men toil only because ihey must, submitting to it as, in some sort, a 
degrading necessity; and desiring nothing so much on earth as to escape from it. They fulfill the great 
law of labor in the letter, but break it in the spirit: they fulfill it with the muscles, but break it with the 

Masonry teaches that every idler ought to hasten to some field of labor, manuál or mental, as a chosen 
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and coveted theatre of improvement; but he is not impelled to do so, under the teachings of an imperfect 

On the contrary, he sits down, folds his hands, and blesses and glorifies himself in his idleness. It is 
time that this opprobrium of toil were doně away. To be ashamed of toil; of the dingy workshop and 
dusty labor-field; of the hard hand, stained with service more honorable than that of war; of the soiled 
and weather- stained garments, on which Mother Nature has stamped, midst sun and rain, midst fire and 
steam, her own heraldic honors; to be ashamed of these tokens and titles, and envious of the flaunting 
robes of imbecile idleness and vanity, is treason to Nature, impiety to Heaven, a breach of Heaveďs 
great Ordinance. Toil,) of brain, heart, or hand, is the only true manhood and genuine nobility. 

Labor is a more beneficent ministration than man's ignorance comprehends, or his complaining will 
admit. Even when its end is hidden from him, it is not mere blind drudgery, It is all a training, a 
disciplině, a development of energies, a nurse of virtues, a school bf improvement. From the poor boy 
who gathers a few sticks for his motheťs hearth, to the strong man who fells the oak or guides the ship 
or the steam-car, every human toiler, with every weary step and every urgent task, is obeying a wisdom 
far above his own wisdom, and fulfilling a design far beyond his own design. 

The great law of human industry is this: that industry, working either with the hand or the mind, the 
application of our powers to some task, to the achievement of some result, lies at the foundation of all 
human improvement. We are not sent into the world like animals, to crop the spontaneous herbage of 
the field, and then to lie down in indolent repose: but we are sent to dig the soil and plough the sea; to 
do the business of cities and the world of manufactories. The world is the great and appointed school of 
industry. In an artificial statě of society, mankind is divided into the idle and the laboring classes; but 
such was not the design of Providence. 

Labor is man's great function, his peculiar distinction and his privilege. From being an animal, that eats 
and drinks and sleeps only, to become a worker, and with the hand of ingenuity to pour his own 
thoughts into the moulds of Nature, fashioning ttorn into forms of grace and fabrics of convenience, and 
converting them to purposes of improvement and happiness, is the greatest possible step in privilege. 

The Earth and the Atmosphere are man's laboratory. With spade and plough, with mining-shafts and 
furnaces and forges, with fire and steam; midst the noise and whirl of swift and bright machinery, and 
abroad in the silent fields, man was made to be ever working, ever experimenting. And while he and all 
his dwellings of care and toil are borne onward with the circling skies, and the splendour of Heaven are 
around him, and their infinite depths image and invite his thought, still in all the worlds of philosophy, 
in the universe of intellect, man must be a worker. He is nothing, he can be nothing, can achieve 
nothing, fulfill nothing, without working. Without it, he can gain neither lofty improvement nor 

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tolerable happiness. The idle must hunt down the hours as their prey. To them Time is an enemy, 
clothed with armor; and they must kill him, or: themselves die. It nevěr yet did answer, and it nevěr will 
answer for any man to do nothing, to be exempt from all care and effort to lounge, to walk, to ride, and 
to feast alone. No man can live in that way. God made a law against it: which no human power can 
annul, no human ingenuity evade. 

The idea that a property is to be acquired in the course of ten or twenty years, which shall suffice for 
the rest of life; that by some prosperous traffic or grand speculation, all the labor of a whole life is to be 
accomplished in a brief portion of it; that by dexterous management, a large part of the term of human 
existence is to be exonerated from the cares of industry and šelf- denial, is founded upon a grave 
mistake, upon a misconception of the true nature and design of business, and of the conditions of 
human well being. The desire of accumulation for the saké of securing a life of ease and gratification, 
of escaping from exertion and self-denial, is wholly wrong, though very common. 

It is better for the Mason to live while he lives, and enjoy life as it passes to live richer and die poorer. It 
is best of all for him to banish from the mind that empty dream of future indolence and indulgent ; to 
address himself to the business of life, as the school of his earthly education; to settle it with himself 
now that independence, if he gains it, is not to give him exemption from employment It is best for him 
to know, that, in order to be a happy man, he must always be a laborer, with the mind or the body, or 
with both: and that the reasonable exertion of his powers, bodily and mental, is not to be regarded as 
mere drudgery, but as a good disciplině, a wise ordination, a training in this primary school of our 
being, for nobler endeavors, and spheres of higher activity hereafter 

There are reasons why a Mason may lawfully and even earnestly desire a fortuně. If he can fill some 
fine paláce, itself a work of art, with the productions of lofty genius; if he can be the friend and helper 
of humble worth; if he can seek it out, where failing health or adverse fortuně presses it hard, and soften 
or stay the bitter hours that are hastening it to madness or to the grave; if he can stand between the 
oppressor and his prey, and bid the fetter and the dungeon give up their victim ; if he can build up great 
institutions of learning, and academies of art ; if he can open fountains of knowledge for the people, and 
conduct its streams in the right channels; if he can do better for the poor thzn to bestow alms upon 
them-even to think of them, and devise plans for their elevation in knowledge and virtue, instead of 
forever opening the , old reservoirs and resources for their improvidence; if he has sufficient heart and 
soul to do all this, or part of it; if wealth would be ta him the handmaid of exertion; facilitating effort, 
and giving success to endeavor; then may he lawfully, and yet warily and modestly, desire it. But if it is 
to do nothing for him, but (o minister ease and indulgence, and to pláce his children in the samé bad 
school, then there is no reason why he should desire it. 

What is there glorious in the world, that is not the product of labor, either of the body or of the mind? 
What is history, but its record? What are the treasures of genius and art, but its work? What are 

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cultivated fields, but its toil? The busy marts, the rising cities, the enriched empires of the world are but 
the great treasure-houses of labor. The pyramids of Egypt, the' castles and towers and temples of 
Europe, the buried cities of Italy and Mexico, the canals and railroads of Christendom, are but tracks, 
all round the world, of the mighty footsteps of labor. Without it antiquity would not háve been. Without 
it, there would be no memory of the past, and no hope for the future. Even utter indolence reposes on 
treasures that labor at some time gained and gathered. He that does nothing, and yet does not starve, has 
still his significance ; for he is a standing proof that somebody has at some time worked. But not to 
such does Masonry do honor. It honors the Worker, the Toiler; him who produces and not alone 
consumes; him who puts forth his hand to add to the treasury of human comforts, and not alone to také 
away. "It honors him who goes forth amid the struggling elements to fight his battle, and who shrinks 
not, with cowardly effeminacy, behind pillows of ease. It honors the strong muscle, and the manly 
nerve, and the resolute and brave heart, the sweating brow, and the toiling brain. It honors the great and 
beautiful offices of humanity, manhooďs toil and womaďs task; paternal industry and maternal 
watching and weariness ; wisdom teaching and patience learning; the brow of care that presides over 
the State, and many handed labor that toils in workshop, field, and study, beneath its mild and 
beneficent sway. 

God has not made a world of rich men; but rather a world of poor men; or of men, at least, who must 
toil for a subsistence. That is, then, the best condition for man, and the grand sphere of human 
improvement. If the whole world could acquire wealth (and one man is as much entitled to it as another, 
when he is born); if the present generation could lay up a complete pro vision for the next, as some men 
desire to do for their children; the world would be destroyed at a single blow. All industry would cease 
with the necessity for it; all improvement would stop with the demand for exertion; the dissipation of 
fortunes, the mischief of which are now countervailed by the healthful tone of society, would breed 
universal disease, and wreak out into universal license; and the world would sink, rotten as Herod, into 
the grave of its own loathsome vices. 

Almost all the noblest things that háve been achieved in the world, háve been achieved by poor men; 
poor scholars, poor professional men, poor artisans and artists, poor philosophers, poets, and men of 
genius. A certain solidness and sobriety, a certain moderation and restraint, a certain pressure of 
circumstances, are good for man. His body was not made for luxuries. It sickens, sinks, and dies under 
them. His mind was not made for indulgerice. It grows weak, effeminate, and dwarfish, under that 
condition. And he who pampers his body with luxuries and his mind with indulgence, bequeaths the 
consequences to the minds and bodies of his descendants, without the wealth which was their cause. 
For wealth, without a law of entail to help it, has always lacked the energy even to keep its own 
treasures. They drop from its imbecile hand. The third generation almost inevitably goes down the 
rolling wheel of fortuně, and there learns the energy necessary to rise again, if it rises at all ; heir, as it 
is, to the bodily diseases, and mental weaknesses, and the soul's vices of its andestors, and not heir to 
their wealth. And yet we are, almost all of us, anxious to put our children, or to insure that our 
grandchildren shall be put, on this road to indulgence, luxury, vice, degradation, and ruin ; this 
headship of hereditary disease, soul malady, and mental leprosy. 

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If wealth were employed in promoting mental culture at home and works of philanthropy abroad; if it 
were multiplying studies of art, and building up institutions of learning around us; if it were in every 
way raising the intellectual character of the world, there could scarcely be too much of it. But if the 
utmost aim, effort, and ambition of wealth be, to procure rich furniture, and provide costly 
entertainments, and build luxurious houses, and minister to vanity, extravagance, and ostentation, there 
could scarcely be too little of it. To a certain extent it may laudably be the minister of elegancies and 
luxuries, and the servitor of hospitality and physical enjoyment: but just in proportion as its tendencies, 
divested of all higher aims and tastes, are running that way, they are running to peril and evil. 

Nor does that peril attach to individuals and families alone. It stands, a fearful beacon, in the experience 
of Cities, Republics, and Empires. The lessons of past times, on this subject, are emphatic and solemn. 
The history of wealth has always been a history of corruption and downfall. the people nevěr existed 
that could stand the trial. Boundless profusion is too little likéry to spread for any people the theatre of 
manly energy, rigid self-denial, and lofty virtue. You do not look for the bone and sinew and strength of 
a country, its loftiest talents and virtues, its martyrs to patriotism or religion, its men to meet the days of 
peril and disaster, among the children of ease, indulgence, and luxury. 

In the great march of the races of men over the earth, we háve always seen opulence and luxury sinking 
before poverty and toil and hardy nurture. That is the law which has presided over the great professions 
of empire. Sidon and Tyre, whose merchants possessed the wealth of princes; Babylon and Palmyra, the 
seats of Asiatic luxury; Róme, laděn with the spoils of a world, overwhelmed by her own vices more 
than by the hosts of her enemies; all these, and many more, are examples of the destroytive tendencies 
of immense and unnatural accumulation : and men must become more generous and benevolent, not 
more selfish and effeminate, as they become more rich, or the history of modern wealth will follow in 
the sad train of all past examples. All men desire distinction, and feel the need of some ennobling 
object in life. Those persons are usually most happy and satisfied in their pursuits, who háve the loftiest 
ends in view. Artists, mechanics, and inventors, all who seek to find principles or develop beauty in 
their work, seem most to enjoy it. The farmer who labors for the beautifying and scientific cultivation 
of his estate, is more happy in his labors than one who tills his own land for a mere subsistence. This is 
one of the signál testimonies which all human employments give to the high demands of our nature. To 
gather wealth nevěr gives such satisfaction as to bring the humblest piece of machinery to perfection: at 
least, when wealth is sought for display and ostentation, or mere luxury, and ease, and pleasure; and not 
for ends of philanthropy, the reliéf of kindred, or the payment of just debts, or as a means to attain some 
other great and noble object. 

With the pursuits of multitudes is connected a painful conviction that they neither supply a sufficient 
object, nor confer any satisfactory honor. Why work, if the world is soon not to know that such a being 
ever existed; and when one can perpetuate his name neither on canvas nor on marble, nor in books, nor 
by lofty eloquence, nor statesmanship? 

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The answer is, that every man has a work to do in himself, greater and sublimed than any work of 
genius ; and works upon a nobler materiál than wood or marble-upon his own soul and intellect, and 
may so attain the highest nobleness and grandeur known on earth or in Heaven; may so be the greatest 
of artists, and of authors, and his life, which is far more than speech, may be eloquent. 

The great author or artist only portrays what every man should be. He conceives, what we should do. 
He conceives, and represents moral beauty, magnanimity, fortitude, love, devotion, forgiveness, the 
soufs greatness. He portrays virtues, commended to our admiration and imitations. To embody these 
portraitures in our lives is the practical realization of those great ideals of art. The magnanimity of 
Heroes, celebrated on the historie or poetic page; the constancy and faith of Truth's martyrs ; the beauty 
of love and piety glowing on the canvas; the delineations of Truth and Right, that flash from the lips of 
the Eloquent, are, in their essence only that which every man may feel and practice in the daily walks of 
life. The work of virtue is nobler than any work of genius; for it is a nobler thing to be a hero than to 
deseribe one to endure martyrdom than to paint it, to do right than to plead for it. Action is greater than 
writing. A good man is a nobler object of contemplation than a great author. There are but two thing s 
worth living for: to do what is worthy of being written; and to write what is worthy of being read; and 
the greater of these is the doing. 

Every man has to do the noblest thing that any man can do or deseribe. There is a wide field for the 
courage, cheerfulness, energy, and dignity of human existence. Let therefore no Mason deem his life 
doomed to medioerity or meanness, to vanity or unprofitable toil, or to any ends less than immortal. No 
one can truly say that the grand prizes of life are for others, and he can do nothing. No matter how 
magnificent and noble an act the author can deseribe or the artist paint,' it will be still nobler for you to 
go and do that which one deseribes, or be the model which the other draws. 

The loftiest action that ever was deseribed is not more magnatemous than that which we may find 
occasion to do, in the daily walks of life; in temptation, in distress, in bereavement, in the solemn 
approach to death. In the great Providence of God, in the great ordinances of our being, there is opened 
to every man a sphere for the noblest action. It is not even in extraordinary situations, where all eyes are 
upon us, where all our energy is aroused, and all our vigilance is awake that the highest efforts of virtue 
are usually demanded of us; but rather in silence and seclusion, amidst our oceupations and our homes; 
in wearing siekness, that makes no complaint; in sorely-tried honesty, that asks no praise; in simple 
disinterestedness, hiding the hand that resigns its advantage to another. 

Masonry seeks to ennoble common life. Its work is to go down into the obscure and researched records 
of daily conduct and feeling; and to portray, not the ordinary virtue of an extraordinary life; but the 
more extraordinary virtue of ordinary life. What is doně and borne in the shades of privacy, in the hard 
and beaten pafh of daily care and toil, full of recelebrated sacrifices; in the suffering, and sometimes 

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insulted suffering, that wears to the world a cheerful brow; in the Iong strife of the spirit, resisting pain, 
penury, and neglect, carried on in the inmost depths of the heart;-what is doně, and borne, and wrought, 
and won there, is a higher glory, and shall inherit a brighter crown. 

On the volume of Masonic life one bright word is written from which on every side blazes an ineffable 
splendor. That word is DUTY. To aid in securing to all labor permanent employment and its just 
reward: to help to hasten the coming of that time when no one shall suffer from hunger or destitution, 
because, though willing and able to work, he can find no employment, or because he has been 
overtaken by sickness in the midst of his labor, are part of your duties as a Knight of the Royal Axe. 
And if we can succeed in making some small nook of Goďs creation a little more fruitful and cheerful, 
a little better and more worthy of Him, or in making some one or two human hearts a little wiser, and 
more manful and hopeful and happy, we shall háve doně work, worthy of Masons and acceptable to our 
Father in Heaven. 

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AMONG most of the Ancient Nations there was, in addition to their public worship, a private one 
styled the Mysteries; to which those only were admitted who had been prepared by certain ceremonies 
called initiations. 

The most widely disseminated of the ancient worships were those of Isis, Orpheus, Dionysus, Ceres and 
Mathias. Many barbarous nations received the knowledge of the Mysteries in honor of these divinities 
from the Egyptians, before they arrived in Greece and even in the British Isles the Druids celebrated 
those of Dionysus, learned by them from the Egyptians. 

The Mysteries of Eleusis, celebrated at Athens in honor of Ceres, swallowed up as it were, all the 
others. All the neighboring nations neglected their own, to celebrate those of Eleusis; and in a little 
while all Greece and Asia Minor were filled with the Initiates. They spread into the Roman Empire, and 
even beyond its limits, "those holý and august Eleusinian Mysteries," said Cicero, "in which the people 
of the remotest lands are initiated." Zosimus says that they embraced the whole human race and 
Aristides termed them the common temple of the whole world. 

There were, in the Eleusinian feasts, two sorts of Mysteries, the great, and the little. The latter were a 
kind of preparation for the former; and everybody was admitted to them. Ordinarily there was a 
novitiate of three, and sometimes of four years. Clement of Alexandria says that what was taught in the 
great Mysteries concerned the Universe, and was the completion and perfection of all instruction; 
wherein things were seen as they were, and nature and her works were made known. 

The ancients said that the Initiates would be more happy after death than other mortals ; and that, while 
the souls of the Profane on leaving their bodies, would be plunged in the mire, and remain buried in 
darkness, those of the Initiates would fly to the Fortunate Isles, the abode of the Gods. 

Plato said that the object of the Mysteries was to re-establish the soul in its primitive purity, and in that 
statě of perfection which it had lost. Epictetus said, "whatever is met with therein has been instituted by 
our Masters, for the instruction of man and the correction of morals." 

Process held that initiation elevated the soul, from a materiál, sensual, and purely human life, to a 
communion and celestial intercourse with the Gods ; and that a variety of things, forms, and species 
were shown Initiates, representing the first generation of the Gods. 

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Purity of morals and elevation of soul were required of the, Initiates. 'Candidates were required to be of 
spotless reputation and irreproachable virtue. Nero, after murdering his mother, did not dare to be 
present at the celebration of the Mysteries and Antony presented himself to be initiated, as the most 
infallible mode of proving his innocence of the death of Avidius Cassius. The Initiates were regarded as 
the only fortunate men. "It is upon us alone," says Aristophanes, "shineth the beneficent daystar. We 
alone receive pleasure from the influence of his rays we, who are initiated, and who practice toward 
citizen and stranger every possible act of justice and piety." And it is therefore not surprising that, in 
time, initiation came to be considered as necessary as baptism afterward was to the Christians ; and that 
not to háve been admitted to the Mysteries was held a dishonor. 

"It seems to me," says the great oratoř, philosopher, and moralist, Cicero, "that Athens, among many 
excellent inventions, divine and very useful to the human family, has produced none comparable to the 
Mysteries, which for a wild and ferocious life háve substituted humanity and urbanity of manners. ^It 
is with good reason they use the term initiation; for it is through them that we in reality háve learned the 
first principles of life; and they not only teach us to live in a manner more consoling and agreeable, but 
they soften the pains of death by the hope of a better life hereafter." 

Where the Mysteries originated is not known. It is supposed that they came from India, by the way of 
Chaldaea, into Egypt, and thence were carried into Greece. Wherever they arose, they were practiced 
among all the ancient nations and as was usual the Thracians, Cretins, and Athenians each claimed the 
honor of invention, and each insisted that they had borrowed nothing from any other people. 

In Egypt and the East, all religions even in its most poetical forms, was more or less a mystery; and the 
chief reason why, in Greece, a distinct name and office were assigned to the Mysteries, was because the 
superficial popular theology left a want unsatisfied, which religion in a wider sense alone could supply. 
They were practical acknowledgments of the insufficiency of the popular religion to satisfy the deeper 
thoughts and aspirations of the mind. The vagueness of symbolism might perhaps reach what a more 
palpable and conventional creed could not. The former, be its indefiniteness, acknowledged the 
abstruseness of its subject; it treated a mysterious subject myopically ; it endeavored to illustrate what it 
could not explain; to excite an appropriate feeling, if it could not develop an adequate idea and shade 
the image a mere subordinate conveyance for the conception, which itself nevěr became too obvious or 

The instruction now conveyed by books and letters was of old conveyed by symbols and the priest had 
to invent or to perpetuate a display of rites and exhibitions, which were not only more attractive to the 
eye than words, but often to the mind more suggestive and pregnant with meaning. 

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Afterward, the institution became rather moral and political, than religious. The civil magistrates 
shaped the ceremonies to political ends in Egypt; the sages who carried them from that country to Asia, 
Greece; and the North of Europe, were all kings or legislators. The chief magistráte presided at those of 
Eleusis, represented by an officer styled King and the Priest played but a subordinate part. 

The Powers revered in the Mysteries were all in reality Natured Gods; none of whom could be 
consistently addressed as mere heroes, because their nature was confessedly super-heroic. The 
Mysteries, only in fact a more solemn expression of the religion of the ancient poetry, taught that 
doctrine of the Theocracia or Divine Oneness, which even poetry does not entirely conceal. They were 
not in any open hostility with the popular religion, but only a more solemn exhibition of its symbols; or 
rather a part of itself in a more impressive form. The essence of all Mysteries, as of all polytheism, 
consists in this, that the conception of an inapproachable Being, single, eternal, and unchanging, and 
that of a God of Nature, whose manifold power is immediately revealed to the senses in the incessant 
round of movement, life and death, fell asunder in the treatment, and were separately symbolized. They 
offered a perpetual problém to excite curiosity, and contributed to satisfy the all-pervading religious 
sentiment, which if it obtain no nourishment among the scruple and intelligible, finds compensating 
excitement in a reverential contemplation of the obscure. 

Nature is as free from dogmatism as from tyranny and the earliest instructors of mankind not only 
adopted her lessons, but as far as possible adhered to her method of imparting them. They attempted to 
reach the understanding through the eye and the greater part of all religious teaching was conveyed 
through this ancient and most impressive mode of "exhibition" or demonstration. The Mysteries were a 
sacred drama, exhibiting some legend significant of 

Nature's change, of the visible Universe in which the divinity is revealed, and whose import was in 
many respects as open to the Pagan, as to the Christian. Beyond the current traditions or sacred recitals 
of the temple, few explanations were given to the spectators, who were left, as in the school of nature, 
to make inferences for themselves. 

The method of indirect suggestion, by allegory or symbol, is a more efficacious instrument of 
instruction than plain didactic "language; since we are habitually indifferent to that which is acquřred 
without effort: "The initiated are few, though many bear the thyrsus." And it would háve been 
impossible to provide a lesson suited to every degree of cultivation and capacity, unless it were one 
framed after Nature's example, or rather a representation of Nature herself, employing her universal 
symbolism instead of technicalities of language, inviting endless research, yet rewarding the humblest 
inquirer, and disclosing its secrets to every one in proportion to his preparatory training and power to 
comprehend them. 

Even if destitute of any formal or official enunciation of those important truths, which even in a 
cultivated age it was often found inexpedient to assert except under a veil of allegory, and which 

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moreover lose their dignity and value in proportion as they are learned mechanically as dogmas, the 
shows of the Mysteries certainly contained suggestions if not lessons, which in the opinion not of one 
competent witness only, but if many, were adapted to elevate the character of the spectators, enabling 
them to augur something of the purposes of existence, as well as of the means of employing it, to live 
better and to die happier. 

Unlike the religion of books or creeds, these mystic shows performances were not the reading of a 
lecture, but the opening of a problém, implying neither exemption from research, nor hostility to 
philosophy: for on the contrary, philosophy is the great Mystagogue or Arch-Expounder of symbolism 
though the interpretations by the Grecian Philosophy of the old myths and symbols were in many 
instances as ill-founded, as in others they are correct. 

No better means could be devised to rouše a dormant intellect than those impressive exhibitions, which 
addressed it through the imagination: which, instead of condemning it to a prescribed routine of creed, 
invited it to seek, compare, and judge. The alteration from symbol to dogma is as fatal to beauty of 
expression, as that from faith to dogma is to truth and wholesomeness of thought The first philosophy 
often reverted to the natural mode of teaching; and Socrates, in particular, is said to háve eschewed 
dogmas, endeavoring, like the Mysteries, rather to awaken and develop in the minds of his hearers the 
ideas with which they were already endowed or pregnant, than to fill them with ready-made 
adventitious opinions. 

So Masonry still follows the ancient manner of teaching. Her symbols are the instruction she gives ; and 
the lectures are but often partial and insufficient one-sided endeavors to interpret those symbols. He 
who would become an accomplished Mason must not be content merely to hear or even to understand 
the lectures, but must, aided by them, and they having as it were marked out the way for him, study, 
interpret, and develop the symbols for himself. 

The earliest speculation endeavored to express far more than it could distinctly comprehend ; and the 
vague impressions if the mind found in the mysterious analogies of phenomena their most apt and 
energetic representations. The Mysteries, like the symbols of Masonry, were but an image of the 
eloquent analogies of Nature; both those and these revealing no new secret to such as were or are 
unprepared, or incapable of interpreting their significance. 

Everywhere in the old Mysteries, and in all the symbolisms and ceremoniál of the Hierophant was 
found the samé mythical personage, who, like Hermes, or Zoroaster, unites Human Attributes with 
Divine, and is himself the God whose worship he introduced, teaching rudé men the commencements 
of civilization through the influence of song, and connecting with the symbol of his death, emblematic 
of that of Nature, the most essential consolations of religion. 

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The Mysteries embraced the three great doctrines of Ancient Theosophy. They treated of God, Man, 
and Nature. Dionysus, whose Mysteries Orpheus is said to háve founded, was the God of Nature, or of 
the moisture which is the life of Nature, who prepares in darkness the return of life and vegetation, or 
who is him- šelf the Light and Change evolving their varieties. He was theologically one with Hermes, 
Prométheus, and Poseidon. In the Aegean Islands he is Butes, Dardanus, Himeros, or Imbros. In Crete 
he appears as Iasius or Zeus, whose worship remaining unveiled by the usual forms of mystery, betrayed 
to profane curiosity the symbols, which, if irreverently contemplated, were sure to be misunderstood. In 
Asia he is the long-stoled Bassareus coalescing with the Sabazius of the Phrygian Corybantes: the samé 
with the mystic Iacchus, nursling or son of Ceres, and with the dismembered Zagreus, son of 
Persephone. In symbolical forms the Mysteries exhibited THE ONE, of which THE MANIFOLD Is an 
infinite illustration, containing a moral lesson, calculated to guide the soul through life, and to cheer it 
in death. The story of Dionysus was profoundly significant. He was not only creator of the world, but 
guardian, liberator, and Savior of the soul. God of the many-colored mantle, he was the resulting 
manifestation personified, the all in the many, the varied year, life passing into innumerable forms. 

The spirituál regeneration of man was typified in the Mysteries by the second birth of Dionysus as 
offspring of the Highest; and the agents and symbols of that regeneration were the elements that 
affected Nature's periodical purification-the air, indicated by the mystic fan or winnow; the fire, 
signified by the torch ; and the baptismal water, for water is not only cleanser of all things, but the 
genesis or source of all. 

Those notions, clothed in rituál, suggested the soufs, reformation and training, the moral purity 
formally proclaimed at Eleusis. He only was invited to approach, who was "of clean hands and 
ingenuous speech, free from all pollution, and with a clear conscience."Happy the man," say the 
initiated in Euripides and Aristophanes, "who purifies his life, and who reverendy consecrates his soul 
in the thirsts of the God. Let him také heed to his lips that he utter no profane word; let him be just and 
kind to the stranger, and to his neighbor; let him give way to no vicious excess, lest he make duli and 
heavy the organs of the spirit. Far from the mystic dance of the thirsts be the impure, the evil speaker, 
the seditious citizen, the selfish hunter after gain, the traitor ; all those, in short, whose practices are 
more akin to the riot of Titans than to the regulated life of the Orphici, or the Curetan order of the 
Priests of Idaean Zeus." 

The votary, elevated beyond the sphere of his ordinary faculties, and unable to account for the agitation 
which overpowered him, seemed to become divine. in proportion as he ceased to be human; to be a 
démon or god. Already, in imagination, the initiated were numbered among the beatified. They alone 
enjoyed the true life, the Sun's true lustre, while they hymned their God beneath the mystic groves of a 
mimic Elysium, and were really renovated or regenerated under the genial influence of their dances. 

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"They whom Proserpine guides in her mysteries," it was said, "who imbibed her instruction and 
spirituál nourishment, rest from their labors and know strife no more. Happy they who witness and 
comprehend these sacred ceremonies! They are made to know the meaning of the riddle of existence by 
observing its aim and termination as appointed by Zeus ; they partake a benefit more valuable and 
enduring than the grain bestowed by wares ; for they are exalted in the scale of intellectual existence, 
and obtain sweet hopes to console them at their death." 

No doubt the ceremonies of initiation were originally few and simple. As the great truths of the 
primitive revelation faded out of the memories of the masses of the People, and wickedness became rife 
upon the earth, it became necessary to discriminate, to require longer probation and satisfactory tests of 
the candidates, and by spreading around what at first were rather schools of instruction than mysteries, 
the veil of secrecy, and the pomp of ceremony, to heighten the opinion of their value and importance. 

Whatever pictures later and especially Christian writers may draw of the Mysteries, they must, not only 
originally, but for many ages, háve continued pure; and the doctrines of natural religion and morals 
there taught, háve been of the highest importance; because both the most virtuous as well as the most 
learned and philosophic of the ancients speak of them in the loftiest terms. That they ultimately became 
degraded from their high estate, and corrupted, we know. 

The rites of initiation became progressively more complicated. Signs and tokens were invented by 
which the Children of Light could with facility make themselves known to each other. Differ. ant 
Degrees were invented, as the number of Initiates enlarged, in order that there might be in the inner 
apartment of the Temple a favored few, to whom alone the more valuable secrets were entrusted, and 
who could wield effectually the influence and power of the Order. Originally the Mysteries were meant 
to be the beginning of a new life of reason and virtue. The initiated or esoteric companions were taught 
the doctrine of the One Supreme God, the theory of death and eternity, the hidden mysteries of Nature, 
the prospect of the ultimate restoration of the soul to that statě of perfection from which it had fallen, its 
immortality, and the states of reward and punishment after death. The uninitiated were deemed Profane, 
unworthy of public employment or private confidence, sometimes prescribed as Atheists, and certain of 
everlasting punishment beyond the grave. 

All persons were initiated into the lesser Mysteries; but few attained the greater, in which the true spirit 
of them, and most of their secret doctrines were hidden. The veil of secrecy was impenetrable, sealed 
by oaths and penalties the most tremendous and appalling. It was by initiation only, that a knowledge of 
the Hieroglyphics could be obtained, with which the walls, columns, and ceilings of the Temples were 
decorated, and which, believed to háve been communicated to the Priests by revelation from the 
celestial deities, the youth of all ranks were laudably ambitious of deciphering. 

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The ceremonies were performed at dead of night, generally in apartments under-ground, but sometimes 
in the centre of a vast pyramid, with every appliance that could alarm and excite the candidate. 
Innumerable ceremonies, wild and romantic, dreadful and appalling, had by degrees been added to the 
few expressive symbols of primitive observances, under which there were instances in which the 
terrified aspirant actually expired with fear. The pyramids were probably ušed for the purposes of 
initiation, as were caverns, pagodas, and labyrinths; for the ceremonies required many apartments and 
cells, long passages and wells. In Egypt a principál pláce for the Mysteries was the island of Philae on 
the Nile, where a magnificent Temple of Osiris stood, and his relics were said to be preserved. 

With their natural proclivities, the Priesthood, that select and exclusive class, in Egypt, India, 
Phoenicia, Judea and Greece, as well as in Britain and Róme, and wherever else the Mysteries were 
known, made use of them to build wider and higher the fabric of their own power. The purity of no 
religion continues long. Rank and dignities succeed to the primitive simplicity. Unprincipled, vain, 
insolent, corrupt, and venal men put on Goďs livery to serve the Devil withal; and luxury, vice, 
intolerance, and pride depose frugality, virtue, gentleness, and humility, and change the altar where they 
should be servants, to a throne on which they reign. 

But the Kings, Philosophers, and Statesmen, the wise and great and good who were admitted to the 
Mysteries, long postponed their ultimate self-destruction, and restrained the natural tendencies of the 
Priesthood. And accordingly Zosimus thought that the neglect of the Mysteries after Diocletian 
abdicated, was the chief cause of the dechne of the Roman Empire ; and in the year 364, the Proconsul 
of Greece would not close the Mysteries, notwithstanding a law of the Emperor Valentinian, lest the 
people should be driven to desperation, if prevented from performing them; upon which, as they 
believed, the welfare of mankind wholly depended. They were practiced in Athens until the 8th century 
in Greece and Róme for several centuries after Christ; and in Wales and Scotland down to the 12th 

The inhabitants of India originally practiced the Patriarchal religion. Even the later worship of Vishnu 
was cheerful and sociál; accompanied with the festive song, the sprightly dance, and the resounding 
cymbal, with libations of milk and honey, garlands, and perfumes from aromatic woods and gums. 
There perhaps the Mysteries commenced; and in them, under allegories, were taught the primitive 
truths. We cannot, within the limits of this lecture, detail the ceremonies of initiation; and shall use 
generál language, except where something from those old Mysteries still remains in Masonry. 

The Initiate was invested with a cord of three threads, so twined as to make three times three, and 
called zennar. Hence comes our cable-tow. It was an emblém of their tri-une Deity, the remembrance of 
whom we also preserve in the three chief officers of our Lodges, presiding in the three quarters of that 
Universe which our Lodges represent; in our three greater and three lesser lights, our three movable and 
three immovable jewels, and the three pillars that support our Lodges. 

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The Indián Mysteries were celebrated in subterranean caverns and grottos hewn in the solid rock; and 
the Initiates adored the Deity, symbolized by the solar fire. The candidate, long wandering in darkness, 
truly wanted Light, and the worship taught him was the worship of God, the Source of Light. The vast 
Temple of Elephants, perhaps the oldest in the world, hewn out of the rock, and 135 feet square, was 
ušed for initiations; as were the still vaster caverns of Salsette, with their 300 apartments. 

The periods of initiation were regulated by the increase and decrease of the moon. The Mysteries were 
divided into four steps or Degrees. The candidate might receive the first at eight years of age, when he 
was invested with the zennar. Each Degree dispensed something of perfection. "Let the wretched man," 
says the Hitopadesa, "practice virtue, whenever he enjoys one of the three or four religious Degrees; let 
him be even-minded with all created things, and that disposition will be the source of virtue." 

After various ceremonies, chiefly relating to the unity and trinity of the Godhead, the candidate was 
clothed in a linen garment without a seam, and remained under the care of a Brahmin until he was 
twenty years of age, constantly studying and practising the most rigid virtue. Then he underwent the 
severest probation for the second Degree, in which he was sanctified by the sign of the cross, which, 
pointing to the four quarters of the compass, was honored as a striking symbol of the Universe by many 
nations of antiquity, and was imitated by the Indians in the shape of their temples. Then he was 
admitted to the Holý Cavern, blazing with light, where, in costly robes, sat, in the East, West, and 
South, the three chief Hierophants, representing the Indián tri-une Deity. The ceremonies there 
commenced with an anthem to the Great God of Nature; and then followed this apostrophe: "O mighty 
primal Creator! Eternal God of Gods! The Worlďs Mansion! Thou art the Incorruptible Being, distinct 
from all things transient! Thou art before all Gods, the Ancient Absolute Existence, and the Supreme 
Supporter of the Universe! Thou art the Supreme Mansion; and by Thee, O Infinite Form, the Universe 
was spread abroad." 

The candidate, thus taught the first great primitive truth, was called upon to make a formal declaration, 
that he would be tractable and obedient to his superiors; that he would keep his body pure; govern his 
tongue, and observe a passive obedience in receiving the doctrines and traditions of the Order; and the 
firmest secrecy in maintaining inviolable its hidden and abstruse mysteries. Then he was sprinkled with 
water (whence our baptism); ' certain words, now unknown, were whispered in his ear; and he was 
divested of his shoes, and made to go three times around the cavern. Hence our three circuits; hence we 
were neither barefoot nor shod: and the words were the Pass-words of that Indián Degree. 

The Gymnosophist Priests came from the banks of the Euphrates into Ethiopia, and brought with them 
their sciences and their doctrines. Their principál College was at Meroe, and their Mysteries were 
celebrated in the Temple of Amun, renowned for his oracle. Ethiopia was then a powerful State, which 
preceded Egypt in civilization, and had a theocratic government. Above the King was the Priest, who 

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could put him to death in the name of the Deity. Egypt was then composed of the Thebaid only. Middle 
Egypt and the Delta were a gulf of the Mediterranean. The Nile by degrees formed an immense marsh, 
which, afterward drained by the labor of man, formed Lower Egypt; and was for many centuries 
governed by the Ethiopian Sacerdotal Caste, of Arábie origin; afterward displaced by a dynasty of 
warriors. The magnificent ruins of Axiom, with its obelisks and hieroglyphics, temples, vast tombs and 
pyramids, around ancient Meroe, are far older than the pyramids near Memphis. 

The Priests, taught by Hermosa embodied in books the oceult and hermetic sciences, with their own 
discoveries and the revelations of the Sibyls. They studied particularly the most abstract sciences, 
discovered the famous geometrical theorems which Pythagoras afterward learned from them, calculated 
eclipses, and regulated, nineteen centuries before Caesar, the Julian year. They descended to practical 
investigations as to the necessities of life, and made known their discoveries to the people; they 
cultivated the fine arts, and inspired the people with that enthusiasm which produced the avenues of 
Thebes, the Labyrinth, the Temples of Karnac, Denderah, Edfou, and Philae, the monolithic obelisks, 
and the great Lake Morris, the fertilizer of the country. 

The wisdom of the Egyptian Initiates, the high sciences and lofty morality which they taught, and their 
immense knowledge, excited the emulation of the most eminent men, whatever their rank and fortuně; 
and led them, despite the complicated and terrible trials to be undergone, to seek admission into the 
Mysteries of Osiris and Isis. 

From Egypt, the Mysteries went to Phoenicia, and were celebrated at Tyre. Osiris changed his name, 
and become Adoni or Dionysos, still the representative of the Sun ; and afterward these Mysteries were 
introduced successively into Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Sicily, and Italy. In Greece and Sicily, 
Osiris took the name of Bacchus, and Isis that of Ceres, Cybele, Rhea and Venus. 

Bar Hebraeus says: "Enoch was the first who invented books and different sorts of writing. The ancient 
Greeks declare that Enoch is the samé as Mercury Trismegistus [Hermes], and that he taught the sons 
of men the art of building cities, and enacted some admirable laws. He discovered the knowledge of the 
Zodiac, and the course of the Planets; and he pointed out to the sons of men, that they should worship 
God, that they should fast, that they should pray, that they should give aims, votive offerings, and 
tenths. He reprobated abominable foods and drunkenness, and appointed festivals for sacrifices to the 
Sun, at each of the 'Zodiacal Signs." 

Manetho extracted his history from certain pillars which he discovered in Egypt, whereon inseriptions 
had been made by Thoth, or the first Mercury [or Hermes], in the sacred letters and dialect: but which 
were after the flood translated from that dialect into the Greek tongue, and laid up in the private 
recesses of the Egyptian Temples. These pillars were found in subterranean caverns, near Thebes and 

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beyond the Nile, not far from the sounding statue of Memnon, it a pláce called Syringes; which are 
described to be certain winding apartments underground; made, it is said, by those who were skilled in 
ancient rites; who foreseeing the coming of the deluge, and fearing lest memory of their ceremonies 
should be obliterated, built and contrived vaults, dug with vast labor, in several places. 

From the bosom of Egypt sprang a man of consummate wisdom, initiated in the secret knowledge of 
India, of Persia, and of Ethiopia, named Thoth or Phtha by his compatriots, Taaut by the Phoenicians, 
Hermes Trismegistus by the Greeks, and Adris by the Rabbins. Nature seemed to háve chosen him for 
her favorite, and to háve lavished on him all the qualities necessary to enable him to study her and to 
know her thoroughly The Deity had, so to say, infused into him the sciences and the arts, in order thať 
he might instruct the whole world. 

He invented many things necessary for the uses of life and gave them suitable names; he taught men 
how to write down their thoughts and arrange their speech; he instituted the ceremonies to be observed 
in the worship of each of the Gods; he observed the course of the stars; he invented music, the different 
bodily exercises, arithmetic, medicine, the art of working in metals, the lyre with three strings; he 
regulated the three toneš of the voice, the sharp, taken from autumn, the grave from winter, and the 
middle from spring, there being then but three seasons. It was he who taught the Greeks the mode of 
interpreting terms and things, whence they gave him the name of v Ee??? [Hermes], which signifies 

In Egypt he instituted hieroglyphics: he selected a certain number of persons whom he judged fitted to 
be the depositaries of his secrets, of such only as were capable of attaining the throne and the first 
offices in the Mysteries; he united them in a body, created them Priests of the Living God, instructed 
them in the sciences and arts, and explained to them the symbols by which they were veiled. Egypt, 
1500 years before the time of Moses, revered in the Mysteries One SUPREME GOD, called the ONLY 
UNCREATED. Under Him it paid homage to seven principál deities, it is to Hermes, who lived at that 
period, that we must distribute the concealment or veiling [velation] of the Indián worship, which 
Moses unveiled or revealed, changing nothing of tbe laws of Hermes, except the plurality of his mystic 

The Egyptian Priests related that Hermes, dying, said: "Hitherto I háve lived an exile from my true 
country: now I return thither. Do not weep for me: I return to that celestial country whither each goes in 
his turn, There is God. This life is but a death." This is precisely the creed of the old Buddhists of 
Samaneans, who believed that from time to time God sent Buddha^s on earth, to reform men, to wean 
them from their vices, and lead them back into the paths of virtue. 

Among the sciences taught by Hermes, there were secrets which he communicated to the Initiates only 
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upon condition that they should bind themselves, by a terrible oath, nevěr to divulge them, except to 
those who, after long trial, should be found worthy to succeed them. The Kings even prohibited the 
revelation of them on pain of death. This secret was styled the Sacerdotal Art, and included alchemy, 
astrology, magnum [magie], the science of spirits, etc. He gave them the key to the Hieroglyphics of all 
these secret sciences, which were regarded as sacred, and kept concealed in the roost secret places of 
the Temple. 

The great secrecy observed by the initiated Priests, for many years, and the lofty sciences which they 
professed, caused them to be honored and respected throughout all Egypt, which was regarded by other 
nations as the college, the sanctuary, of the sciences and arts. The mystery which surrounded them 
strongly excited curiosity. Orpheus metamorphosed himself, so to say, into an Egyptian. He was 
initiated into. Theology and Physics. And he so completely made the ideas and seasonings of his 
teachers his own, that his Hymns rather bespeak an Egyptian Priest than a Grecian Poet: and he was the 
first who carried into Greece the Egyptian fables. Pythagoras, ever thirsty for learning, consented even 
to be circumcised, in order to become one of the Initiates: and the oceult sciences were revealed to him 
in the innermost part of the sanctuary. 

The Initiates in a particular science, having been instructed by fables, enigmas, allegories, and 
hieroglyphics, wrote mysteriously whenever in their works they touched the subject of the Mysteries, 
and continued to conceal science under a veil of fictions. When the destruction by Cambyses of many 
cities, and the ruin of nearly all Egypt, in the year 528 before our era, dispersed most of the Priests into 
Greece and elsewhere, they bore with them their sciences, which they continued to teach enigmatically, 
that is to) say, ever enveloped in the obscurities of fables and hieroglyphics; to the end thať the vulgar 
herd, seeing, might see nothing and hearing, might comprehend nothing. All the writers drew from this 
source: but these Mysteries, concealed under so many unexplained envelopes, ended in giving birth to a 
swarm of absurdities, which, from Greece, spread over the whole earth. In the Grecian Mysteries, as 
established by Pythagoras, there were three Degrees. A preparation of five years' abstinence and silence 
was required. If the candidate was found to be passionate or intemperate, contentious, or ambitious of 
worldly honors and distinctions, he was rejected. 

In his lectures, Pythagoras taught the mathematics, as a medium whereby to prove the existence of God 
from observation and by means of reason; grammar, rhetoric, and logic, to cultivate and improve that 
reason, arithmetic, because he conceived that the ultimate benefit of man consisted in the science of 
numbers, and geometry, music, and astronomy, because he conceived that man is indebted to them for a 
knowledge of what is really good and useful. 

He taught the true method of obtaining a knowledge of the Divine laws of purifying the soul from its 
imperfections, of searching for truth, and of practicing virtue; thus imitating the perfections of God. He 
thought his systém vain, if it did not contribute to expel vice and introduce virtue into the mind. He 

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taught that the two most excellent things were, to speak the truth, and to render benefits to one another 
particularly he inculcated Silence, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice. He taught the 
immortality of the soul, the Omnipotence of God, and the necessity of personál holiness to qualify a 
man for admission into the Society of the Gods. 

Thus we owe the partie ular mode of instruction in the Degree of Fellow-Craft to Pythagoras; and that 
Degree is but an imperfect reproduction of his lectures. From him, too, we háve many of our 
explanations of the symbols. He arranged his assemblies due East and West, because he held that 
Motion began in the East and proceeded to the West. Our Lodges are said to be due East and West, 
because the Master represents the rising Sun, and of course must be in the East. The pyramids, too, 
were built precisely by the four cardinal points. And our expression. that our Lodges extend upward to 
the Heavens, comes from the Persian and Druidic custom of having to their Temples no roofs but the 

Plato developed and spiritualized the philosophy of Pythagoras Even Eusebius the Christian admits, 
that he reached to the vestibule of Truth, and stood upon its threshold. The Druidical ceremonies 
undoubtedly came from India; and the Druids were originally Buddhists. 

The word Druid, like the word Magi, signifies wise or learned men; and they were at once 
philosophers, magistrates, and divines. There was a surprising uniformity in the Temples, Priests, 
doctrines, and worship of the Persian Magi and British Druids. The Gods of Britain were the samé as 
the Cabiri of Samothrace. Osiris and Isis appeared in their Mysteries, under the names of Hu and 
Ceridwen; and like those of the primitive Persians, their Temples were enclosures of huge unhewn 
stones, some of which still remain, and are regarded by the common people with fear and veneration. 
They were generally either circular or oval. Some were in the shape of a circle to which a vast serpent 
was attached. The circle was an Eastern symbol of the Universe, governed by an Omnipotent Deity 
whose center is everywhere, and his circumference nowhere : and the egg was an universal symbol of 
the world. Some of the Temples were winged, and some in the shape of a cross; the winged ones 
referring to Kneph, the winged Serpent-Deity of Egypt ; whence the name of Navestock, where one of 
them stood. Temples in the shape of a cross were also found in Ireland and Scotland. The length of one 
of these vast structures, in the shape of a serpent, was nearly three miles. The grand periods for 
initiation into the Druidical Mysteries, were quarterly; at the equinoxes and solstices. In the remote 
times when they originated, these were the times corresponding with the 13th of February, lst of May, 
19th of August, and lst of November. The time of annual celebration was May-Eve, and the ceremoniál 
preparations commences at midnight, on the 29th of April. When the initiations were over, on May-Eve, 
fires were kindled on all the cairns and cromlechs in the island, which burned all night to introduce the 
sports of May day. 

The festival was in honor of the Sun. The initiations were performed at midnight and there were three 
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Degrees. The Gothic Mysteries were carried Northward from the East, by Odin; who, being a great 
warrior, modeled and varied them to suit his purposes and the genius of his people. He placed over their 
celebration twelve Hierophants, who were alike Priests, Counselors of State, and Judges from whose 
decision there was no appeal. He held the numbers three and nine in peculiar veneration, and was 
probably himself the Indián Buddha. Every thrice-three months, thrice-three victims were sacrificed to 
the try-une God. The Goths had three great festivals; the most magnificent of which commenced at the 
winter solstice, and was celebrated in honor of Thor, the Prince of the Power of the Air. That being the 
longest night in the year, and throne after which the Sun comes Northward, it was commemorative of 
the Creation; and they termed it mother-night, as the one in which the creation of the world and light 
from the primitive darkness took pláce. This was the Yule, Jitul, or Yeof feast, which afterward became 
Christmas. At this feast the initiations were celebrated. Thor was the Sun, the Egyptian Osiris and 
Kneph, the Physician Bel or Baal. The initiations were had in huge-intricate caverns, terminating, as all 
the Mithriac caverns did, in a spacious vault, where the candidate was brought to light. 

Joseph was undoubtedly initiated. After he had interpreted Pharaoh's dream, that Monarch made him 
his Prime Minister, let him ride in his second chariot, while they proclaimed before him, ABRSCHI 
(*An Egytian word,meaning, "Bow down.") and set him over the land of Egypt. In addition to this, the 
King gave hid a new name, Tsapanat-Paanakh, and married him to Asanat, daughter of Potai Paring, a 
Priest of An or Hieropolis, where was the Temple of Athom-Re, the Great God of Egypt; thus 
completely naturalizing him. He could not háve contracted this marriage, nor háve exercised that high 
dignity, without being first initiated in the Mysteries. When his Brethren came to Egypt the second 
time, the Egyptians of his court could not eat with them, as that would háve been abomination, though 
they ate with Joseph; who was therefore regarded not as a foreigner, but as one of themselves: and when 
he sent and brought his brethren back, and charged them with taking his cup, he said, "Know ye not that 
a man like me practices divination?" thus assuming the Egyptian of high rank initiated into the 
Mysteries, sad as such conversant with the occult sciences. 

So also must Moses háve been initiated for he was not only brought up in the court of the King, as the 
adopted son of the Kingly daughter, until he was fořty years of age; but he was instructed in all the 
learning of the Egyptians, and married after ward the daughter of Yethru, a Priest of An likewise. 
Strobo and Diodorus both assert that he was himself a Priest of Heliopolis. Before he went into the 
Desert, there were intimate relations between him and the Priesthood; and he had successfully 
commanded, Josephus informs us, an army sent by the King against the Ethiopians. Simplicius asserts 
that Moses received from the Egyptians, in the Mysteries, the doctrines which he taught to the 
Hebrews: and Clement of Alexandria and Philo say that he was a Theologian and Prophet, and 
interpreter of the Sacred Laws. Manetho, cited by Josephus, says he was a Priest of Heliopolis, and that 
his true and originál (Egyptian) name was Asersaph or Osarsiph. 

And in the institution of the Hebrew Priesthood, in the powers and privileges, as well as the immunities 
and sanctity which he conferred upon them, he dosely imitated the Egyptian institutions; making 

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public the worship of that Deity whom the Egyptian Initiates worshipped in private; and strenuously 
endeavoring to keep the people from relapsing into their old mixture of Chaldaic and Egyptian 
superstition and idol-worship, as they were ever ready and inclined to do; even Aharun, upon their first 
clamorous discontent, restoring the worship of Apis as an image of which Egyptian God he made the 
golden calf. The Egyptian Priests taught in their great Mysteries, that there was one God, Supreme and 
inapproachable, who had conceived the University. His Intelligence, before He created it by His Power 
and Will. They were no Materialists nor Pantheists; but taught that Matter was not eternal or co-existent 
with the great First Cause, but created by Him. 

The early Christians, taught by the founder of their Religion, but in greater perfection, those primitive 
truths that from the Egyptians had passed to the Jews, and been preserved among the latter by the 
Essenes, received also the institution of the Mysteries; adopting as their object the building of the 
symbolic Temple, preserving the old Scriptures of the Jews as their sacred book, and as the 
fundamental law, which furnished the new veil of initiation with the Hebraic words and formulas, that, 
corrupted and disfigured by time and ignorance, appear in many of our Degrees. 

Such, my Brother, is the doctrine of the first Degree of the Mysteries, or that of chief of the Tabernacle, 
to which you háve now been admitted, and the moral lesson of which is, devotion to the service of God, 
and disinterested zeal and constant endeavor for the welfare of men. You háve here received only hints 
of the true objects and purposes of the Mysteries. Hereafter, if you are permitted to advance, you will 
arrive at a more complete understanding of them and of the sublime doctrines which they teach. Be 
content, therefore, with that which you háve seen and heard, and await patiently the advent of the 
greater light. 


SYMBOLS were the almost universal language of ancient theology. They were the most obvious 
method of instruction; for like nature herself, they addressed the understanding through the eye and the 
most ancient expressions denoting communication of religious knowledge, signify ocular exhibition. 
The first teachers of mankind borrowed this method of instruction and it comprised an endless store of 
pregnant hieroglyphics. These lessons of the olden time were the riddles of the Sphynx, tempting the 
curious by their quaintness, but involving the personál risk of the adventurous interpreter. "The Gods 
themselves," it was said, "disclose their intentions to the wise, but to fools their teaching is 
unintelligible; "and the King of the Delphic Oracle was said not to declare, nor onthe other hand to 
conceal; but emphatically to "intimate or signify." 

The Ancient Sages, both barbarian and Greek, involved their meaning in similar indirections and 
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enigmas ; their lessons were conveyed either in visible symbols, or in those "parables and dark sayings 
of old," which the Israelites considered it a sacred duty to hand down unchanged to successive 
generations. The explanatory tokens employed by man, whether emblematical objects or actions, 
symbols or mystic ceremonies, were like the mystic signs and portends either in dreams or by the 
wayside, supposed to he significant of the intentions of the Gods; both required the aid of anxious 
thought and skillful interpretation. It was only by a conect appreciation of analogous problems of 
nature, that the will of Heaven could be understood iy the Diviner, or the lessons of Wisdom become 
manifest to the Sage. 

The Mysteries were a series of symbols; and what was spoken there consisted wholly of accessory 
explanations of the act or image; sacred commentaries, explanatory of established symbols; with little 
of those independent traditions embodying physical or moral speculation, in which the elements or 
planets were the Sage actors and the creationland revolutions of the world were intermingled with 
recollections of ancient events: and yet with so much of that also, that nature became her own expositor 
through the medium of an arbitrary symbolical instruction; and the ancient views of the relation 
between the human and divine received dramatic forms. 

There has ever been an intimate alliance between the two systems, the symbolic and the philosophical, 
in the allegories of the monuments of all ages, in the symbolic writings of the priests of all nations, in 
the rituals of all secret and mysterious societies; there has been a constant series, an invariable 
uniformity of princip les, which come from an aggregate, vast imposing, and true, composed of parts 
that fit harmoniously only there. 

Symbolical instruction is recommended by the constant anď uniform usage of antiquity, and it has 
retained its influence throughout all ages, as a systém of mysterious communication. The Deity, in his 
revelations to man, adopted the use of materiál images for the purpose of enforcing sublime truths; and 
Christ taught by symbols and parables. The mysterious knowledge of the Druids was embodied in signs 
and symbols. Taliesin, describing his initiation, says: "The secrets were imparted to me by the old 
Giantess (Ceridwen, or Isis), without the use of audible language." And again he says, "I am a silent 
proficient" Initiation was ,a school, in which were taught the truths of primitive revelation, the existence 
and attributes of one God, the immortality of the Soul, rewards and punishments in a future life, the 
phenomena of Nature, the arts, the sciences, morality, regulation, philosophy, and philanthropy, and 
what we now style psychology and metaphysics, with animal magnetism, and the other occult sciences. 

All the ideas of the Priests of Hindustan, Persia, Syria, Arabia, Chaldaea, Phoenicia, were known to the 
Egyptian Priests. The rational Indián philosophy, after penetrating Persia and Chaldaea, gave birth to 
the Egyptian Mysteries. We find that the use of Hieroglyphics was preceded in Egypt by that of the 
easily understood symbols and figures, from the minerál, animal, and vegetable kingdoms, ušed by the 
Indians, Persians, and Chaldans to express their thoughts; and this primitive philosophy was the basis of 

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the modern philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato. All the philosophers and legislators that made 
Antiquity illustrious, were pupils of the initiation; and all the beneficent modifications in the religions 
of the different people instructed by them were owing to their institution and extension of the 
Mysteries. In the chaos of popular superstitions, those Mysteries alone kept man from lapsing into 
absolute brutishness. Zoroaster and Confucius drew their doctrines from the Mysteries. Clement of 
Alexandria, speaking of the Great Mysteries, says: "Here ends all instruction. Nature and all things are 
seen and known moral truths alone been taught the Initiate, the Mysteries could nevěr háve deserved 
nor received the magnificent eulogiums of the most enlightened alien of Antiquity, of Pindar, Plutarch, 
Isocrates, Diodorus, Plato, Euripides, Socrates, Aristophanes, Cicero, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and 
others; philosophers hostile to the Sacerdotal Spirit, or historians devoted to the investigation of Truťh. 
No, all the sciences were taught there and those oral on written traditions briefly communicated, which 
reached back to the first age of the world. 

Socrates said, in the Phaedo of Plato: "It well appears that those who established the Mysteries, or 
secret assemblies of the initiated, were no contemptible personages, but men of great genius, who in the 
early ages strove to teach us, under enigmas, that he who shall go to the invisible regions without being 
punfied, will be precipitated into the abyss; while he who arrives there, purged of the stains of this 
world, and accomplished in virtue, will be admitted to the dwelling-place of the Deity. The jnitiated are 
certain to attain the company of the Gods." 

Pretextatus, Proconsul of Achaia, a man endowed with all the virtues, said, in the 4th century, that to 
deprive the Greeks of those Sacred Mysteries which bound together the whole human race, would make 
life insupportable. Initiation was considered to be a mystical death; a descent into the infernal regions, 
where every pollution, and the stains and imperfectioďs of a corrupt and evil life were purged away by 
fire and water; and the perfect Epopt was then said to be regenerated, newborn, restored to a renovated 
existence of life, light, and purity; and placed under the Divine Protection. 

A new language was adapted to these celebrations, and also a language of hieroglyphics, unknown to 
any but those who had received the highest Degree. 

And to them ultimately were confined the learning, the morality and the political power, of every 
people among which the Mysteries were practiced. So effectually was the knowledge of the 
hieroglyphics of the highest Degree hidden from all but a favored few, that in process of time their 
meaning was entirely lost, and none could interpret them. If the samé hieroglyphics were employed in 
the higher as in the lower Degrees, they had a different and more abstruse and figurative meaning. It 
was pretended, in later times, that the sacred hieroglyphics and language were the samé that were ušed 
by the Celestial Deities. Everything that could heighten the mystery of initiation was added, until the 
very name of the ceremony possessed a strange charm, and yet conjured up the wildest fears. ache 
greatest rapture came to be expressed by the word that signified to pass through the Mysteries. 

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The Priesthood possessed one third of Egypt. They gained much of their influence by means of the 
Mysteries, and spared no means to impress the people with a full sense of their importance. They 
represented them as the beginning of a new life of reason and virtue the initiated, or esoteric 
companions were said to entertain the most agreeable anticipations respecting death and eternity, to 
comprehend all the hidden mysteries of Nature, to háve their souls restored to the originál perfection 
from which man had fallen; and at their death to be borne to the celestial mansions of the Gods. The 
doctrines of a future statě of rewards and punishments formed a prominent feature in the Mysteries; and 
they were also believed to assure much temporal happiness and good fortuně, and afford absolute 
security against the most imminent dangers by land and sea. Public odium was cast of those who 
refused to be initiated. They were considered profane, unworthy of public employment or private 
confidence; and held to be doomed to eternal punishment as impious. To betray the secrets of the 
Mysteries, to wear on the stage the dress of an Initiate, or to hold the Mysteries up do derision, was to 
incur death at the hands of public vengeance. 

It is certain that up to the time of Cicero, the Mysteries still retained much of their originál character of 
sanctity and purity. And at a later day, as we know, Nero, after committing a horrible crime, did not 
dare, even in Greece, to aid in the celebration of the Mysteries; nor at a still later day was Constantine, 
the Christian Emperor, allowed to do so, after his murder of his relatives. 

Everywhere, and in all their forms, the Mysteries were funereal; and celebrated the mystical death and 
restoration to life of some divine or heroic personage: and the details of the legend and the mode of the 
death varied in the different Countries where the Mysteries were practiced. 

Their explanation belongs both to astronomy and mythology, and the Legend of the Masteťs Degree is 
but another form of that of the Mysteries, reaching back, in one shape or other, to the remotest 

Whether Egypt originated the legend, or borrowed it from India or Chaldea, it is now impossible to 
know. But the Hebrews received the Mysteries from the Egyptians; and of course were familiar with 
their legend, known as it was to those Egyptian Initiates, Joseph and Moses. It was the fable (or rather 
the truth clothed in allegory and figures) of Osiris, the Sun, Source of Light and Principle of good, and 
Typhon, the Principle of Darkness, and Evil. In all the histories of the Gods and Heroes lay couched 
and hidden astronomical details and the history of the operations of visible Nature; and those in their 
turn were also symbols of higher and profounder truths. 

None but rudé uncultivated intellects could long consider the Sun and Stars and the Powers of Nature as 
Divine, or as fit objects of Human Worship; and they will consider them so while the world lasts ; and 

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ever. remain ignorant of the great Spirituál Truths of which these are the hieroglyphics and expressions. 

A brief summary of the Egyptian legend will serve to show the leading idea on which the Mysteries 
among the Hebrews were based. Osiris, said to háve been an ancient King of Egypt, was the Sun; and 
Isis, his wife, the Moon and his history recounts, in poetical and figurative style, the annual journey of 
the Great Luminary of Heaven through the different Signs of the Zodiac. In the absence of Osiris, 
Typhon, his brother, filled with envy and malice, sought to usurp his throne; but his plans were 
frustrated by Isis. Then he resolved to kill Osiris. This he did,. by persuading him to enter a coffin or 
sarcophagus, which he then flung into the Nile. Alter a Long search, Isis found the body, and concealed 
it in the depths of a forest; but Typhon, finding it there, cut it into fourteen pieces, and scattered them 
hither and thither. After tedious search, Isis found thirteen pieces, the fishes having oaten the other (the 
privates), which she replaced of wood, and buried the body at Philae; where a temple of surpassing 
magnificence was erected in honor of Osiris. 

Isis, aided by her son Orus, Horus or Har-oeri, warred against Typhon, slew him, reigned gloriously, 
and at her death was reunited to her husband, in the samé tomb. Typhon was represented as born of the 
earth; the upper part of his body covered with feathers, in stature reaching the clouds, his arms and legs 
covered with scales, serpents darting from him on every side, and fire flashing from his mouth. Horus, 
who aided in slaying him, became the God of the Sun, answering to the Grecian Apollo; and Typhon is 
but the anagram of Python, the great serpent slain by Apollo. 

The word Typhon, like Eve, signifies a serpent, and life. By its form the serpent symbolizes life, which 
circulates through all nature. When, toward the end of autumn, the Woman (Virgo), in the 
constellations seems (upon the Chaldean sphere) to crush with her heel the head of the serpent, this 
figuře foretells the coming of winter, during which life seems to retire from all beings, and no longer to 
circulate through nature. This is why Typhon signifies also a serpent, the symbol of winter, which, in 
the Catholic Temples, is represented surrounding the Terrestrial Globe, which surmounts the heavenly 
cross, emblém of redemption. If the word Typhon is derived from Tupoul) it signifies a tree which 
produces apples (malá) evils), the Jewish origin of the fall of man. Typhon means also one who 
supplants, and signifies the human passions, which expel from our hearts the lessons of wisdom. In the 
Egyptian Fable, Isis wrote the sacred word for the instruction of men, and Typhon effaced it as fast as 
she wrote it. In morals, his name signifies Pride, Ignorance and Falsehood. 

When Isis first found the body, where it had floated ashore near Byblos, a shrub of Erica or tamarisk 
near it had, by the virtue of the body, shot up into a tree around it, and protected it; and hence our sprig 
of acacia. Isis was also aided in her search by Anubis, in the shape of a dog. He was Sirius or the Dog- 
Star, the friend and counselor of Osiris, and the inventor of language, grammar, astronomy, surveying, 
arithmetic, music, and medical science; the first maker of laws; and who taught the worship of the 
Gods, and the building of Temples. 

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In the Mysteries, the nailing up of the body of Osiris in the chest or ark was termed the aphanism) or 
disappearance [of the Sun at the Winter Solstice, below the Tropič of Capricorn], and the recovery of 
the different parts of his body by Isis, the Euresis, or finding. The candidate went through a ceremony 
representing this, in all the Mysteries everywhere. The main facts in the fable were the samé in all 
countries; and the prominent Deities were everywhere a male and a female. 

In Egypt they were Osiris and Isis; in India, Mahadeva and Bhavani; in Phoenicia, Thammuz (or 
Adonis) and Astarte; in Phrygia, Atys and Cybele; in Persia, Mithras and Asis; in Samothrace and 
Greece, Dionysus or Sabazeus and Rhea; in Britain, Hu and Ceridwen; and in Scandinavia, Woden and 
Frea; and in every instance these Divinities represented the Sun and the Moon. 

The mysteries of Osiris, Isis, and Horus, seem to háve been the model of all other ceremonies of 
initiation subsequently established among the different peoples of the world. Those of Atys and Cybele, 
celebrated in Phrygia; those of Ceres and Proserpine, at Eleusis and many other places in Greece, were 
but copies of them. This we learn from Plutarch, Diodorus Siculus, Lactantius, and other writers; and in 
the absence of direct testimony should necessarily infer it from the similarity of the adventures of these 
Deities; for the ancients held that the Ceres of he Greeks was the samé as the Isis of the Egyptians; and 
Dionusos or Bacchus as Osiris. 

In the legend of Osiris and Isis, as given by Plutarch, are many details and circumstances other than 
those that we háve briefly mentioned; and all of which we need not repeat here. Osiris married his sister 
Isis; and labored publicly with her to ameliorate he lot of men. He taught them agriculture, while Isis 
invented laws. He built temples to the Gods, and established their worship. Both were the patrons of 
artists and their useful inventions and introduced the use of iron for defensive weapons and implements 
of agriculture, and of gold to adorn the temples of the Gods. He went forth with an army to conquer 
men to civilization, teaching he people whom he overcame to plant the vine and sow grain for food. 

Typhon, his brother, slew him when the sun was in the sign of the Scorpion, that is to say, at the 
Autumnal Equinox. They had been rival claimants, says Synesius, for the throne of Egypt, as Light and 
Darkness contend ever for the empire of the world. Plutarch adds, that at the time when Osiris was 
slain, the moon was at its Ml; and therefore it was in the sign opposite the Scorpion, that is, the Bull, 
the sign of the Vernal Equinox. 

Plutarch assures us that it was to represent these events and details that Isis established the Mysteries, in 
which they were reproduced by images, symbols, and a religious ceremoniál, whereby they were 
imitated and in which lessons of piety were given, and consolations under the misfortunes that afflict us 
here below. Those who instituted these Mysteries meant to strengthen religion and console men in their 

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sorrows by the lofty hopes found in a religious faith, whose principles were represented to them covered 
by a pompous ceremoniál, and under the sacred veil of allegory. 

Diodorus speaks of the famous columns erected near Nysa, in Arabia, where, it was said, were two of 
the tombs of Osiris and Isis. On one was this inscription: "I am Isis, Queen of this country. I was 
instructed by Mercury. No one can destroy the laws which I háve established. I am the eldest daughter 
of Saturn, most ancient of the Gods. I am the wife and sister of Osiris the King. I first made known 
tomortals the use of wheat. I am the mother of Orus the King. In my honor was the city of Bubaste 
built. Rejoice, O Egypt, rejoice, land that gave me birth!" And on the other was this: "I am Osiris the 
King, who led my armies into all parts of the world, to the most thickly inhabited countries of India, the 
North, the Danube, and the Oceán. I am the eldest son of Saturn; I was born of the brilliant and 
magnificent egg, and my substance is of the samé nature as that which composes light. There is no 
pláce in the Universe where I háve not appeared, to bestow my benefits and make known my 
discoveries." The rest was illegible. 

To aid her in the search for the body of Osiris, and to nurse her infant child Horus, Isis sought out and 
took with her Anubis, son of Osiris, and his sister Nephte. He, as we háve said, was Sirius, the brightest 
stár in the Heavens. After finding him, she went to Byblos, and seated herself near a fountain; where 
she had learned that the sacred chest had stopped which contained the body of Osiris. There she sat, sad 
and silent, shedding a torrent of tears. 

Thither came the women of the Court of Queen Astarte, and she spoke to them, and dressed their heir, 
pouring upon it deliciously perfumed ambrosia. This known to the Queen, Isis was engaged as nurse for 
her child, in the paláce, one of the columns of which was made of the Erica or tamarisk, that had grown 
up over the chest containing Osiris, cut down by the King, and unknown to him, still enclosing the 
chest: which column Isis afterward demanded, and from it extracted the chest and the body, which, the 
latter wrapped in thin drapery and perfumed, she carried away with her. 

Blue Masonry, ignorant of its import, still retains among its emblems one of a woman weeping over a 
broken column, holding in her hand a branch of acacia, myrtle, or tamarisk, while Time, we are told, 
stands behind her combing out the ringlets of her hair. We need not repeat the vapid and trivial 
explanation there given, of this representation of Isis, weeping at Byblos, over the column torn from the 
paláce of the living, that contained the body of Osiris, while Horus, the God of Time, pours ambrosia 
on her hair. 

Nothing of this recitál was historical; but the whole was an allegory or sacred fable, containing a 
meaning known only to those who were initiated into the Mysteries. All the incidents were 
astronomical, with a meaning still deeper lying behind that explanation, and so hidden by a double veil. 

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The Mysteries in which these incidents were represented and explained, were like those of Eleusis in 
their object, of which Pausanias, who was initiated, says that the Greeks, from the remotest antiquity, 
regarded them as the best calculated of all things to lead mental piety and Aristotle says they were the 
most valuable of all religious instillations, and thus were called mysteries par excellence and the Temple 
of Eleusis was regarded as, in some sort, the common sanctuary of the whole earth, where religion had 
brought together all that was most imposing and most august. 

The object of all the Mysteries was to inspire men with piety, and to console them in the miseries of 
life. That consolation, so afforded, was the hope of a happier future, and of pasting, after death, to a 
statě of eternal felicity. Cicero says that the Initiates not only received lessons which made life more 
agreeable, but drew from the ceremonies happy hopes for the moment of death. 

Socrates says that those who were so fortunate as to be admitted to the Mysteries, possessed, when 
dying, the most glorious hopes for eternity. Aristides says that they not only procure the Initiates 
consolations in the present life, and means of deliverance from the great weight of their evils, but also 
the precious advantage of passing after death to a happier statě. 

Isis was the Goddess of Sais and the famous Feast of Lights was celebrated there in her honor. There 
were celebrated the Mysteries, in which were represented the death and subsequent restoration to life of 
the God Osiris, in a secret ceremony and scenic representation of his sufferings, called the Mysteries of 

The Kings of Egypt often exercised the functions of the Priesthood and they were initiated into the 
sacred science as soon as they attained the throne. So at Athens, the First Magistráte, or Archon-King, 
superintended the Mysteries.' This was an image of the union that existed between the Priesthood and 
Royalty, in those early times when legislators and kings sought in religion a potent political instrument. 

Herodotus says, speaking of the reasons why animals were deified in Egypt: "If I were to explain these 
reasons, I should be led to the disclosure of those holý matters which I particularly wish to avoid, and 
which, but from necessity, I should not leave discussed at all." So he says, "The Egyptians háve at Sais 
the tomb of a certain personage, whom I do not think myself permitted to specify. It is behind the 
Temple of Minerva." [The latter, so called by the Greeks, was really Isis, whose was the often cited 
enigmatical inscription, "I am what was and is and is to come. No mortal hath yet unveiled me."] So 
again he says: "Upon this lake are represented by night the accidents which happened to him whom I 
dare not name. The Egyptians call them their Mysteries. 

Concerning these, at the samé time that I confess myself sufficiently informed, I feel myself compelled 
to be silent. Of the ceremonies also in honor of Ceres I may not venture to speak, further than the 

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obligations of religion will allow me." 

It is easy to see what was the great object of initiation and the Mysteries; whose first and greatest fruit 
was, as all the ancients testify, to civilize savage hordes, to soften their ferocious manners, to introduce 
among them sociál intercourse, and lead them into a way of life more worthy of men. Cicero considers 
the establishment of the Eleusian Mysteries to be the greatest of all the benefits conferred by Athens on 
other commonwealths; their effects having been, he says, to civilize men, soften their savage and 
ferocious manners, and teach them the trae principles of morals, which initiate man into the only kind 
of life worthy of him. The samé philosophic oratoř, in a passage where he apostrophizes Ceres and 
Proserpine, says that mankind owes these Goddesses the first elements of moral life, as well as the first 
means of sustenance of physical life; knowledge of the laws, regulation of morals, and those examples 
of civilization which háve improved the manners of men and cities. 

Bacchus in Euripides says to Pentheus, that his new institution (the Dionysian Mysteries) deserved to be 
known, and that one of its great advantages was, that it prescribed all impurity: that these were the 
Mysteries of Wisdom, of which it would be imprudent to speak to persons not initiated: that they were 
established among the Barbarians, who in that showed greater wisdom than the Greeks, who had not 
yet received them. 

This double object, political and religious, one teaching our duty to men, and the other what we owe to 
the Gods; or rather, respect for the Gods calculated to maintain that which we owe the laws, is found in 
that well-known verse of Virgil, borrowed by him from the ceremonies of initiation: "Teach me to 
respect Justice and the Gods." This great lesson, which the Hierophant impressed on the Initiates, after 
they had witnessed a representation of the Infernal regions, the Poet places after his description of the 
different punishments suffered by the wicked in Tartarus, and immediately after the description of that 
of Sisyphus. 

Pausanias, likewise, at the close of the representation of the punishments of Sisyphus and the daughters 
of Danaus, in the Temple at Delphi, makes this reflection; that the crime or impiety which in them had 
chiefly merited this punishment, was the contempt which they had shown for the Mysteries of Eleusis. 

From this reflection of Pausanias, who was an Initiate, it is easy to see that the Priests of Eleusis, who 
taught the dogma of punishment in Tartarus, included among the great crimes deserving these 
punishments, contempt for and disregard of the Holý Mysteries; whose object was to lead men to piety, 
and thereby to respect for justice and the laws, chief object of their institution, if not the only one, and 
to fvhich the needs and interest of religion itself were subordinate; since the latter was but a means to 
lead more surely to the foyer; for the whole force of religious opinions being in the hands of the 
legislators to be wielded, they were sure of being better obeyed. 

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The Mysteries were not merely simple illustrations and the observation of some arbitrary formulas and 
ceremonies; nor a means of reminding men of the ancient condition of the race prior to civilization: but 
they led men to piety by instraction in morals and as to a future life; which at a very early day, if not 
originally, formed the chief portion of the ceremoniál. 

Symbols were ušed in the ceremonies, which referred to agriculture, as Masonry has preserved the ear 
of wheat in a symbol and in one of her words; but their principál reference was to astronomical 
phenomena. Much was no doubt said as to the condition of brutality and degradation in which man was 
sunk before the institution of the Mysteries; but the allusion was rather metaphysical, to the ignorance 
of the uninitiated, than to the wild life of the earliest men. 

The great object of the Mysteries of Isis, and in generál of all the Mysteries, was a great and truly 
politic one. It was to ameliorate our race, to perfect, its manners and morals, and to restrain society by 
stronger bonds than those that human laws impose. They were the invention of that ancient science and 
wisdom which exhausted all its resources to make legislation perfect; and of that philosophy which has 
ever sought to secure the happiness of man, by purifying his soul from the passions which can trouble 
it, and asia necessary consequence introduce sociál disorder. And that they were the work of genius is 
evident from their employment of all the sciences, a profound knowledge of the human heart, and the 
means of subduing it. 

It is a still greater mistake to imagine that they were the inventions of charlatanism, and means of 
deception. They may in the lapse of time háve degenerated into imposture and schools of falše ideas; 
but they were not so at the beginning; or else the wisest and best men of antiquity háve uttered toe most 
willful falsehoods. In process Of time the very allegories of the Mysteries themselves, Tantalus and its 
punishments, Minos and the other judges of the dead. came to be misunderstood, and to be falše 
because they were so; while at first they were true, because they were recognized as merely the 
arbitrary forms in which truths were enveloped. 

The object of the Mysteries was to procure for man a reál felicity on earth by the means of virtue; and 
to that end he was taught that his soul was immortal; and that error, sin, and vice must needs, by an 
inflexible law, produce their consequences. The rudé representations of physical torture in Tantalus was 
but an image of, the certain, unavoidable, eternal consequences that flow by the law of Goďs enactment 
from the sin committed and the vice indulged in. The poets and mystagogues labored to propagate these 
doctrines of the soufs immortality and the certain punishment of sin and vice, and to accredit them 
with the people, by teaching them the former in their poems, and the latter in the sanctuaries; and they 
clothed them with the charms, the one of poetry, and the other of spectacles and magie illusions. 

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They painted, aided by all the resources of art, the virtuous man's happy life after death, and the horrors 
of the frightful prisons destined to punish the vicious. In the shades of the sanctuaries, these delights 
and horrors were exhibited as spectacles, and the Initiates witnessed religious dramas, under the name 
of initiation and mysteries. Curiosity was excited by secrecy, by tie difficulty experienced in obtaining 
admission, and by the tests to be undergone. The candidate was amused by the variety of the scenery, 
the pomp of the decorations, the appliances of machinery. Respect was inspired by the gravity and 
dignity of the actors and the majesty of the ceremoniál and fear and hope, sadness and delight, were in 
turns excited. 

The Hierophants, men of intellect, and well understanding the disposition of the people and the art of 
controlling them, ušed every appliance to attain that object, and give importance and impressiveness to 
their ceremonies. As they covered those ceremonies with the veil of Secrecy, so they preferred that 
Night, should cover them with its wings. Obscurity adds to impressiveness, and assists illusion; and 
they ušed it to produce an effect upon the astonished Initiate. The ceremonies were conducted in 
caverns dimly lighted; thick groves were planted around the Temples, to produce that gloom that 
impresses the mind with a religious awe. 

The very word mystery, according to Demetrius Phalereus, was a metaphorical expression that denoted 
the secret awe which darkness and gloom inspired. The night was almost always the time fixed for their 
celebration; and they were ordinarily termed nocturnal ceremonies. Initiations into the Mysteries of 
Samothrace tookplace at night; as did those of Isis, of which Apuleius speaks. 

Euripides makes Bacchus say, that his Mysteries were celebrated at night, because there is in night 
something august and imposing. Nothing excites men's curiosity so much as Mystery, concealing things 
which they desire to know and nothing so much increases curiosity as obstacles that interpose to 
prevent them frown indulging in the gratification of their desires. Of this the Legislators and 
Hierophants took advantage, to attract the people to their sanctuaries, and to induce them to seek to 
obtain lessons from which they would perhaps háve turned away with indifference, if they had been 
pressed upon them. In this spirit of mystery they professed to imitate the Deity who hides Himself from 
our senses, and conceals from us the springs by which He moves the Universe. 

They admitted that they concealed the highest truths under the veil of allegory, the more to excite the 
curiosity of men, and to urge them to investigation. The secrecy in which they buried their Mysteries, 
had that end. 

Those to whom they were confided, bound themselves, by the most fearful oaths, nevěr to reveal them. 
They were not allowed even to speak of these important secrets with any others than the initiated ; and 
the penalty of death was pronounced against any one indiscreet enough to reveal them, or found in the 

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Temple without being an Initiate; and any one who had betrayed those secrets, was avoided by all, as 

Aristotle was accused of impiety, by the Hierophant Eurymendon, for having sacrificed to the maneš of 
his wife, according to the rite ušed in the worship of Ceres. He was compelled to flee to Chalcis; and to 
purge his memory from this stain, he directed, by his will, the erection of a Statue to that Goddess. 

Socrates, dying, sacrificed to Esculapius, to exculpate himself from the suspicion of Atheism. A price 
was set on the head of Diagoras because he had divulged the Secret of the Mysteries. Andocides was 
accused of the samé crime, as was Alcibiades, and both were cited to answer the charge before the 
inquisition at Athens, where the People were the Judges. Aeschylus the Tragedian was accused of 
having represented the Mysteries on the stage and was acquitted only on proving that he had nevěr been 

Seneca, comparing Philosophy to initiation, says that the most sacred ceremonies could be known to the 
adapts alone but that man of their precepts were known even to the Profane. Such was the čase with the 
doctrine of a future life, and a statě of rewards and punishments beyond the grave. The ancient 
legislators clothed this doctrine in the pomp of a mysterious ceremony, in mystic words and magical 
representations, to impress upon the mind the truths they taught, by the strong influence of such scenic 
displays upon the senses and imagination. 

In the samé way they taught the origin of the soul, its fall to the earth past the spheres and through the 
elements, and its finál return to the pláce of its origin, when, during the continuance of its union with 
earthly matter, the sacred fire, which formed its essence, had contracted no stains, and its brightness 
had not been marred by foreign particles, which, denaturalizing it, weighed it down and delayed its 
return. These metaphysical ideas, with difficulty comprehended by the mass of the Initiates, were 
represented by figures, by symbols, and by allegorical analogies; no idea being so abstract that men do 
not seek to give it expression by, and translate it into, sensible images. 

The attraction of Secrecy was enhanced by the difficulty of obtaining admission. Obstacles and 
suspense redoubled curiosity. Those who aspired to the initiation of the Sun and in the Mysteries of 
Mathias in Persia, underwent many trials. 'they commenced by easy tests and arrived by degrees at 
those that were most cruel, in which the life of the candidate was often endangered. Gregory Nazianzen 
terms them tortures and mystic punishments. No one call be initiated, says Suidas, until after he has 
proven, by the most terrible trials, that he possesses a virtuous soul, exempt from the sway of every 
passion, and at it were impassible. There were twelve principál tests and some make the number larger. 

The trials of the Eleusinian initiations were not so terrible; but they were severe and the suspense, 
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above all in which the aspirant was kept for several years [the memory of which is retained in Masonry 
by the ages of those of the different Degrees], or the interval between admission to the inferior and 
initiation in the great Mysteries, was a species of torture to the curiosity which it was desired to excite. 
Thus the Egyptian Priests tried Pythagoras before admitting him to know the secrets of the sacred 
science. He succeeded, by his incredible patience and the courage with which he surmounted all 
obstacles, in obtaining admission to their society and receiving theřr lessons. Among the Jews, the 
Essenes admitted none among them, until they had passed the tests or several Degrees. 

By initiation, those who before were fellow-citizens only, became brothers, connected by a closer bond 
than before, by means of a religious fraternity, which, bringing men nearer together, united them more 
strongly and the weak and the poor could more readily appeal for assistance to the powerful and the 
wealthy, with whom religious association gave them a closer fellowship. 

The Initiate was regarded as the favorite of the Gods. For him alone Heaven opened its treasures. 
Fortunate during life, he could, by virtue and the favor of Heaven, promise himself after death an 
eternal felicity. 

The Priests of the Island of Samothrace promised favorable winds and prosperous voyages to those who 
wer initiated. It was promised them that the CABIRI, and Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri, should 
appear to them when the storm raged, and give them calms and smooth seas and the Scholiast of 
Aristophanes says that those initiated in the Mysteries there were just men, who were privileged to 
escape from great evils and tempests. 

The Initiate in the Mysteries of Orpheus, after he was purified, was considered as released from the 
empire of evil, and transferred to a condition of life which gave him the happiest hopes. "I háve 
emerged from evils he was made to say, "and háve attained good." Those initiated in the Mysteries of 
Eleusis believed that the Sun blazed with a pure splendor for them alone. And, as we see in the čase of 
Pericles, they flattered themselves that Ceres and Proserpine inspired them and gave them wisdom and 

Initiation dissipated errors and banished misfortune and after having filled the heart of man with joy 
during life, it gave him the most blissful hopes at the moment of da We owe it to the Goddesses of 
Eleusis, says Socrates, that we do not lead the wild life of the earliest men and to them are due the 
flattering hopes which initiation gives us for the moment of death and for all eternity. The benefit 
which we reap from these august ceremonies, says Aristides, is not only present joy, a deliverance and 
enfranchisement from the old ills; but also the sweet hope which we háve in death of passing to a more 
fortunate statě. And Theon says that participation of the Mysteries is the finest of all things, and the 
source of the greatest blessings. The happiness promised there was not limited to this mortal life; but it 

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extended beyond the grave. There a new life was to commence, during which the Initiate was to enjoy a 
bliss without alloy and without limit. The Corybantes promised eternal life to the Initiates of the 
Mysteries of Cybele and Atys. 

Apuleius represents Lucius, while still in the form of an ass, as addressing his prayers to Isis, whom be 
speaks of as the samé as Ceres, Venus, Diana, and Proserpine, and as illuminating the walls of many 
cities simultaneously with her feminine lustre, and substituting her quivering light for the bright rays of 
the Sun. She appears to him in his vision as a beautiful female, "over whose divine neck her long thick 
hair hung in graceful ringlets" Addressing him, she says, "The parent of Universal nature attends thy 
call. The mistress of the Elements, initiative germ of generations, Supreme of Deities, Queen of 
departed spirits, first inhabitant of Heaven, and uniform type of all the Gods and Goddesses, propitiated 
by thy prayers, is with thee. She governs with her nod the luminous heights of the firmament, the 
salubrious breezes of the oceán; the silent deplorable depths of the shades below; one Sole Divinity 
under many forms, worshipped by the different nations of the Earth under many titles, and with various 

Directing him how to proceed, at her festival, to re-obtain his human shape, she says: "Throughout the 
entire course of the remainder of thy life, until the very last breath has vanished from thy lips, thou art 
devoted to my service Under my protection will thy life be happy and glorious and when, thy days being 
spent, thou shall descend to the shades below, and inhabit the Elysian fields, there also, even in the 
subterranean hemisphere, shall thou pay frequent worship fo me, thy propitious patron and yet further if 
through sedulous obedience, religious devotion to my ministry, and inviolable chastity, thou shall prove 
thy šelf a worthy object of divine favor, then shall thou fell the influence of the power that I alone 
possess. The number of thy days shall be prolonged beyond the ordinary decrees of fate." In the 
procession of the festival, Lucius saw the image of the Goddess, on either side of which were female 
attendants, that, "with ivory combs in their hands, made believe, by the motion of their arms and the 
divesting of their fingers, to comb and ornament the Goddess' royal hair." Afterward, clad in linen 
robes, came the initiated, "The hair of the women was moistened by perfume, and enveloped in a 
transparent covering; but the men, terrestrial stars, as it were, of the great religion, were thoroughly 
shaven, and their bald heads shone exceedingly" Afterward came the Priests, in robes of white linen. 
The first bore a lamp in the form of a boat, emitting fláme from an orifice in the middle; the second, a 
small altar; the thřrd, a golden palmtree; and the fourth displayed the figuře of a left hand, the palm 
open and expanded, "representing thereby a symbol of equity and fair dealing, of which the left hand, 
as slower than the right hand, and more void of skill and craft, is therefore an appropriate emblém." 

After Lucius had, by the grace of Isis, recovered his human form, the Priest said to him, "Calamity hath 
no hold on those whom our Goddess hath chosen for her service, and whom her majesty hath 
vindicated." And the people declared that he was fortunate to be "thus after a manner born again, and at 
once betrothed to the service of the Holý Ministry." 

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When he urged the Chief Priest to initiate him, he was answered that there was not "a single one among 
the initiated, of a mind so degraded, or so bent on his own destruction, as without receiving a speciál 
command from Isis, to dare to undertake her ministry rashly and sacrilegiously, and thereby commit an 
act certain to bring upon himself a dreadful injury." For, continued the Chief Priest, the gates of the 
shades below, and the care of our life being in the hands of the Goddess, the ceremony of initiation into 
the Mysteries is, as it were, to suffer death, with the precarious chance of resuscitation. Wherefore the 
Goddess, in the wisdom of her divinity, hath been accustomed to select as persons to whom the secrets 
of her religion can with propriety be entrusted, those who, standing as it were on the utmost limit of the 
course of life they háve completed, may through her Providence be in a manner born again, and 
commence the career of a new existence." When he was finally to be initiated, he was conducted to the 
nearest baths, and after having bathed, the Priest first solicited forgiveness of the Gods, and then 
sprinkled him all over with the clearest and purest water, and conducted him back to the Temple; 
"where," says Apuleius, "after giving me some instruction, that mortal tongue is not permitted to reveal, 
he bade me for the succeeding ten days restrain my appetite, eat no animal food, and drink no wine." 

These ten days elapsed, the Priest led him into the inmost recesses of the Sanctuary. "And here, 
studious reader," he continues "peradventure thou wilt be suffciently anxious to know all that was said 
and doně, which, were it lawful to divulge, I woulď telí thee; and, wert thou permitted to hear, thou 
shouldst know. Nevertheless, although the disclosure would affix the penalty of rash curiosity to my 
tongue as well as thy ears, yet will I, for fear thou shouldst be too long tormented with religious 
longing, and suffer the pain of protracted suspense, telí the truth notwithstanding. Listen then to what I 
shall relate. 

I approached the abode of death; with my foot I pressed the threshold of Proserpine's Paláce. I was 
transported through the elements, and conducted back again. At midnight I saw the bright light of the 
sun shining. I stood in the presence of the Gods, the Gods of Heaven and of the Shades below; ay, stood 
clear and worshipped. And now háve I told thee such things that, hearing, thou necessarily canst not 
understand; and being beyond the comprehension of the Profane, I can enunciate without committing a 
crime." After night had passed, and the morning had dawned, the usual ceremonies were at an end. 
Then he was consecrated by twelve stoles being put upon him, clothed, crowned with palmleaves, and 
exhibited to the people. The remainder of that day was celebrated as his birthday and passed in 
festivities; and on the third day afterward, the samé religious ceremonies were repeated, including a 
religious breakfast, "followed by a finál consummation of ceremonies." 

A year afterward, he was warned to prepare. for initiation into the Mysteries of "the Great God, 
Supreme Parent of all the other Gods, the invincible Osiris." "For," says Apuleius, "although there is a 
strict connection between the religions of both Deities, AND EVEN THE ESSENCE OF BOTH 
DIVINITIES IS IDENTICAL, the ceremonies of the respective initiations are considerably different." 

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Compare with this hint the following language of the prayer of Lucius, addressed to Isis ; and we may 
judge what doctrines were taught in the Mysteries, in regard to the Deity: "O Holý and Perpetual 
Preserver of the Human Race ! ever ready to cherish mortals by Thy munificence, and to afford Thy 
sweet maternal affection to the wretched under misfortune; Whose bounty is nevěr at rest, neither by 
day nor by night, nor throughout the very minutest particle of duration; Thou who stretchest forth Thy 
health-bearing right hand over the land and over the sea for the protection of mankind, to disperse the 
storms of life, to unravel the inextricable entanglement of the web of fate, to mitigate the tempests of 
fortuně, and restrain the malignant infilences of the stars, the Gods in Heaven adore Thee, the Gods in 
the shades below do Thee homage, the stars obey Thee, the Divinities rejoice in Thee, the elements and 
the revolving seasons serve Thee! At Thy nod the Winds breathe, clouds gather, seeds grow, buds 
germinate; in obedience to Thee the Earth revolves AND THE SUN GIVES US LIGHT IT IS THOU 

Then he was initiated into the nocturnal Mysteries of Osiris and Serapis; and afterward into those of 
Ceres at Róme; but of the ceremonies in these initiations, Apuleius says nothing. Under the Archonship 
of Euclid, bastards and slaves were excluded from initiation; and the samé exclusion obtained against 
the Materialists or Epicureans who denied Providence and consequently the utility of initiation. By a 
natural progress, it came at length to be considered that the gates of Elysium would open only for the 
Initiates, whose souls had been purified and regenerated in the sanctuaries. But it was nevěr held, on 
the other hand, that initiation alone sufficed. We learn from Plato, that it was also necessary for the soul 
to be purified from every stain; and that the purification necessary was such as gave virtue, truth, 
wisdom, strength, justice, and temperance. 

Entrance to the Temples was forbidden to all who had committed homicide, even if it were involuntary. 
So it is stated by both Isocrates and Theon. Magicians and Charlatans who made trickery a trade, and 
impostors pretending to be possessed by evil spirits, were excluded from the sanctuaries. Every impious 
person and criminal was rejected; and Lampridius states that before the celebration of the Mysteries, 
public notice was given, that none need apply to enter but those against whom their consciences uttered 
no reproach, and who were certain of their own innocence. 

It was required of the Initiate that his heart and hands should be free from any stain. Porphyry says that 
man's soul, at death, should be enfranchised from all the passions, from hatě, envy, and the others; and 
in a word, be as pure as it is required to be in the Mysteries. Of course it is not surprising that parricides 
and perk jurors, and others who had committed crimes against God or man, could not be admitted. 

In the Mysteries of Mithras, a lecture was repeated to the Initiate on the subject of Justice. And the 
great moral. Lesson of the Mysteries, to which all their mystic ceremoniál tended, expressed in a single 
line by Virgil, was to practice Justice and revere the Deity, thus recalling men to justice, by connecting 
it with the justice of the Gods, who require it and punish its infraction. The Initiate could aspire to the 

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favors of the Gods, only because and while he respected the rights of society and those of humanity. 
"The sun," says the chorus of Initiates in Aristophanes, "burns with a pure light for us alone, who, 
admitted to the' Mysteries, observe the laws of piety in our intercourse with strangers and our fellow- 
citizens." The rewards of initiation were attached to the practice of the, sociál virtues. It was not enough 
to be initiated merely. It was necessary to be faithful to the laws of initiation, which imposed on men 
duties in regard to their kind. Bacchus allowed none to participate in his Mysteries, but men who 
performed to the rules of piety and justice. Sensibility, above all, and compassion for the misfortunes of 
others, were precious virtues, which initiation strove to encourage. "Nature," says Juvenal "has created 
us compassionate, since it has endowed us with tears. 

Sensibility is the most admirable of our senses. What man is truly worthy of the torch of the Mysteries; 
who such as the Priest of Ceres requires him to be, if he regards the misfortunes of others as wholly 
foreign to himself?" 

All who had not ušed their endeavors to defeat a conspiracy, and those who had on the contrary 
fomented one; those citizens who had betrayed their country, who had surrendered an advantageous 
post or pláce, or the vessels of the State, to the enemy; all who had supplied the enemy with money; and 
in generál, all who had come short of their duties as honest men and good citizens, were excluded from 
the Mysteries of Eleusis. To be admitted there, one must háve lived equitably, and with suffcient good 
fortuně not to be regarded as hated by the Gods. 

Thus the Society of the Initiates was, in its principle, and according to the true purpose of its institution, 
a society of virtuous men, who labored to free their souls from the tyranny of the passions, and to 
develop the germ of all the sociál virtues, And this was the meaning of the idea, afterward 
misunderstood, that entry into Elysium was only allowed to the Initiates because entrance to the 
sanctuaries was allowed to the virtuous only, and Elysium was created for virtuous souls alone. 

The precise nature and details of the doctrines as to a future life, and rewards and punishments there, 
developed in the Mysteries, is in a measure uncertain. Little direct information in regard to it has corme 
down to us. No doubt, in the ceremonies, there was a scenic representation of Tantalus and the 
judgment of the dead, resembling that which we find in Virgil: but there is as little doubt ihat these 
representations were explained to be allegorical. It is not our purpose here to repeat the descriptions 
given We are only concerned with the great fact that the Mysteries taught the doctrine of the soufs 
immortality, and that, in some shape, suffering, pain, remorse, and agony, ever follow sin as its 

Human ceremonies are indeed but imperfect symbols and the alternate baptisms in fire and in water 
intended to purify us into immortality, are ever in, this world interrupted at the moment of their 

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anticipated completion. Life its a mirror which reflects only to deceive, a tissue perpetually. Interrupted 
and broken, an urn forever fed, yet nevěr full. 

All initiation is but introductory to the great change of death. Baptism, anointing, embalming, 
obsequies by burial or fire, are preparatory symbols, like the initiation of Hercules before descending to 
the Shades, pointing out the mental change which ought to precede the renewal of existence. Death is 
the true initiation, to which sleep is the introductory or minor mystery. It is the finál rite which united 
the Egyptian with his God, and which opens the samé promise to all who are duly prepared for it. 

The body was deemed a prison for the soul; but the latter was not condemned to eternal banishment and 
imprisonment. The Father of the Worlds permits its chains to be broken, and has provided in the course 
of Nature the means of its escape. It was a doctrine of immemorial antiquity, shared alike by Egyptians, 
Pythagoreans, the Orphici, and by that characteristic Bacchus Sage, "the Preceptor of the Soul," 
Silence, that death is far better than life; that the reál death belongs to those who on earth are immersed 
in the Lethe of its passions and fascinations, and that the true life commences only when the soul is 
emancipated for its return. 

And in this sense, as presiding over life and death, Dionysus is in the highest sense the LIBERATOR. 
Since, like Osiris, he frees the soul, and guides it in its migrations beyond the grave, preserving it from 
the risk of again falling under the slavery of matter or of some inferior animal form, the purgatory of 
Metempsychosis; and exalting and perfecting its nature through the purifying disciplině of his 
Mysteries. "The great consummation of all philosophy," said Socrates, professedly quoting from 
traditional and mystic sources, "is Death: He who pursues philosophy aright, is studying how to die." 

All soul is part of the Universal Soul, whose totality is Dionysus; and it is therefore he who, as Spirit of 
Spirits, leads back the vagrant spirit to its home, and accompanies it through the purifying processes, 
both reál and symbolical, of its earthly thansit. He is therefore emphatically the Mystic or Hierophant, 
the great Spirituál Mediator of Greek religion. 

The human soul is itself demonios a God withers the mind, capable through its own power of rivaling 
the canonization of the Hero, of making itself immortal by the practice of the good, and the 
contemplation of the beautiful and true. 

The removal to the Happy Islands could only be understood mythically; everything earthly must die; 
Man, like OEdipus, is wounded from his birth, his realm elysium can exist only beyond the grave. 
Dionysus died and descended to the shades. His passion was the great Secret of the Mysteries; as Death 
is the Grand Mystery of existence. His death, typical of Nature's Death, or of her periodical decay and 
restoration, eras one of the many symbols of the palingenesia or second birth of man. 

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Man descended from the elemental Forces or Titans [Elohim], who fed on the body of the Pantheistic 
Deity creating the Universe by self-sacrifice, commemorates in sacramental observance this mysterious 
passion; and while partaking of the raw flesh of the victim, seems to be invigorated by a fresh draught 
from the fountain of unversal life, to receive a new pledge of regenerated existence. Death is the 
inseparable antecedent of life; the seed lies in order to produce the plant, and earth ishelf is rent asunder 
and dies at the birth of Dionusos. Hence the significancy of the phallus, or of its inoffensive substitute, 
the obelisk, rising as an emblém of resurrection by the tomb of buried Deity at Lerna or it Sais. 

Dionysus-Orpheus descended to the Shades to recover the lost Virgin of the Zodiac, to bring back his 
mother to the sky as Thyone; or what has the samé meaning, to consummate his eventful marriage with 
Persephone, thereby securing, like the nuptials of his father with Semele or Danae, the perpetuity of 

His under-earth office is the depression of the year, the wintry aspect in the alternations of bull and 
serpent, whose uniteď series makes up the continuity of Time, and in whirls, physically speaking, the 
stash and dark are ever the parents of the beautiful and bright. 

The Mysteries, the human sufferer was consoled by witnessing the severer trials of the Gods; and the 
vicissitudes of life and death, expressed by apposite symbols, such as the sacrifice or submission of the 
Bull, the extinction and re-illumination of the torch, excited corresponding emotions of alternate grief 
and joy, that play of passion which was present at the origin of Nature, and which accompanies all her 

The greater Eleusiniae were celebrated in the month Boedromion, when the seed was buried in the 
ground, and when the year, verging to its decline, disposes the mind to serious reflection. The first days 
of the ceremoniál were passed in sorrow and anxious silence, in fasting and expiatory or lustral offices. 
On a sudden, the scene was changed sorrow and lamentation were discarded, the glad name of Bacchus 
passed from mouth to mouth, the image of the God, crowned with myrtle and bearing a lighted torch, 
was borne in, joyful procession from the Ceramicus to Eleusis, where, during thee ensuing night, the 
initiation was completed by an imposing revelation. The first scene was in the paonaos, or outer court 
of the sacred enclosure, where amidst utter darkness, or while the meditating God, the stár illuminating 
the Nocturnal Mystery, alone carried an unextinguished torch, the candidates were overawed with 
terrific sounds and noises, while they painfully groped their way, as in the gloomy cavern of the soufs 
sub lunar migration; a scene justly compared to the passage of the Valley of the Shadow of Death. For 
by the immutable law exemplified in the trials of Psyche, man must pass through the terrors of the 
under-world, before he can reach the height of Heaven. At length the gates of the adytum were thrown 
open, a supernatural light streamed from the illuminated statue of the Goddess, and enchanting sights 
and sounds, mingled with songs and dances, exalted the communicant to a rapture of supreme felicity, 

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realizing, as far as sensuous imagery could depict, the anticipated reunion with the Gods. 

In the dearth of direct evidence as to the detail of the ceremonies enacted, or of the meanings connected 
with them, their tendency must be inferred from the characteristics of the contemplated deities with 
their accessory symbols and mythi, or from direct testimony as to the value of the Mysteries generally. 
The ordinary phenomena of vegetation, the death of the seed in giving birth to the plant, connecting the 
sublimest hopes with the plainest occurrences, was the simple yet beautiful formula assumed by the 
great mystery in almost all religions, from the Zend-Avesta to the Gospel. As Proserpine, the divine 
power is as the seed decaying and destroyed; as Artemis, she is the principle of its destruction; but 
Artemis Proserpine is also Core Soteria, the Saviour, who leads the Spirits of Hercules and Hyacinthus 
to Heaven. Many other emblems were employed in the Mysteries, as the dove, the myrtle-wreath, and 
others, all significant of life rising out of death, and of the equivocal condition of dying yet immortal 

The horrors and punishments of Tantalus, as described in the Phaedo and the AEneid, with all the 
ceremonies of the judgments of Minos, Eacus, and Rhadamanthus, were represented, sometimes more 
and sometimes less fully, in the Mysteries; in order to impress upon the minds of the Initiates this great 
lesson, that we should be ever prepared to appear before the Supreme Judge, with a heart pure and 
spotless; as Socrates teaches in the Gorgias. For the soul stained with crimes, he says, to descend to the 
Shades, is the bitterest ill. To adhere to Justice and Wisdom, Plato holds, is our duty, that we may some 
day také that lofty road that leads toward the heavens, and avoid most of the evils to which the soul is 
exposed in its subterranean journey of a thousand years. And so in the Phaedo, Socrates teaches that we 
should seek here below to free our soul of its passions, in order to be ready to enter our appearance, 
whenever Destiny summons us to the Shades. 

Thus the Mysteries inculcated a great moral truth, veiled with a fable of huge proportions and the 
appliances of an impressive spectacle, to which exhibited in the sanctuaries art and natural magie lent 
all they had that was imposing. 

They sought to strengthen men against the horrors of death and the fearful idea of utter annihilation. 
Death, says the author of the dialogue, entitled Axiochus, included in the works of Plato, is but a 
passage to a happier statě; but one must háve lived well, to attain that most fortunate result. So that the 
doctrine of the immortality of the soul was consoling to the virtuous and religious man alone; while to 
all others it came with menaces and despair, surrounding them with terrors and alarms that disturbed 
their řepo se during all their life. 

For the materiál horrors of Tantalus, allegorical to the Initiate, were reál to the mass of the Profane ; nor 
in latter times, did, perhaps many Initiates read rightly the allebaory. The triple-walled prison, which 

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the condemned soul first met, round which swelled and surged the fiery waves of Phlegethon, wherein 
rolled roaring, huge, blazing rocks; the great gate with columns of adamant, which none savé the Gods 
could crush; Tisiphone, their warder, with her bloody robes; the lash resounding on the mangled bodies 
of the miserable unfortunates, their plaintive groans, mingled in horrid 'harmony with the clashing of 
their chains; the Furies, lashing the guilty with their snakes; the awful abyss where Hydra howls with its 
hundred heads, greedy to devour; Tityus, prostrate, and his entrails fed upon by the cruel vulture; 
Sisyphus, ever rolling his rock; Ixion on his wheel; Tantalus tortured by eternal thirst and hunger, in the 
midst of water and with delicious fruits touching his head; the daughters, of Danaus at their eternal, 
fruitless task; beasts biting and venomous reptiles stinging; and devouring fláme eternally consuming 
bodies ever renewed in endless agony; all these sternly impressed upon the people the terrible 
consequences of sin and vice, and urged them to pursue the paths of honesty and virtue. 

And if, in the ceremonies of the Mysteries, these materiál horrors were explained to the Initiates as 
mere symbols of the unimaginable torture, remorse, and agony that would rend the immaterial soul and 
rack the immortal spirit, they were feeble and insufficient in the samé mode and measure only, as all 
materiál images and symbols fall short of that which is beyond the cognizance of our senses and the 
grave Hierophant, the imagery, the paintings, the dramatic horrors, the funeral sacrifices, the august 
rnysteries, the solemn silence of the sanctuaries, were none the less impressive, because they were 
known to be but symbols, that with materiál shows and images made the imagination to be the teacher 
of the intellect, expiation; and the tests of water, air, and flre were represented; by means of which, 
during the march of many years, the soul could be purified, and rise toward the ethereal regions; that 
ascent being more or less tedious and laborious, according as each soul was more or less clogged by the 
gross impediments of its sins and vices. Herein was shadowed forth, (how distinctly taught the Initiates 
we know not), the doctrine that pain and sorrow, misfortune and remorse, are the inevitable 
consequences that flow from sin and vice, as effect flows from cause; that by each sin and every act of 
vice the soul drops back and loses ground in its advance toward perfection and that the ground so, lost 
is and will be in reality nevěr so recovered as that the sin shall be as if it nevěr had been committed; but 
that throughout all the eternity of its existence', each soul shall be conscious that every act of vice or 
baseness it did on earth has made the distance greater between itself and ultimate perfection. 

We see this truth glimmering in the doctrine, taught in the Mysteries, that though slight and ordinary 
offences could be expiated by penances, repentance, acts of beneficence, and prayers, grave crimes 
were mortal sins, beyond the reach of all such remedies. Eleusis closed her gates against Nero and the 
Pagan Priests told Constantine that among all their modes of expiation there was none so potent as 
could wash from his soul the dark spots left by the murder of his wife, and his multiplied perjuries and 

The object of the ancient initiations being to ameliorate mankind and to perfect the intellectual part of 
man, the nature of the human soul, its origin, its destination, its relations to the body and to universal 
nature, all formed part of the mystic science and to them in part the lessons given to the Initiate were 

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directed. For it was believed that initiation tended to his perfection, and to preventing ,the divine part 
within him, overloaded with, matter gross and earthy, from being plunged into gloom, and impeded in 
its return to the Deity. The soul, with them, was not a mere conception or abstraction; but a reality 
including in itself life and thought; or, rather, of whose essence it was to live and think. It was materiál; 
but not brate, inert, inactive, lifeless, motionless, formless, lightless matter. It was held to be active, 
reasoning, thinking; its natural home in the highest regions of the Universe, whence it descended to 
illuminate, give form and movement to, vivify, animate, and carry with itself the baser matter and 
whither it unceasingly tends to reascend, when and as soon as it can free itself from its connection with 
that matter. From that substance, divine, infinitely delicate and active, essentially luminous, the souls 
of men were formed, and by it alone, uniting with and organizing their bodies, men lived. 

This was the doctrine of Pythagoras, who learned it when he received the Egyptian Mysteries : and it 
was the doctrine of all who, by means of the ceremoniál of initiation, thought to purify the soul. Virgil 
makes the spirit of Archives teach it to AEneas: and all the expiations and lustrations vised in the 
Mysteries were but symbols of those intellectual olies by which the soul was to be purged of its vice- 
spots and stains, and freed of the encumbrance of its earthly prison, so that it might rise unimpeded to 
the source from which it came. 

Hence sprung the doctrine of the transmigration of souls; which Pythagoras taught as an allegory, and 
those who came after him received literally. Plato, like him, drew his doctrines from the East and the 
Mysteries, and undertook to translate the language of the symbols ušed there, into that of Philosophy; 
and to prove by argument and philosophical deduction, what felt by the consciousness, the Mysteries 
taught by Symbols as an indisputable fact, the immortality of the soul. Cicero did the samé; and 
followed the Mysteries in teaching that the Gods were but mortal men, who for their great virtues and 
signál services had deserved that their souls should, after death, be raised to that lofty rank. 

It being taught in the Mysteries, either by way of allegory, the meaning of which was not made known 
except to a select few, or, perhaps only at a later day, as an actual reality, that the souls of the vicious 
dead passed into the bodies of those animals to whose nature their vices had most affinity, it was also 
taught that the soul could avoid these transmigrations, often successive and numerous, by the practice 
of virtue, which would acquit it of thrum, free it from the circle of successive generations, and restore it 
at once to its source. Hence nothing was so ardently prayed far by the Initiates, says Proclus, as this 
happy fortuně, which, delivering them from the empire of Evil, would restore them to their true life, and 
conduct them to the pláce of finál rest. To this doctrine probably referred those figures of animals and 
monsters which were exhibited to the Initiate, before allowing him to see the sacred light for which he 
sighed. Plato says, that souls will not reach the term of their ills, until the revolutions of the world háve 
restored them to their primitive condition, and purified them from the stains which they háve contracted 
by the contagion of fire, earth, and air. And he held that they could not be allowed to enter Heaven, 
until they had distinguished themselves by the practice of virtue in some one of three several bodies. 
The Manicheans allowed five: Pindar, the samé. number as Plato; as did the Jews. And Cicero says, that 

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the ancient soothsayers, and the interpolators of the will of the Gods, in their religious ceremonies and 
initiations, taught that we expiate here below the crimes committed in a prior life ; and for that are born. 
It was taught in these Mysteries, that the soul passes' through several states, and that the pains and 
sorrows of this life are an expiation of prior faults. 

This doctrine of transmigration of souls obtained, as Porphyry informs us, among the Persians and 
Magi. It was held in the East and the West, and that from the remotest antiquity. Herodotus found, it 
among the Egyptians, who made the term of the circle of migrations from one human body, through 
animals, fishes, and birds, to another human body,' three thousand years. Empedocles even held that 
souls went into plants. Of these, the laurel was the noblest, as of animals the lion; both being 
consecrated to the Sun, to which, it was held in the Orient, virtuous souls were to return. The Curds, the 
Chinese, the Cabbalists, all held the samé doctrine. So Origin held, and the Bishop Synesius, the latter 
of whom had been initiated, and who thus prayed to God: "O Father, grant that my soul, reunited to the 
light, may not be plunged again into the defilements of earth," So the Gnostics held; and even the 
Disciples of Christ inquired if the man who was born blind, was not so punished for some sin that he 
had committed before his birth. 

Virgil, in the celebrated allegory in which he develops the doctrines taught in the Mysteries, enunciated 
the doctrine, held by" most of the ancient philosophers, of the pre-existence oP souls, in the eternal fire 
from which they emanate; that fire which animates the stars, and circulates in every part of Nature and 
the purifications of the soul, by fire, water, and air, of which he speaks, and which three modes were 
employed in the Mysteries of Bacchus, were symbols of the passage of the soul into different bodies. 

The relations of the human soul with the rest of nature were a chief object of the science of the 
Mysteries. The man was there brought face to face with entire nature, The world, and the spherical 
envelope that surrounds it, were represented by a mystic egg, by the side of the image of the Sun-God 
whose Mysteries were celebrated. The famous Orphic egg was consecrated to Bacchus in his Mysteries. 
It was, says Plutarch, an image of the Universe, which engenders everything, and contains everything in 
its bosom. "Consult," says Macrobius, "the Initiates of the? Mysteries of Bacchus, who honor with 
speciál veneration the sacred egg." The rounded and almost spherical form of its shell, he says, which 
encloses it on every side, and confines within itself the principles of life, is a symbolic image of the 
world and the world is the universal principle of all things. 

This symbol was borrowed from the Egyptians, who also consecrated the egg to Osiris, germ of Light, 
himself born, sans Diodorus, from that famous egg. In Thebes, in Upper Egypt, he was represented as 
emitting it from his mouth, and causing to issue from it the first principle of heat and light, or the Fire- 
God, Vulcan, or Phtha. We find this egg even in Japan, between the horns of the famous Mithriac Bull, 
whose attributes Osiris, Apis, and Bacchus all borrowed. 

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Orpheus, author of the Grecian Mysteries, which he carried from Egypt to Greece, consecrated this 
symbol : and taught that matter, untreated and informers, existed from all eternity, unorganized, as 
chaos; containing in itself the Principles of all Existences confused and intermingled, light with 
darkness, the dry with the humid, heat with cold; from which, it after long ages seeking the shape of an 
immense egg, issued the purest matter, or First substance, and the residue was divided into the four 
elements, from which proceeded heaven and earth and all things else. This Grand Cosmogonic idea he 
taught in the Mysteries; and thus the Hierophant explained the meaning of the mystic egg, seen by the 
initiates in the Sanctuary. 

Thus entire Nature, in her primitive organization, was presented to him whom it was wished to instruct 
in her secrets and initiate in her mysteries; and Clement of Alexandria might well say that initiation was 
a reál physiology. 

So Phanes, the Light-God, in the Mysteries of the New Orphics, emerged from the egg of chaos: and 
the Persians had the great egg of Ormuzd. And Sanchoniathon tells us that in the Phoenician theology, 
the matter of chaos took the form of an egg; and he adds: "Such, are the lessons which the Son of 
Thabion first Hierophant of the Phoenicians, turned into allegories, in which physics and astronomy 
intermingled, and which he taught to the other Hierophants, whose duty it was to preside at orgies and 
initiations and who, seeking to excite the astonishment and admiration of mortals, faithfully transmitted 
these things to their successors and the Initiates." 

In the Mysteries was also taught the division of the Universal Cause into an Active and a Passive cause; 
of which two, Osiris and Isis, the heavens and the earth were symbols. These two First Causes, into 
which it was held that the great Universal First Cause at the beginning of things divided itself, were the 
two great Divinities, whose worship was, according to Varro, inculcated upon the Initiates at 
Samothrace. "As is taught," he says, "in the initiation into the Mysteries at Samothrace, Heaven and 
Earth are regarded as the two first Divinities. They are the potent Gods worshipped in that Island, and 
whose names are consecrated in the books of our Augurs. One of them is male and the other female; 
and they bear the samé relation to each other as the soul does to the body, humidity to dryness." The 
Curates, in Crete, had built an altar to Heaven and to Earth; whose Mysteries they celebrated at 
Gnossus, in a cypress grove. 

These two Divinities, the Active and Passive Principles of the Universe, were commonly symbolized by 
the generative pasts of man and woman; to which, in remote ayes, no idea of indecency was attached; 
the Phallus and Cteis, emblems of generation and production, and which, as such, appeared in the 
Mysteries. The Indián Lingam was the union of both, as were the boat and mast and the point within a 
circle all of which expressed the samé philosophical idea as to the Union of the two great Causes of 
Nature, which concur, one actively and the other passively, in the generation of all beings; which were 
symbolized by what we now term Gemini, the Twos, at that remote period when the Sun was in that 

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Sign at the Vernal Equinox, and when they were Male and Female; and of which the Phallus was 
perhaps taken from the generative organ of the Bull, when about twenty-five hundred years before our 
era he opened that equinox, and became to the Ancient World the symbol of the creative and generative 

The Initiates at Eleusis, commenced, Process says, by invoking the two great causes of nature, the 
Heavens and the Earth, on which in succession they fixed their eyes, addressing to each a prayer. And 
they deemed it their duty to do so, he adds, because they saw in them the Father and Mother of all 

The concourse of these two agents of the Universe was termed in theological language a marriage. 
Tertullian, accusing the Valentinians of having borrowed these symbols from the Mysteries of Eleusis, 
yet admits that in those Mysteries they were explained in a manner consistent with decency, as 
representing the powers of nature. He was too little of a philosopher to comprehend the sublime 
esoteric meaning of these embalms, which will, if you advance, in other Degrees be unfolded to you. 

The Christian Fathers contented themselves with reviling and ridiculing the use of these emblems. But 
as they in the earlieť times created no indecent ideas, and were worn alike by the most innocent youths 
and virtuous women, it will be far wiser for us to seek to penetrate their meaning. Not only the 
Egyptians, says Diodorus Sinuous, but every other people that consecrate this symbol (the Phallus), 
deem that they thereby do honor to the Active, Force of the universal generation of all living things. For 
the samé reason, as we learn from the geographer Ptolemy, it was revered among the Assyrians and 

Proclus remarks that, in the distribution of the Zodiac among she twelve great Divinities, by ancient 
astrology, six signs were assigned to the male and six to the female principle. 

There is another division of nature, which has in all ages struck all men, and which was not forgotten in 
the Mysteries; that of Light and Darkness, Day and Night, Good and Evil; which mingle with, and clash 
against, and pursue or are pursued by eaeh other throughout the Universe. The Great Symbolic Egg 
distinctly reminded the Initiates of this great division of the world. 

Plutarch, treating of the dogma of a Providence, and of that of the two principles of Light and 
Darkness, which he regarded as the basis of the Ancient Theology, of the Orgies and the Mysteries, as 
well among the Greeks as the Barbarians, a doctrine whose origin, according to him, is lost in the night 
of time, cites, in support of his opinion, the famous Mystic Egg of the disciples of Zoroaster and the 
Initiates in the Mysteries of Mithras. 

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To the Initiates in the Mysteries of Eleusis was exhibited the spectacle of these two principles, in the 
successive scenes of Darkness and Light which passed before their eyes. To the profoundest darkness, 
accompanied with illusions and horrid phantoms, succeeded the most brilliant light, whose splendor 
blazed round the statue of the Goddess. The candidate, says Dion Chrysostomus, passed into a 
'mysterious temple, of astonishing magnitude and beauty, where were exhibited to him many mystic 
scenes; where his ears were stunned with many voices; and where Darkness and Light successively 
passed before him. And Themistius in like manner describes the Initiate, when about to enter into that 
part of the sanctuary tenanted by the Goddess, as filled with fear and religious awe, wavering, uncertain 
in what direction to advance through the profound darkness that envelopes him. But when the 
Hierophant has opened the entrance to the inmost sanctuary, and removed the robe that hides the 
Goddess, he exhibits her to the Initiate, resplendent with divine light. 

The thick shadow and gloomy atmosphere which had enthroned the candidate vanish; he is filled with a 
vivid and glowing enthusiasm, that lifts his soul out of the profound dejection in which it was, plunged 
and the purest light succeeds to the thickest darkness. 

In a fragment of the samé writer, preserved by Stobaeus, we learn that the Initiate, up to the moment 
when his initiation is to be consummated, is alarmed by every kind of sight: that astonishment and 
terror také his soul captive; he trembles; cold sweat flows from his body; until the moment when the 
Light is shown him, a most astoundihg Light, the brilliant scene of Elysium, where he sees charming 
meadows overarched by a clear sky, and festivals celebrated by dances ; where he hears harmonious 
voices, and the majestic chants of the Hierophants; and views the sacred spectacles. Then, absolutely 
free, and enfranchised from the dominion of all ills, he mingles with the crowd of Initiates, and, 
crowned with flowers, celebrates with them the holý orgies,' in the brilliant realms of ether, and the 
dwelling-place of Ormuzd. 

In the Mysteries of Isis, the candidate first passed through the dark valley of the shadow of death; then 
into a pláce representing the elements or sublunary world, where the two principles clash and contend; 
and was finally admitted to a luminous region, where the sun, with his most brilliant light, put to rout 
the shades of night. Then he himself put on the costume of the 

Sun-God, or the Visible Source o'f Ethereal Light, in whose Mysteries he was initiated; and passed 
from the empire of darkness to that of light. After having set his feet on the threshold of the paláce of 
Pluto, he ascended to the Empyrean, to the bosom of the Eternal Principle of Light of the Universe, 
from which all souls and intelligences emanate. 

Plutarch admits that this theory of two Principles was the basis of all the Mysteries, and consecrated in 
the religious ceremonies and Mysteries of Greece. Osiris and Typhon, Ormuzd and Ahriman, Bacchus 

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and the Titans and Giants, all represented these principles. Phanes, the luminous God that issued from 
the Sacred Egg, and Night, bore the scepters in the Mysteries of the New Bacchus. 

Night and Day were two of the eight Gods adored in the Mysteries of Osiris. The sojourn of Proserpine 
and also of Adonis, during six months of each year in the upper world, abode of light, and six months 
in the lower or abode of darkness, allegorically represented the samé division of the Universe. 

The connection of the different initiations with the Equinoxes which separate the Empire of the Nights 
from that of the Days, and fix the moment when one of these principles begins to prevail over the other, 
shows that the Mysteries referred to the continual contest between the two principles of light and 
darkness, each alternately victor and vanquished. The very object proposed by them shows that their 
basis was the theory of the two principles and their relations with the soul. "We celebrate the august 
Mysteries of Ceres and Proserpine," says the Emperor Julian, "at the Autumnal Equinox, to obtain of 
the Gods that the soul may not experience the malignant action of the Power, of Darkness that is then 
about to háve sway and rule in Nature." Sallust the Philosopher makes almost the samé remark as to the 
relations of the soul with the periodical march of light and darkness, during an annual revolution; and 
assures us that the mysterious festivals of Greece related to the samé. And in all the explanations given 
by Macrobius of the Sacred Fables in regard to the sun, adored under the names of Osiris, Horus, 
Adonis, Atys, Bacchus, etc. We invariably see that they refer to the theory of the two Principles, Light 
and Darkness, and the triumphs gained by one over the other. In Apríl was celebrated the first triumph 
obtained by the light of day over the length of the nights and the ceremonies of mourning and rejoicing 
had, Macrobius says, as their object the vicissitudes of the annual administration of the world. 

This brings us naturally to the tragic portion of these religious scenes, and to the allegorical history of 
the different adventures of the Principle, Light, victor and vanquished by turns, in the combats waged 
with Darkness during each annual period. Here we reach the most mysterious part of the ancient 
initiations, and that most interesting to the Mason who laments the death of his Grand Master Khir-Om. 
Over it Herodotus throws the august veil of mystery and silence. 

Speaking of the Temple of Minerva, or of that Isis who was styled the Mother of the Sun-God, and 
whose Mysteries were termed Isiac, at Sais, he specks of a Tomb in the Temple, in the rear of the 
Chapel and against the well and says, "It is the tomb of a man, whose name respect requires me to 
conceal. Within the Temple were great obelisks of stone [phalli], and a circular lake pavěd with stones 
and revetted with a parapet. It seemed to me as large as that at Delos" [there the Mysteries of Apollo 
were celebrated]. "In this lake the Egyptians celebrate, during the night, what they style the Mysteries, 
in which are represented the sufferings of the God of whom I háve spoken above." This God was Osiris, 
put to death by Typhon, and who descended to the Shades and was restored to life; of which he had 
spoken before. 

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We are reminded, by this passage, of the Tomb of Khir-Om, his death, and his rising from the grave, 
symbolical of restoration of life and also of the brazen Sea in the Temple at Jerusalem. Herodotus adds: 
"I impose upon myself a profound, silence in regard to these Mysteries, with most of which I am 
acquainted. As little will I speak of the initiations of Ceres, known among the Greeks as Thesmophoria. 
What I shall say will not violate the respect which I owe to religion." 

Athenagoras quotes this passage to show that not only the Statue but the Tomb of Osiris was exhibited 
in Egypt, and a tragic repre sentation of his sufferings; and remarks that the Egyptians had mourning 
ceremonies in honor of their Gods, whose deaths they, Lamented; and to whom they afterward 
sacrificed as having It is, however, not difficult, combining the different rays of light that emanate from 
the different Sanctuaries, to learn the genius and the object of these secret ceremonies. We háve hints, 
and not details. 

We know that the Egyptians worshipped the Sun, under the name of Osiris. The misfortunes and 
tragical death of this God . were an allegory relating to the Sun. Typhon, like Ahriman, represented 
Darkness. The sufferings and death of Osiris in the Mysteries of the Night were a mystic image of the 
phenomena of Nature, and the conflict of the two great Principle which share the empire of Nature, and 
most infilenced our souls. the sun is neither born, dies, nor is raised to life: and the recitál of these 
events was but an allegory, veiling a higher truth Horus, son of Isis, and the samé as Apollo or the Sun, 
also died and was restored again to, life- and to his mother; and the priests, of Isis celebrated these 
great events by mourning and joyous festival succeeding each other. 

In the Mysteries of Phoenicia, established in honor of Thammuz or Adonis, also the Sun, the spectacle 
of his death and resurrection was exhibited to the Initiates. As we learn from Meursius and Plutarch, a 
figuře was exhibited representing the corpse of a young man. Flowers were strewed upon his body, the 
women mourned for him; a tomb was erected to him. And these feasts, as we learn from Plutarch and 
Ovid, passed into Greece. 

God was lamented, and his resurrection was celebrated with the most enthusiastic expressions of joy. A 
corpse, we learn from Julian, was shown the Initiates, representing Mithras dead; and afterward his 
resurrection was announced; and they were then invited to rejoice that the dead God was restored to 
life, and had by means of his sufferings secured their salvation. Three months before, his birth had been 
celebrated, under the emblém of an infant, born on the 25th of December, or the eighth day before the 
Calends of January. 

In Greece, in the mysteries of the samé God, honored under the name of Bacchus, a representation was 
given of his death, slain by the Titans; of his descent into hell, his subsequent resurrection, and his 
return toward his Principle or the pure abode whence he had descended to unitě himself with matter. In 

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the islands of Chios and Tenedos, his death was represented by the sacrifice of a man, actually 

The mutilation and sufferings of the samé Sun-God, honored in Phrygia under the name of Atys, caused 
the tragic scenes that were, as we learn from Diodorus Siculus, represented annually in the Mysteries of 
Cybele, mother of the Gods. An image was borne there, representing the corpse of a young man, over 
whose tomb tears were shed, and to whom funeral honors were paid. 

At Samothrace, in the Mysteries of the Cabiri or great Gods, a representation was given of the death of 
one if them. This name was given to the Sun, because the Ancient Astronomers gave the name of Gods 
Cabiri, and of Samothrace to the two Gods in the Constellation Gemini; whom others term Apollo and 
Hercules, two names of the Sun. Athenion says that the young Cabirus so slain was the samé as the 
Dionysus or Bacchus of the Greeks. The Pelasgi, ancient inhabitants of Greece, and who settled 
Samothrace, celebrated these Mysteries,